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BARN E VELDT (John p'Olden), the celebrated Dutch 
statesman, and one of the founders of the civil liberty of 
Holland, was born in .1547. His patriotic zeal inducing 
him to limit the authority of Maurice prince of Orange; 
the second stadtholder of Holland, the partisans of that 
prince falsely accused him of a design to deliver his coun- 
try into the hands of the Spanish monarch. On this ab- 
surd charge he was tried by twenty -six commissaries, de- 
puted from the seven provinces) ,<^fidjfip4^, and beheaded 
in 1619. His sons, William And it£rr6; With a view of re- 
venging their father's death, formed a conspiracy against 
the usurper, which was discovered; William fled; but 
R6n6 was taken and condemned to ;.die; which fatal cir- 
cumstance has immortalized the memory of his mother, of 
whom the following anecdote is recorded. She solicited 
a pardon for R6n£, upon which Maurice expressed his sur- 
prise that she should do that for her son, which she had 
refused to do for her husband. To this remark she replied 
with indignation* " I would not ask a pardon for my hus- 
band, because he was innocent. I solicit it for my son, 
because he is guilty." l 

' BAItO, or BARON (Peter), a learned divine, born at 
Estampes ip France, was of the Protestant religion, and 
obliged to leave his native country in order to avoid per- 
secution. He removed to England, where he was kindly 
received and generously supported by lord treasurer Bur- 
leigh, who admitted him into his family. He afterwards 
settled in Cambridge, upon the invitation of Dr. Pierce, 

1 Moreri,- "Universal History, fee. 

Vol. IV. B 

2 BARO. 

master of Peterhouse. In 1574, he was chosen the lady 
Margaret's professor at Cambridge, which he enjoyed for 
some years very quietly ; but, on account of some opinions 
which he held, a party was at length formed Against him 
in the university. At this time absolute predestination in 
the Calvinistical sense was held as the doctrine of the 
church of England. The chief advocates for it at Cam* 
bridge ivere Dr. ^hit*cre a regius professor of divinity, Dr. 
Humphry Tindal, and most of the senior members of the 
university. Dr. Baro had a more moderate notion of that 
doctrine : and this occasioned a contest between him and 
Mr. Laurence Chadderton, wh6 attempted to confute him . 
publicly in one of his sermons. However, qfter some 
papers had passed between them, the affair was dropped 

The next dispute he was engaged in, was of njuch longer 
continuance. Dr. Whitacre and Dr. Tindal were deputed . 
by the heads of the university to archbishop Whitgift to 
jMpnplain that Pelqgianism was gaining ground ift the uni- 
reriity ; and, in order to stop the progress of it, they de- 
fined confirmation of some propositions they had brought 
along with them. These accordingly were established and 
approved by the archbishop, the bishop of London, the . 
bishop elect of Bangor, and some other divines ; and were 
aftecwank known by the title of the Lambeth articles. . 
They wefe inipnediately communicated to Din Baro ; who,, 
disregarding them, prefached a sermon before the univer- . 
tity, in wh&h however he did not so much deny, as mo? 
derate those propositions: nevertheless his adversaries 
judging of it othe&vise, the vice-chancellor consulted the - 
same day: with Dr. Clayton and Mr. Chadderton, what 
Should be done. The neat day he wrote a letter to the 
fcrchhishop of Canterbury ; who returned for answer, that 
they should call Baro before them, and require a copy of 
fris sermon, or at least cause him to set down the principal 
heads thereof. Baro, finding what offence was taken at 
his sermon, wrote to the archbishop ; yet, according to his 
grace's directions, was cited before Dr. Goad, the vice* 
chancellor in the consistory ; when several articles were • 
exhibited against him. At his last appearance the conclu- 
sion against him was, " That whereas Bfuro had promised 
the vice-chancellor, upon his demand, a copy of his ser- 
mon, but his lawyers did advise him not to deliver the 
same ; the vice-chancellor did now, by virtue of his au- 
thority, peremptorily command him to deliver him the 

B A R a 3 

Whole and entire sermon, as to the substance of it, in 
writing : which Baro promised he would do the next day, 
and did it accordingly. And lastly, h4 did peremptorily 
and by virtue of his authority command Baro, that he 
should wholly abstain from those controversies and articles, 
and leave them altogether untouched, as well in his lec- 
tures, sermons, and determinations, as in his disputations 
and other his exercises. The vice-chancellor, who had 
proceeded thus far without the knowledge of the lord Bur- 
leigh their chancellor, thought fit to acquaint him with 
their proceedings, and to desire bis advice. The discoun- 
tenance lord Burleigh gave to this affair, stopped all far- 
ther proceedings against Baro ; who continued in the uni- 
versity, but with much opposition and trouble ; and though 
be had many friends and adherents in the university, he 
toet with such uneasiness, that, for the sake of peace, ho 
those to retire to London, and fixed his abode in Crutched 
Friars ; where be died about 1 600, and was buried in the 
church of St Olave, Hart-street He left the following 
works: l. "In Jon am Prophetam Praelectioaes xxxix.*' 
2. " Condones tres ad Clerum Cantabrigiensem habits in 
templo B. Mariis." 3. " Theses publicae in Scholis per-' 
watte et disputatee." [These Theses, being only two, 
were translated into English by Joha Ludbam, under these 
titles ; First, " God's purpose and decree taketh not away 
the liberty of man's corrupt will.** The second, " Our 
conjunction with Christ is altogether spiritual," London 
1590, 8vo.] 4. " Precationes quibus usus eft author in 
luis ptttiectipnibus inchoandis & finiendis." All these 
were published at London 1579, fol. by the care of Os* 
l&aftdt Lake, B. Q. fellow of King's college, Cambr. who 
corrected them before they wen* to the press. 5. " De 
Fide ej*s<jue ortu et natur* plana et dilucida expiicatio," 
&c. Loftd. 1 580, 8vo, 6. " De praestantia & dignitate diving 
l^gis, lib. 2," 158$, 8vq. 7. " Tractatus in quo docet 
expeutionem oblati a mente bomet fiduciam ad fidei jus- 
tifieantis ngturftoa pertinere " 8. " Sumina triuna sen- 
tentiarom de Preedestiuatioae*" &c. Hardr. 1613, 8vo. 
pripied with the notes of Job, Piscator, disquisition of 
franc. Junius, and prelection of Will. Whitacre. 9» 
* Special treatise of God's proridetice, and of comfort* 
against all kind of crosses and calamities to be fetched 
from the same; with an exposition on Psalm cvii." 10. 


4 B A R 0. 

Four Sermons; the first on Psalm cxxxiii. 1, 2, 3 ; these* 
cond, on Psalm xv. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. 1560, 8VO.' 1 

BARO, o* BARON (Bonaventurr), whose true name 
was Fitz-Gerald, was descended from a branch of the Fitz- 
Geralds of Burnchureh in the county of Kilkenny, a family 
settled in Ireland soon after the English acquisitions in tha€ 
country, which has produced several men of figure in the 
church. .But he has been more remarkable in the learned 
world for his maternal genealogy, being the son of a sister 
of Luke Wadding, that eminent Franciscan friar, who, in 
the seventeenth century, demonstrated his great abilities 
and industry, by many voluminous treatises of genius and 
labour. His tincle Wadding took great care of hrs educa- 
tion in his youth, which he saw rewarded by an uncommon 
diligence; and when he was of a proper age procured hi* 
admission into the Franciscan order, and sent for him tc* 
Rome ; where he lived under his own eye in the college 
of St. Isidore, a society of that order founded by himself 
in 1625, for the education of Irish students in the study of 
the liberal arts, divinity, and controversy, to serve as a" 
seminary^ out of which the 'mission into England, Scot- 
land* and Ireland^ might be supplied. Baron, after some 
time, grew into high reputation, and became especially 
remarkable/for the purity of bis Latin style, which procured: 
him great reputation. He was for a considerable time lec- 
turer on divinity in the above-mentioned college, and in all 
resided at Rome about sixty years, where he died, very 
old, and deprived of sight, March 18, 1696, and was 
buried at St. Isidore's. - His works are, 1 . " Orationes- 
Panegyricae Sacro-Prophanae decern," Romae, 1643, I2mo: 
2. " Metra Miscellanea, sive Carminum diversorum libri 
duo ; Epigrammatum unus ; alter Silvulae ; quibus addun- 
turElogiaillastriumviroFum," Romse, 1645, 24to. 3. "Pro- 
lusiones Philosophicae," Romse, 1651, 12 mo. 4. "Har- 
pocrates quinque Ludius ; seu Diatriba silentii," Romae* 
1651, 12mo. 5. " Obsidio et Expugnatio Arcis Duncan- 
v non in Hibernia, sub Thomfi, Prestono." 6. " Boetius 
Absolutus ; sive de CohsolationeTheologise, lib.iv." Romay 
1653, 12mo. 7. " Controversiae et Stratagemata," Lug*. 
duni, 1656, 8vo. 8. " Scotus Defensus," Coloniae, 1662, 

folio. 9. " Cursus Philosophicus," Coloniae, 1664, folio! 

*■* • * « » •«, . • > 

% ,» Biog..Brit.~Wood's Fasti, vol. I.— Strype's Airojdl, vol. II, 38S. III. 4^ 
48.— Strype's Whitgift, 44*. 458, 464—477. 

BARO, ' $ 

4'0. •? Epistolae Farailiares £araeneticae," &c. These are 
#mong his 11- " Opuscula varia Herbipoli," 1666, folio* 
12. "Theologia," Paris, 1676, 6 vols. 13. "Johannes 
Duns Scotus, ordinis minorum, Doctor subtilis de Ange- 
Jis contra adversantes defensus, nunc quoque Novitate am- 
plificatus," Florentine, 1678. 14. " Annates Ordinis S. S. 
Trinitatis Redemption is Captivorum, Fundatoribus S. S. 
Johanne de Math a, et Eelice de Valois," in . . vols, folio. 
The first volume was printed at Rome in 168*6, and begins 
with the year 1 198, in which pope Innocent the Third gave 
jhabit to the founders, and is carried down to the year i 297, 
just one hundred years. In this volume we have an account 
pf the foundations of their convents, their privileges, and 
benefactions, the eminent fathers of their order, their mira- 
cles and actions; as also, the number of slaves delivered 
by them frpm bondage. l * . 

BAROCCI (Francis), a patrician or senator of Venice, 
distinguished for his knowledge in mathematics, flourished 
about the middle of the sixteenth century. Some of his 
translations, as well as original works, w&e published in 
his life- time, as 1. " Heronis liber de muiehinis bellicis, nee- 
jion liber de Geodssia, ex Greco Latine," Venice, 1572; 
4to. 2. " Procli in primum elementorum Euciidis libri 
quatuor," translated into Latin, Padua, 1 560, fol. He was 
only twenty-two years of age, when he published this work. 
3^ A commentary on Plato, " de numero geometrico," 
Boulogne,. 1556; and 4. A system of Cosmography, Ve- 
nice, 158$, 8 vo. We have an account likewise of one of 
his writings, entitled " Cryptographic," (or according to 
the Diet. Hist. " Rytmomachia,") describing an ancient 
game attributed to Pythagoras. This was translated by 
Augustus 4uke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, under the 
name of Gust£vu$ Selenus. On Barojcci's de$th, his manu- 
scripts were sold by his heirs, and caqie to the Bodleian 
library, as p^rt of Langbaine's collection. * ,&*y w*t*~ At^/// £ud 

BAROCCIO* (Frederic), an eminent Italian artist, was *<***< £rf& 
Jbora at Urbino, in 1528, and was the disciple of Battista'jgeA^^ / 
Venetiano, by whom he was carefully instructed in the ^  Jp 
principles of painting, but he derived his knowledge of per- ^°^ ^*** 
spective from his uncle Bartolomeo Genga. Under those ^«*«^ 
preceptors he practised assiduously, tiji be was in his 
twentieth year; and then visited Rome, where, under the 

* Biog. JBfrit. * Moreri.— Diet. Hist.-—Fabric. Bibl. Graee* 



6 B A B O C C I O, 

patronage of cardinal della Rovere, he pursued his 
studies incessantly, and proved one of the most graceful 
painters of his time. At his return to his native city Ur« 
bino, be painted several pictures which procured him great 
applause ; but that of a St. Margaret raised his reputation 
to the highest pitch, and induced pope Pius IV. to invite 
him to Home, where he employed him in the decorations 
of his palace of Belvedere, in conjunction with Federigo 
jZucchero. He excelled equally in history and portrait, 
but his genius inclined him more particularly to the paint- 
ing of religious subjects ; and his works sufficiently evince, 
that the utmost of his ambition was to imitate Correggio ia 
his colouring, and Raphael in his manner of designing. 
But Correggio has somewhat so natural, so gratfd, so unaf- 
fectedly graceful, that Baroccio was far inferior to him, 
although perhaps more correct in the outlines. Sir Joshua 
.Reynolds, who thought him, upon the whole, one of Cor- 
reggio's most successful imitators, says, that sometimes in 
endeavouring at cleanness or brilliancy of tint, he overshot 
the mark, and falls under the criticism that was made on an 
ancient painter, that his figures looked as if they fed upon 
roses. It* is, however, singular to see colours of such va- 
riety coalesce so sweetly under his pencil, that perhaps no 
music reaches the ear with purer harmony, than hi& pic- 
tures the eye; an effect produced, in a great measure, by 
his attention to chiaroscuro, which he may be said to have 
introduced to the schools of Lower Italy, and which to ob- 
tain be rarely painted any historical figure without having 
either modelled it in wax, or placed some of his disciples 
in such attitudes as he wished to represent. It is said that 
when young, he was attempted to be poisoned at a dinner 
given by some of his rival artists, and that although he es? 
caped with his life, he continued long in an infirm state. 
He must, however, have completely recovered from this 
attack, as his life was prolonged to the advanced age of 
eighty-four. He died at Urbino in 1612. Baroccio was 
also an engraver from some of his own compositions* an4 
his plates, although slight, arid not well managed, with re- 
spect to the mechanical part of the workmanship, are never- 
theless most admirable, on account of the expression, and 
excellent drawing, which is discovered in them. His head! 
are very beautiful and characteristic ; and the other extre- 
mities of his figures finely marked. Amidst all the diffipuU 
ties he appears to have met with, in biting his plates with 


the aquafortis* after he had etched thein, and iris unskilful- 
ness in handling the graver, to harmonize and finish them, 
the hand of the master appears so evident, that the beau- 
ties we discover in them far overbalance the defects. * 

BARON (Bernard), an engraver of considerable fame 
in this country, was i native of France, and there first 
learned his art. He was brought into England" by Dubosc, 
with whom he went to law respecting the plates for the 
story of Ulysses, engraven from the designs of Rubens in the 
collection of Dr. Meade. Being afterwards reconciled, 
Baron accompanied Dubosc to Paris in 1729, and engraved 
a plate from Watteau, and engaged to do another from 
Titian in the king's collection, for Mons. Crozat, for which 
he was to receive 60/. sterling. While at Paris, tbey both 
sat to Vanloo. How soon afterwards he returned to Eng* 
land, is not known, 'but he died in Panton-square, Picca- 
dilly, Jan. 24, 1762. Hte manner of engraving seems to 
have been founded on that of Nicholas Dorigny. It is 
slight and coarse, without any great effect; and his draw- 
ing is frequently very defective. He executed, however, 
a gfeat number of works, a few portraits, and some con- 
siderable pictures after the best masters ; as the family of 
Cornaro, at Northumberland house; Vandyke'^ family of 
die earl of Pembroke, at Wilton ; Henry VI II. giving the 
charter to the barber surgeons, from Holbein ; the Eques- 
trian figure of Charles I. by Vandyke, at Kensington ; its 
companion, the king, queen, and two children ; and king 
William on horseback with emblematic figures, at Hamp- 
ton-court. His last considerable work was the family of 
Nassau, by Vandyke. This, and his St. Cecilia froth Carl6 
Dolce, he advertised in 1759, by subscription, at a guinea 
the pair. * 

BARON (Bonaventurb.) See BARO. 

BARON (Hyacinth TheoooAk), ancient professor arid 
dean of the faculty of medicine at Paris, the place of his 
birth, died July 29, 175S, at about the age of 72. He had 
a great share in the Pharmacopoeia of Paris, for 1732, 4td; 
and in 1739, gave an academical dissertation in Latin on 
chocolate, "Ah senibus Chocolataer potus?" which hdi 
been often reprinted. His sot), of the same name, was 
abo dean of the faculty at Paris, where he died in 1767, at 

* Abrege des Ties dea Peintres, rot. I.— Pilk'mgtoa and Strutt'f Dictionaries, 
— Reynold*'* Works, voj. HI. p. 1JK. 

* Strait.— Lord Orford's Engravers. 



the ?ge of eighty. He was long a surgeon in the armies of 
Italy and Germany, and published some medical works; 
There was a Theodore Baron before these, probably their 
ancestor, who, in 1609, published a curious work entitled 
?' De operationis meiendi triplici laesione et curatiohe," of 
which Haller gives a brief analysis. * * 

, BARON (Michael), an eminent French player, who 
appears to have had his full share in the annals of bio- 
graphy, was the son of a merchant of Issondun, and was 
born at. Paris in 1652. He entered first into the company 
of la Raisin, and some time afterwards in that of Moliere, 
and quitted the stage in 1696, either from dislike or from 
some religious scruples, with a pension of a thousand 
crowns granted . him by the. king. He took up the pro- 
fession again, however, in 1720, at the age of 68 ; and was 
as much applauded, notwithstanding his advanced age, a$ 
in the early period of his life. At those lines of Cinna, 

Soudain vous eussiez vu, par un effet contraire, 
Leurs fronts p&lir d'horreur, et rougir de colere ; 

he wa$ peen within a minute to turn pale and red, in con* * 
formity to the verse. He was styled with pne consent, the 
Roscius of his times. He said himself, in one of his en- 
thusiastical fits of vanity, that once in $ century we might 
see a Caesar, but that two thousand yesu-s were requisite to 
produce a Baron. One day his coachman and his lacquey 
werje soundly chastised by those of the rnarquis de Biran, 
Tyith whom Baron lived on those familiar ternis which young 
noblemen frpqu$ptly allow to players.—" Monsieur le mar- 
quis/' paid he to him, " your people have ill treated mine ; 
I must have satisfaction of you." This he repeated several 
times, using always the same expressions, your people and 
mine. M. de Biran, affronted at the parallel, replied : 
tf My poor Baron, what wouldst thou have me say to thee ? 
why dost thou keep any people ?" He was on the point 
of refusing tlje pension bestowed Qn him by Louis XIV. 
because the order for it ran : " Pay to the within-named 
Michael Bpyrun, called Baron ? &c." This actor, born with 
the choicest gifts of nature, had perfected them by the 
utmost exertions of art : a noble figure, a sonorous voice, 
a. natural gesticulation, a sound and exquisite taste. Ra- 
pine, versed as he was in the art of declamation, wanting tq 

} Pict. Hist— HaUer Bibl. Med, 



represent bis Andromache to the actors, in the distribution 
of the parts, bad reserved that of Pyrrhus for Baron. After 
having shewn the characters of several of the personages to 
the actors who were to represent it, be turned towards 
Baron : " As to you, sir, I have no instruction to give you ; 
your heart will tell you more of it than any lessons of mine 
could explain/ 9 Baron would affirm that the force and play 
of declamation were such, that tender and plaintive sounds 
transferred on gay and even comic words, would no less 
produce tears. He has been seen repeatedly to make the 
trial of this surprising effect on the well-known sonnet, 

Si le roi m'avoit donn€ 
Paris sa grand'ville, &c f 

Baron, in common with all great painters and great poets, 
jvas fully sensible that the rules of art were not invented 
for enslaving genius. * c We are forbid by the rules," said 
this sublime actor, " to raise the arms above the head ; but 
if they are lifted there by the passion, it is right : passion 
is a better judge of this matter than the rules." He died 
at Paris, Dec. 22, 1729, aged 77. Three volumes in 12mo 
/of theatrical pieces were printed in 1760, under the name 
pf this comedian ; but it is doubted y whether they are all 
bis. " L'Andrienne" was attributed to pere dela Rue, at 
the very time when it was in full representation. It was 
to this that Baron alluded in the advertisement he prefixed 
to that piece. " I have here a' fair field," said he, " for 
complaining of the injustice that has been iutended me. It 
has been said that I lent my name to the Andrienne. — I 
will again attempt to imitate Terence ; and I will answer as 
he did to those who accused him of only lending his name 
to the works of others (Scipio and Laelius). He said, that 
they did him great honour to put him in familiarity with 
persons wbo attracted the esteem and the respect of all 
piankind." The other pieces that merit notice are, 
t € L'homme a bonne fortune," "]La Coquette," " L'Ecole 
fies Peres," &c. The dramatical judgment that reigns 
jn these pieces, may perhaps be admitted as a proof that 
they are by Baron. The dialogue pf them is lively, and 
the scenes diversified, although they rarely present us witb 
grand pictures : but the author has the talent of copying 
from nature certain originals, not less important in society 
than amusing on the stage. It is evident that he had stu- 
died tte world as well as the drama. As to the versification , 

19 BARON. 

if Barou was an excellent actor, be was but an indifferent 
poet The abb6 d'Alainval published the " Lettres si^r 
Baron et la le Couvreur." The father of this famous ac- 
tor possessed also in a superior degree the talent of decla- 
mation. The manner of his death is remarkable. Playing 
the part of Don Diego in the Cid, his sword fell from his 
band, as the piece requires ; and kicking it from him with 
indignation, he unfortunately struck against the point of 
jt, by which his little toe was pierced. This wound was at 
first treated as a trifle; but the gangrene that afterwards 
appeared requiring the amputation of bis leg, be would 
not consent to the operation. "No, no," said he; "a 
theatrical monarch would be booted if he should appear 
with a wooden leg ;" and he preferred the gentle expecta- 
tion of death, which happened in 1655.' 

BARON (Richard), a dissenting minister, but most 
-noted for his zeal as a political writer, was born at Leeds 
in Yorkshire, and educated at the university of Glasgow, 
which he quitted in 1740, with very honourable testi- 
monies to his learning and perspnal character, from the 
celebrated Hutchinson, and the mathematical professor 
Simpson. Where he passed his time after this, we know 
not; but in 1753, he was ordained paster of the dissenting 
meeting at Pinners* hall, Broad-street, London, a congre- 
gation, if we are not mistaken, of the Baptist persuasion. 
What he was as a divine, is not very clear, but the whole 
bent of his studies was to defend and advance civil and re- 
ligious liberty. This zeal led the famous Thomas Hollis, 
esq. to engage his assistance in editing some of the authors 
in the cause of freedom, whose works he wished to reprint 
with accuracy, and in an elegant form. Toland's Life of 
Milton, Milton's Iconoclastes, and afterwards an edition 
of Milton's prose works, were prepared and corrected hy 
Mr. Baron. For this task he was welt qualified, being an 
industrious collector of books on the subject of constitu- 
tional liberty, several of which be communicated to Mr. 
Hollis, with MS notes, or memorandums of his own ih 
the blank pages, in which, we are told, he was not always 
in the right. Still be was indefatigable in searching for 
what he reckoned scarce and valuable liberty-tracts, many 
of which Mr. Hollis bought of him while be lived, and 
others he bought at the sale of bis books after His defcth. 

» ttct, flirt.— Moreti. 


Mr. Baron, we are likewise told, " only breathtd, he did 
not Incur, in bis own estimation, but whilst be was in some* 
way or other lending his assistance to the glorious cause 
of religious and civil liberty. He wrote, be published, and 
republished perpetually in its defence. - His character was 
one of the most artless and undisguised in the world. He 
was a man of real and great learning ; of fixed and steady 
integrity; and a tender and sympathizing heart." Yet 
with such a heart, we are told, not very consistently, that 
bad he been mindful of his domestic concerns, he might 
have left a competency behind for his wife and family, but 
his whole soul was engaged in the cause, and he neglected 
erery other concern. For this absurd and unjust train of 
feeling, we are referred to the natural impetuosity of bis 
temper, and his eccentricities, which indicated occasional 
derangements of mind. With many virtues, it is added^ 
and a few faults, which must have been of a peculiar kind, 
since " they only wanted the elevation of a higher station 
and a better fate to have assumed the form of virtues," 
Mr. Baron passed the greatest part of his life in penurious 
circumstances, which neither abated the generous ardour, 
or overcame the laudable independency of his spirit. These 
virtues, " with their blessed effects/ 9 were all he left be- 
hind him, for the consolation and support of a widow and 
three children. He died at his house at Blackheath, Feb* 
22, 1 768. His principal publication was a collection of/ 
what he called liberty-tracts, first published in 2 vols. 1752, 
under the title of' " The pillars of Priestcraft and Ortho- 
doxy shaken.*' In 1767, he prepared another edition, en- 
larged to four volumes, to be published by subscription. In 
his advertisement he describes himself as a man " who has 
been made a sacrifice to proud bigots, religious rogues, 
and psalm-singing hypocrites :" and flatters himself that 
his subscriber* will " enable- him to express his utter con- 
tempt, and everlasting abhorrence of thefm all." To this 
#eek wish, ha adds an assurance that the " names of the 
subscribers shall not be printed." This edition appeared 
after bis death, and was published for the benefit of his 
family, along with a itew edition of Milton's Eikonoeiastes, 
and his' manuscript sermons and papers. * 

% Protestant XfapASter't Magazine, yol. VL p. i 66.— -Prefaee t© the post- 
humous edition of the Iconoclastes.— for a specimen of his abusive temper, and 
coarse style, see his controversy with Dr. Chandler, in the St. James's Chro- 
nicle for September, 1765. ' 

12 BARON. 

BARON, or BARON1US (Vincent), a learned father 
of the Romish church, and a monk of the Benedictine orr 
der, was born at Martres in the diocese of Rieux in Gas- 
cony, and entered into the order of the preaching friars 
at Toulouse in 1622.- He taught divinity several years 
with applause in the convent of the same city, and was 
made prior there; as he was likewise at Avignon, and in 
the general novitiate of the suburb of St. Germain at Paris, 
He was dennitor for his province in the general chapter 
held in 1656, in which he presided at the theses dedicated 
to pope Alexander VII. which gained him the esteem of all 
the city and his whole order. He was present at the as<- 
sembly, in which the pope ordered the definitors and 
fathers of the chapter to be told, from him, that he was 
extremely grieved to see the Christian morality sunk into 
*uch a deplorable .relaxation, as some of the new casuists 
bad reduced it. to, and that he exhorted them to compose 
another system of it, which should be conformable to the 
doctrine of St. Thomas. This was what engaged father 
S&aron to undertake the works < which he wrote upon that 
subject. He was again chosen provincial ; and afterwards 
sent by the father general as commissary to Portugal, upon 
important affairs, which he managed with such success* 
that the queen, the court, and all the monks gave testi- 
mony of his merit by a public act. He returned to Paris 
to the general novitiate, and died there, Jan. 21, 1674, 
aged seventy years. Besides several Latin poems, which 
he left as instances of his capacity in polite literature, he 
published the following works: 1. " Theologia Moralis," 
Paris, 1665, in 5 vols. 8vo,. and again in 1667. 2. " Libri 
Apologetic! contra Theophilum Rainaudum," Paris, 1666, 
in 2 vols. 8vo. * 3. " Mens sancU Augustini & Thorns de 
Gratis & Libertate," 1666, 8 vo. 4. " Ethica Christiana,'? 
Paris, 16€6, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. " Responsio ad Librum Car- 
dense,** ibid, in 8vo. 6. "1,'Heresie Convaingue/'.Paris^ 
1668, 12mo. 7. ** Pauegyriques des Saints," ibid. 1660^ 
4to. The ftrst two volumes of bis Moral Theology were 
prohibited. It relates to the principal points in dispute 
between the Dominicans and Jesuit*, ' 

BARONIUS (Cjesak), an eminent ecclesiastical writer, 
and a cardinal of the Roman church, was born at Sora, ai* 
episcopal city in the kingdom of Naples, October the 30th^ 

» Gen. Diet.— Merejrj» 

B A R ft I U & iS 

1533, of Camillo Baronio and Porcia Phebonia, who edu- 
cated him with great care. He went through* his first 
studies at Veroli, and afterwards applied himself to divinity* 
and civil law at Naples. But the troubles of that kingdom 
obliged his father to remove him in 1557 to Rome, where 
he finished his studies in the law under Cesar Costa, afters 
wards archbishop of Capua, and' put himself under the 
discipline of St. Philip de Neri, founder of the congrega-> 
tion of the oratory, who employed him in the familiar in* 
structions which his clerks gave to the children. After be 
was ordained priest, St. Philip de Neri sent him, with some 
of his disciples, in 1564, to establish his congregation irt 
the church of St. John the Baptist. He continued there 
till 1576, when he was sent to St. Mary in Vallioella, and 
in both houses he was much admired for his pious zeal and 
charity. St. Philip de Neri having, in 1593, laid down the 
office of superior of the congregation of the oratory,* 
thought he could not appoint a more worthy successor than 
Baronius, and pope* Clement VIII. who knew his merit; 
in compliance with the desires of the founder and his con* 
gregation, approved the choice, and some time after made 
him his confessor. The esteem which that pope had for 
him, increased as he had an opportunity of growing more 
intimately acquainted with him, 'and induced him to ap- 
point our author apostolical prothonotary in 1595, and to 
advance him to the -dignity of cardinal, June 5th, 1596, to 
which he afterwards added the post of library-keeper to 
the see of Rome. Upon the death of Clement VIII. in 
1605, Baronius had a great prospect of being chosen pope, 
one and thirty voices declaring for him; but the Spaniards 
strongly opposed his election on account of his treatise, 
*' Of the Monarchy of Sicily," in which he argued against 
the claim of Spain -to Sicily. His intense application to 
his studies weakened his constitution in such a manner,' 
that towards the end of his life he could not digest any 
kind of food. He died June the 30th, 1607, aged sixty- 
eight years and eight months, and was interred in the 
church of St. Mary in Vallicella, in the same tomb where 
his intimate friend cardinal Francesco Maria Taurusio watr 
Buried the year following. Dupin observes, that " an high 
regard ought to be paid to the memory of Baronius, who' 
was a man of sincere religion, probity, learning, and ex- 
tensive reading, and laboured with success for the service 
of the church, and the clearing up of ecclesiastical ami- 


quity. But it were to be wished that be bad been exempt 
from the prejudices which his education $nd country in- 
spired him with." In a book of father Parsons, printed ill 
1607, and entitled " De sacrig alienis non adeundis quses- 
tiones dus? ; ad usum praximque Anglis breviter explica- 
te," is published the judgment of Baronius, together with 
that of cardinal Bellarmin and others, declaring that it was 
absolutely unlawful for the Roman Catholics to be present 
at the religious worship of the Protestants in England. 
The work for which Baronius was most celebrated* and 
which is certainly a wonderful monument of industry arid 
research, was bis " Ecclesiastical Annals." He undertook 
this work at the age of thirty, and laboured for thirty years 
|n collecting and digesting the materials for it, by reading 
over carefully the ancient monuments of the church, as 
well in printed books as in manuscripts, in the Vatican 
library. He published in 158$ the first volume, which con- 
tains the first century after the birth of Christ. The se- 
cond, which followed after, contains two hundred and five 
years. These two volumes are dedicated to pope Sixtus V. 
The third, dedicated to king Philip II. of Spain, compre- 
hends the history of fifty-five years immediately following* 
The fourth, dedicated to Clement VIII. contains the his- 
tory of thirty-four years, which end in the year 3»95. The 
fifth, dedicated to the same pope, as well as the following 
volumes, extends to the year 440. The sixth ends in the 
year 519. The seventh contains seventy-three years. 
The eighth extends to the year 7 14. The ninth, dedicated 
to king Henry IV. of France, CQncludes with the year 842, 
The tenth, dedicate to the empervr Rodolphus II. begins 
pith the year 843, and reaches tp 1000. The eleventh, 
dedicated to Sigismond III. king of Poland, and published 
in 16Q£, continues the history to the year 1099. The 
twelfth, printed under the pontificate o£ Paul V. in 1607, 
concludes with 1198. So that we have, in these twelve 
volumes, the history of the twelve first ages of the church. 
Henry Spondanus informs us, that Baronius had left me- 
moirs for three more volumes, which were used by Odorii 
cus RayneJdu* in the continuation of his work. The first 
edition of Baronius' s Annals, begun in 158&, and continued 
the following years, was printed, at Rome, where the. first 
volumes were reprinted in 1593. It was followed by seme 
Others, with alterations and additions. The second edition 
was that of Venice, aiid was begun & 1 #M» The thud was 

B A ft O N 1 U S- II 

printed at Cologne in 1596, and the following years. The 
fourth at Antwerp in 1597, &c. The fifth at Mentz in 
1601. The sixth at Cologne in 1609. There were seve- 
ral other editions published afterwards, at Amsterdam in 
1610, at Cologne in 1624, at Antwerp in 1675, at Venice 
in 1705, and at Lucca in 1738 — 1759, by far the best. 
Before this, the best editions, according to the abbe Long- 
let de Fresnoy, in his " New method of studying History," 
were that of Rome, as the original, and that of Antwerp, 
and the most convenient for study, is that of Mentz, because 
the authorities of the ecclesiastical writers are marked in it 
by a different character from the text of Baronius, and the 
impression is in two columns. The edition of Cologne has 
the same. advantage, though ill printed. 

Baronius' s design in these Annals was, as he tells us him- 
self in his preface, to refute the Centuriators of Magde- 
burg,, or rather to oppose to their work, which was written 
against the church of Rome, another work of the same kind 
in defence of that church. " It were to be wished/ 9 says 
Monsieur Dupin, " that he had contented himself with 
a mere narration of facts of ecclesiastical history, without 
entering into controversies and particular interests. How* 
ever, it must be owned that his work is of a vast extent, 
well digested, full of deep researches, written with care, 
and as much exactness as can be expected from a man who 
first undertakes a work of such extent and difficulty as that. 
It is true that a great number of mistakes in chronology 
and history have been remarked in it ; that many faets have 
keen discovered not at all known to him ; that he made use. 
ef several supposititious or doubtful monuments; that he 
has reported a considerable number of false facts as true, 
and has been mistaken in a variety of points. But though, 
without endeavouring to exaggerate the number of his er- 
rors with Lucas Holstenius, who/ declared that he was ready 
to shew eight thousand falsities in Baronius* s Annals, it can- 
not be denied that the number of tbeift is very great ; yet it, 
must be acknowledged that bis work is a very good and very 
useful one, and that he is justly styled the father of church 
history. It must be remarked, that he is much more exact 
in the history of the Latins than in that of the Greeks, be- 
cause he was but very indifferently skilled in the Greek, 
and was obliged to make use of the assistance of Peter 
Morin, Metius, and father Sirmond, with regard to the mo- 
numents which had not been translated -into Latin. 

. i 


style has neither the purity nor elegance which were tfr b& 
wished for in a work of that nature *, and it may be s*aid/ 
that he writes rather like a dissertator than an historian ) 
however, he is clear, intelligible, and methodical." 
- Cardinal de Laurea drew up an index to this work for hi* 
own private use, which he afterwards left to the public : 
" Index alphabeticus rerum et locorum omnium memora- 
bilium ad Annales Cardinalis Baronii. Opus posthumum 
Rev. Cardinalis de Laurea" Rome, 1694, in 4to. This is 
a posthumous work, for being put to the press during the 
author's life, the impression was not finished till after his 
death, which happened November the 30th, 1693. These 
annals were begun to be translated into various languages,, 
hut probably owing to the vast expense, none of the trans^ 
lators proceeded farther than the first volume* Several 
abridgments, however, have been published. The most 
extensive is that of Henry Spondanus, Paris, 1612, 1622, 
1630$ 1639, and often afterwards. They were also abridged 
by Aurelio, Bzovius, Bisciola, Scogli, Sartorius, Scbultin-* 
gius, &c. &c. and in various languages. The continuators 
are also numerous. Bzovius published a continuation from: 
1199 to 1572, Rome, 9 vols. fol. 1616 — 1672, which, how-> 
ever, are rather the annals of the Dominicans than of the 
church. Haynaldus' continuation from 1199 to 1567, also 
9 vols, folio, is said to be worse than the former ; the best 
is Spondanus, extending to the year 1639, arid printed at 
Paris in that year, 2 vols, folio. The great fame of BarcM 
nius excited the attention of many Protestant writers, who' 
criticised his work with acuteness. Among the best of 
these is Isaac Casaubon, in his " Exercitationes contra Ba^ 
ronium f " JLondon, 1614, folio, but perhaps DuphVs opi-» 
nion, which we have quoted, is sufficient to point out the 
leading errors of the work. Besides these annals, Baronius 
wrote, 1. " Martyrologium Romanum restitutum," 1586,- 
folio. These notes on the Roman martyrology^ for these 
are all which Baronius contributed, were intended as a pre- 
lude to his Annals. This work was often reprinted, and as 
often corrected by the author, but it is still erroneous it* 
many points. 2. " Tractatus de Monarchia Siciliae," Pa- 
ris, 1609, 8vo. 3- "Paraenesis ad RempublicamVenetam, 1 * 
Rome, 1606, 4to, written on occasion of the interdict of 
Venice. 4. " Contra ser. Rempublicam Venetam Votum,,'* 
not published by Baronius, but containing his opinion ia 
the consistory. 5. " Historica relatio de Legatione Eccle- 

B A R O N I U S. 17 

siae Alexandrinae ad Apostolicam sedem,*' 1598, 8vo, re- 
specting the re-union of the church of Alexandria to the 
see of Rome, which did not last long. And some other 
works of less reputation. * 


BARRADAS, or BARRADIUS (Sebastian), a Jesuit 
and eminent Portuguese divine, was born at Lisbon, 1542* 
After entering among the Jesuits, he taught a long time at 
Coimbra and other places; and, applying himself to preach- 
ing, gained the title of u The apostle of Portugal." He 
died April 14, 1615, in great reputation for sanctity. All 
his works were printed at Cologo, 1628, 4 vols. fol. under 
the title of " Commentaria in concordiam et historian* 
Evangelicam." The most particularly esteemed among 
them is, " Itinerarium filiorum Israel ex jEgypto in terrain 
repromissionis," Paris, 1620, fol. • 

BARRAL (Abbe Peter), born at Grenoble, and died 
at Paris, July 21, 1772, came early in life to that metropo- 
lis, where he took up the employment of a schoolmaster* 
He wrote, in conjunction with fathers Gaubile and Varra, 
a " Dictionnaire historique, iitt^raire, et critique, des- 
homines c£lebres," 1758,-6 vols. $vo 9 in which he is 
said to have betrayed too much of the spirit of 'party* 
A French wit called it thg Marty rology of Jansenism, com- 
piled by a Convulsionnaire. Notwithstanding this, his 
dictionary has some merit,' as in the articles of poets, ora- 
tors, and literary men, he writes with spirit, and generally 
gives his judgment with taste: There is likewise by him* 
1. An abstract of the letters of madame de S6vign£ in 
12mo, under the title of " Sevigniana." 2. An abridg- 
ment, much esteemed, of the €€ Dictionnaire des Antiqui- 
tes Romanies," by Pitiscus, in 2 vols. 8vo. 3. *' Diction- 
naire hist, geographique et moral de la Bible," 1758, 2 vols. 
8vo. 4. " Maximes sur le devoir des Rois, et le bon usage 
de leur authority," Paris, 1754, and reprinted twice under 
different titles; and 5. " Memoires historiques et litte- 
raires de l'abbe Gouget," with a correct list of his works. 
The abb6 Barral was a man of erudition, of a lively conver- 
sation, and the style of his writings is vigorous and manly, 
though sometimes negligent and incorrect. \ 

1 Gen. Diet. vol. X— Moreri.—Dupin.— Baillet Jugeroents, vol. JI. and VI. 
—Fabr. Bibl. Graec. vol. XII. p. 165, an excellent article on the annals and their 
history. — Saxii Onomasticon.— Blount's Censura. 

* Moreri.— Antonio Sibl. Hisp. 3 Biat. Hist, 

Vol. IV. ' C 

18 BARRE. 

BARRE (Frakcis Poullain de la), was born July 
1647, at Paris. He applied himself to studying the Scrip* 
tures and councils, and conceived so great a contempt for 
scholastic divinity, as to give up the design he had enter* 
tained of being a doctor of the Sorbonne. He was curate 
of Flamingjie, in the diocese of Laon, 168Q; but imbibing 
the tenets of the Protestants, and fearing lest he should be 
arrested for the opinions which he propagated in his ser- 
mons and discourses, he went to Paris, 1088, and after* 
wards took refuge at Geneva, where be married, 1 690. He 
at first taught French to the foreign nobility > but was af- 
terwards declared a citizen, and admitted into one of the 
first classes of the college at Geneva, in which city he died 
May 1723. His best works are those which be published 
in France before bis retiring to Geneva, they are, " Urn 
traite de PEgalite des deux sexes," 1673, 12 mo. " Trait6 
de T Education des Dames, pour la conduite de l'esprit dans 
les sciences et dans les.mceurs," 12mo. " De l'excellence 
des Hommes contre PEgalite des Sexes," 12mo. "Rap- 
ports de la Langue Latine a la Fran$oise," 1 2mo. John 
James de la Barre, his son, was author of " Pensees philo- 
sophiques et th£ologiques," 1714 et 1717, 2 .vols. $vo. 
They are theses. l 

BARRE (Lewis Francis Joseph de la), a learned 
French historian, antiquary, and biographer, was born at 
Tournay, March 9, 1688. His father, Paul Joseph de la 
Barre, an eminent lawyer, sent him early to Paris, where he 
piade great proficiency in classical studies, particularly 
Greek, which he not only studied critically, but acquired 
considerable skill in the collation of ancient manuscripts, 
and the antiquities of the language. When Banduri came 
to Paris, with some works for. the press, young de la Barre 
was recommended to him as an assistant in transcribing 
and comparing manuscripts, and it was by his aid that Ban- 
duri was enabled to publish his " Imperium Orientaie," 2 
vols, folio, and his "Medals" (see Banduri); for which 
services Banduri prevailed on the grand duke of Tuscany 
to grant him a pension, which, was punctually paid to de la 
Barre, until the death of the last sovereign of the house of 
Medici. As soon as d£ la Barre was at leisure from his 
engagements with Banduri, the booksellers employed him 
on a new edition of D'Acheri's " Spicilegium," which he 

1 Diet* HUt— Mortri in PoulUin. 

A R R E. 19 

accordingly undertook* and which was published in 1 723, 
3 vols, folio, in a very much improved state* He next con-* 
tributed to the edition of Moreri's dictionary of 1725. In 
1727 he was admitted a member of the academy of inscrip- 
tions and belles lettres* a choice which the many learned 
papers he published in their memoirs fully justified. In 
the same year he undertook to continue the literary jour- 
nal of Verdun, which he did during his life, and added 
much to its character. In 1729 he published a work very 
interesting to French historians, " Memoires pour servir sL 
1'histoire de France et de Bourgogne." In 1732 he pub- 
lished new editions of the " Secretaire du Cabinet," and 
the " Secretaire du Cour," 2 vols. 12mo ; improving both 
very essentially, although we may be allowed ~to doubt 
whether " Letter-writing" can be effectually taught by 
models. In 1733 he revised and corrected an edition of 
M. de LarreyV" L'histoire de France, sous le regne de 
Louis XIV." 12mo. In 1735 appeared a new history of 
Paris, in 5 vols, taken from that of father Lobineau, but la 
Barre wrote only the fifth volume. A very few months be- 
fore his death he had projected a dictionary of Greek and 
Roman antiquities, which was to form four folio volumes, 
and had executed some parts of it with great care and ac- 
curacy, at the time of his death, May 23, 1738. Hiseloge 
was pronounced by M. de Boze. l 

BARRE (Joseph), a canon regular of St. Genevieve, 
and chancellor of the university of Paris, was born in 1692, 
and died at Paris in 1764. He joined his order early in 
life, and became distinguished for his knowledge and re- 
searches in civil and ecclesiastical history, and his nume- 
rous works afford a considerable proof of his industry. 
The principal are, 1, u Vindicise libroruth deutero-cano- 
nicorum veteris Testamenti," 1730, 12mo, a very ingenious 
attempt. 2. " Histoire generale d'Alteinagne," 1743, 11 
vols. 4to, a work of vast labour, but has few of the elegant 
and fascinating charms of modern history, and is in many 
respects inaccurate. 3. " Vie de marecbal <le Fabert," 
1752, 2 vols. 12 mo. 4. " Examen des defituts theolo* 
giques," Amst. 1744, 2 vols. 12mo. He also wrote ngtes to 
the edition of Bernard Van Espen's works, 1753, 4 vols, 
folio ; and about the time of his death had made some pro- 

l Merer**— Saxti QfiooiAsticen. 
C 2 

20 B A R R E. 

gress in a history of the court* Of justice, of which he batfc 
published a prospectus in 1755. l 

BARRELIER (James), was born at Paris in 1606 ; and 
after having gone through a course of study, and taken' 
the degree of licentiate in medicine* he entered into the 
order* of Dominicans in 1635. His talents and his prudence 
were so conspicuous, that in 1646 he was elected assistant 
to the genera], with whom he made the tour of France, 
Spain, and Italy.' Amidst the avocations of this post, arid 
without neglecting bis duties, he found the means of ap- 
plying himself to the study of botany, to which he seemed 
to have a natural propensity* He collected a great ffum- 
ber of plants and shells, and made drawings of several thatr 
had not been known, or but very imperfectly described; 
He had undertaken a general history of plants, which ber 
intended to entitle " Hortus Mundi," or " Orbis Botani- 
cus," and wa» employed on it with the uttriost diligence, 
when an asthma put an end to his labours in 1673, at the 
age of sixty *seven. AIL .that could be collected of this- 
work was published by Ant de Jussieu* with a life of the- 
author, under the title f { Plantae par Galliam r Hispaniam, 
et Itatiam observatae, et iconibus seneis exhibits?," Paris/ 
1714, folio, a valuable contribution to a botanical library, 
but by no means correct.* ' • ' 

BAJRRERE (Peter); physician 6f Perpignait, who 
practised some time at Cayenne, and died in 1753, was 
well versed both in the theory and practice of his art, and 
had the reputation of being ah accurate observer. Hi* 
principal works are, 1. u Relation et essai'sur Thistoire de 
la France equinox i ale," with a catalogue of plants collected 
at Cayenne, 1748, 12mo. 2. u Dissertation surlacouleur 
des Negres," 17#i, 4to* 3. "Observations sur l'originet 
dcs pierres figurfies,"*' T646; *4to, &c. ? •■•••. 

BARRET (Geohoe)-, an English landscape painter, was 
born about 1728, in the city ot Dublin. It is not known* 
that he received any regular-instructions in painting. He* 
began his. attempts in the very humble litie of colouring 
prints,, in which he was employed by dne Silceek, in Ni- 
cholas- streftt, Dublin. Froit this' feeble commencement 
he rose to considerable powers as a landscape painter, by 
studying from the scenes of nature in the Dargles, and in 

» Diet. Hist. « Moreri.— Mangtt Bibl, Script. Med- 

3 Diet. Hist,— Halter Bibl. Bot. 


the park at Powerscourt, places near Dublin, and is said to 
have received patronage and encouragement from the Doble 
pwner of Powerscourt About tins* time a premium wa$ 
offered by the Dublin society for the best landscape ir* 
oil, which Mr. Barret won. In 1762 be visited Loudon, 
where he soon distinguished Jbunself ; and, the second year 
after bis arrival, .gained the premium given by the soci- 
ety for the encouragement of arts, &c for the best land* 
scape in oiL The establishment of the royal academy was 
iu a great measure indebted to tbe efforts of Mr. Barret, 
jvho formed the plau, and became one of its members. 

He had two decided manners of painting, both with re* 
gar,d to colour and touch ; his first was rather heavy in 
both, bis latter much lighter. Scarcely any painter equalled 
him io hi6 knowledge or characteristic execution of tbe de- 
tails of nature. His attention was chiefly directed to the 
jtrue colour of English scenery, its richness, dewy fresh- 
pess, and that peculiar verdure, especially in the vernal 
jpouths, which is so totally different from the colouring of 
those masters who have formed themselves on Italian see- 
jiery or Italian pictures. This strong desire sometimes 
tempted him to use colours rich and beautiful when first; 
applied, but which no art could render permanent ; which, 
in some of his. slighter works, prevailed to such a degree 
as to leave scarcely any traces of the original colouring. 

The best pictures in his first manner are to be found in 
the houses of tbe dukes of Buccleugh, and Portland, &c. 
j&c. an<l those of his latter, in his great work, at Mr. 
Lock's,'** Norbury-park, Surrey, consisting of a large room 
painted with a continued scene entirely round. The idea 
iu general characterizes the northern part of this country; 
and for composition, breadth of effect, truth of colour, and 
boldness of manner in the execution, has not been equalled 
by any modern painter. He exerted his powers to- the 
utrao&t in this work, as he entertained the warmest sense of 
Mr. Lock's great, kindness and friendly patronage? He 
also painted in water-colours, in which he excelled. - 

As a man he was remarkably kkid and friendly, gentle in 
manners, with avast flow of spirits, even . to playfulness, 
and a strong turn to wit and humour, .for. the iast ten 
years of his life, he was obliged, on account of his health, 
to retire to Paddington, near London, where he painted (in 
conjunction with Mr. Gilpin, the celebrated animal-painter) 
some of his best easel-pictures. He died iu March 1734, 


and was interred in Paddington church-yard, leaving a wi- 
dow and nine children. In the latter part of his life he 
enjoyed the place of master painter to Chelsea hospital, an 
appointment conferred on him by Edmund Burke, esq. 
during his short administration. Barret left some etchings 
of his performances, the best of which is a view in the 
Dargles near Dublin. The plates of his etchings were, 
purchased by Mr. Paul Saridby,* but no impressions have 
been taken from them. l 

BARRET, or BARET (John), a scholar of Cambridge 
of the sixteenth century, who had travelled various coun- 
tries for languages and learning, is known now principally 
as the author of a triple dictionary in English, Latin, . and 
French, which be entitled an " Alvearie," as the materi- 
als were collected by his pupils in their daily exercise, like 
so many diligent bees gathering Honey to their hive. 
When ready for the press, he was enabled to have it printed 
by the liberality of sir Thomas Smith, and Dr. Nowell, 
dean pf St. Paul's, whose assistance he gratefully acknow- 
ledges, It was first printed by Denham in 1573, with a 
Latin dedication to the universal Maecenas, lord Burghley, 
and various recommendatory verses, among which the La- 
tin of Cook and Grant, the celebrated masters of St. Paul's 
and Westminster schools, and the English of Arthur Gold- 
ing, the translator of Ovid's Metamorphoses, have chief 
merit. This book was more commodious in size than in 
form, for as there is only one alphabet, the Latin and French 
words are to be traced back by means of tables at the end 
of the volume. In the then scarcity of dictionaries, how* 
ever, this must have been an useful help, and we find that 
a second and improved edition, with the title of a " Qua- 
druple Dictionarie," (the Greek, thinly scattered in the 
first impression, being now added) came out after the de- 
cease of the author in 1 580, and is the only edition of which 
Ames and Herbert take any notice, nor does Ainsworth, 
who speaks of it in the preface to his dictionary, seem to 
be aware of a prior edition. Of Baret's life we have not 
been able to discover any particulars. In the Ashmole 
Museum is his patent by queen Elizabeth, for priqting thia 
dictionary for fourteen years. *- 

* Pilkinfton's Diet.-— Edwards's Anecdotes of Paiqtarj* 

* Tanaer.r-rCburton's Life «f Newell. 


BARRET (Stephen), a classical teacher of consider- 
able eminence, was born at Bent, in the parish of Kildwick. 
in Craven, Yorkshire, in 17 IS, and was educated at the 
grammar school of Skipton, where he distinguished himself 
by his poetical compositions and classical knowledge. From 
that school he was removed to a scholarship in University- 
college, Oxford, where he took his master's degree, June 1, 
1744, and was admitted into holy orders. Soon after he 
quitted the university, he wats nominated by the late sir 
Wyndbam Knatchbull, bart to the mastership of the free 
grammar school of Ashford in Kent, over which he pre- 
sided during a very long period, and advanced the school 
to great reputation. He was also rector of the parishes of 
Pirton and Ickleford in Hertfordshire. In 1773 he was 
appointed, by the late earl of Thanet, to the rectory of 
Hothfield in Kent, where he rebuilt the parsonage house, 
to which he retired, and resigned the school of Ashford, 
to the endowment of which he was a liberal benefactor. 
He . married Mary, the only daughter of Edward Jacob, 
esq. of Canterbury, arid by her had an only daughter, 
Mary, the wife of Edward Jeremiah Curteis, esq. at whose 
house, at Northiam in Sussex, he died Nov. 26, 1801, in 
his eighty-third year. 

Early in life Mr. Barret was an intimate friend of Dr. 
Johnson, and of Edward Cave, the founder of the Gentle* 
man's Magazine, to which ho became a frequent contribu- 
tor. One very interesting letter, signed by his name, api 
pears in voL XXIV. on a new method of modelling the 
tenses of verbs, which he defend? on the authority of Varro 
and Dr. Clarke* This judicious scheme, and his elegant 
translation of Pope's pastorals into Latin verse, fully estab- 
lished Mr. Barret's reputation as a Latin scholar ; and he 
also discovered some poetical talent in " War," a satire, 
but was less fortunate in his translation of" Ovid's Epistles 
into English verse." This bad critical essays and notes^ 
and was said in the title (1759) to be " part of a poetical 
and oratoriai lecture, read in Ashford school, calculated to 
initiate youth in the first rudiments of taste." l 

BARRINGTON (John Shutb), firet lord viscount 
Barrington, a nobleman of considerable learning, and 
author of several books, was the youngest son of Benjamii\ 

i Gent M*g, vol LXXL 


Shute, merchant (youngest son of Francis Shute, of Up- 
ton, in the county of. Leicester, esq.) by a daughter of the 
Rev: Jos. Caryl, author of the commentary on Job. He 
was born at Theobalds in Hertfordshire, in 1678, and re- 
ceived part of his education at Utrecht,- as appears from a 
Latin oration which he delivered at that university, and 
.published there in 1698, in 4to, under the following title : 
* * Oratio de ,studio Philosophise conjungendo cum studio 
Juris Romani ; habita in incly ta Academia Trajectina Ka~ 
Jendis Junii, 1698, a Johanne Shute, Anglo, Ph. D. et 
L. A. M." He published also three other academical exer- 
cises; viz. 1. " Exercitatio Physica, de Ventis," Utrecht, 
1696, 4 to. 2. "Dissertatio Philosophica, de Theocratic 
morali,'\ Utrecht, 1697, 3. " Dissertatio Philosophica In- 
auguralis, de Theocratia civili," Utrecht, 1697. The se- 
cond of these tracts has been cited, with great commenda» 
tion, by two eminent writers on the civil law, Cocceius aii£ 
Heineccius. After his return to England, he applied him- 
self to tbe study of the law in the Inner Temple. In 1701 
he published, but without his name, " An essay upon the 
interest of England, in respect to Protestants dissenting 
from the Established Church," 4to. This was reprinted two 
years after, with considerable alterations and enlargements, 
and with the title of " The interest of England considered," 
&c. Some time after this he published another piece in 
 4to, enticed " Tbe rights of Protestant Dissenters," in 
two parts. During the prosecution of his studies in the 
law, he was applied to by queen Anne's whig ministry, at 
the instigation of lord Somers, to engage the Presbyteri- 
ans in Scotland to favour the important measure then in 
agitation, of an union of the two kingdoms. Flattei^d at 
the age of twenty- four, by an application which shewed 
the opinion entertained of his abilities, and influenced by 
.the greatest lawyer and statesman of the age, he readily 
sacrificed the opening prospects of bis profession, and un- 
dertook the arduous employment. The happy execution 
of it was rewarded, in 1708, by the place of commissioner 
of the customs, from which he was removed by the Tory 
administration in 1711, for his avowed opposition to their 
principles and conduct How high Mr. Shute's character 
«tood in the estimation even of those who differed most 
widely from him in religious and political sentiments, ap~ 
years from the testimony borne to it by Dr. Swift, who 
writes thus to archbishop King, in a letter dated London, 


Nov. 30, 1 708. " One Mr. Shute is named for secretary 
to lord Wharton* He is a young man, but reckoned the 
shrewdest head in England, and the person in whom the 
Presbyterians chiefly confide; and if money be necessary 
towards the good work, it is reckoned he can command as 
far as 100,000/. from the body of the dissenters here. As 
to his principles, he is a moderate man, frequenting the 
church and the meeting indifferently." In the reign of 
queen Anne, John Wildman, of Becket, in the county of 
Berks, esq. adopted him for his son, after the Roman cus* 
torn, and settled his large estate upon him, though he was 
no. relation, and said to have been but slightly acquainted 
with him. Some years after, he had another considerable 
estate left him by Francis Harrington, of Tofts, esq. who 
bad married his first cousin, and died without issue. This 
occasioned him to procure an act of parliament, pursuant 
to the deed of settlement, to assume the name and bear the 
arms of Barring ton. On the accession of king George 
be was chosen member of parliament for the town of Ber- 
wick-upon-Tweed. July 5, 1717, he had a reversionary 
grant of the office of master of the rolls in Ireland, which 
he surrendered Dec. 10, 1731. King George was also 
pleased, by privy seal, dated at St. James's, June 10, and 
by patent at Dublin, July 1, 1720, to create him baron 
Barrington of Newcastle, and viscount Barrington of Ard- 
glass. In 1722 he was again returned to parliament as 
member for the town of Berwick; but in 1723, the house 
of commons, taking into consideration the affair of the Har~ 
burgh lottery, a very severe and unmerited censure of ex- 
pulsion was passed upon his lordship, as sub r governor of 
the Harburgh company, under the prince of Wales. 

It is said that a vindication of lord Barrington was pub- 
lished at the time* in a pamphlet which had the appearance 
of being written by him, or at least of being published un- 
der his direction ; but as we have not been able to discover 
this pamphlet, we, shall subjoin a, very curious history of 
the Harburgfa company, ana of his lordship's conduct in 
fhat affair, from a manuscript of sir Michael Foster, com- 
municated by his nephew, Mr. Dodson, to the editor of 
th$ Biographia Britannica*. 

* Since the abort was written, we tothe Haitourgb company and the Har- 

b&frc discorered the title of this pam- burgb lottery," 4to. There is an ad- 

pMet, which wai printed m 1*72*2, bat ▼ertiseatent prefixed, dated May 1$, 

net poWUheil till 1T92,- « The lord 1*732, containing a short apology for 

yUcoubI Barrington'a case in relation tfca work's not baring appeared before. 



" His late majesty kin£ George I. was desirous to intra* 
duce trade and manufactures into his German dominions j 
and the town of Hamburgh being thought a proper place 
for that purpose, a scheme was offered to him, which met 
with his approbation, for making the port of Harburgh ca- 
pable of receiving ships of burden, and for carrying on the 
intended trade aud manufactures principally at that place. 
Accordingly his majesty, by charter under the great seal 
of the electorate, about Midsummer 1720, incorporated a 
number of gentlemen and merchants of London, for setting 
up and carrying on certain manufactures by a joint stock 
at Harburgh ; and divers privileges were granted to the 
company, whose capital was to be 300,000/. and a charter 
for commerce was promised to that company. As soon aa 
the manufacture charter was passed, and subscriptions 
taken in for raising the stock, shares sold at an exorbitant 
price, ooL being commonly given for a share on which only 
2/. had been advanced, and I think that some shares were 
sold at 80/. a-share. So great was the madness of that me* 
morable year ! 

" This exorbitant rise upon the stock put some gentle-, 
men and merchants of London, who thought themselves not 
enough considered in the manufacture charter, upon soli- 
citing for a separate charter, for opening the port of Har- 
burgh, and carrying on the foreign commerce there ; and 
agents on behalf of the manufacture company, with others 
on -behalf of the separate charter, followed bis Majesty to 
Hanover, each party for some time endeavouring to carry 
their respective points ; the manufacture company to get 
likewise the charter for commerce, the other party to get a 
separate charter for commerce, exclusive of the manufac- 
ture company. At length both sides agreed to accept one 
charter for commerce and manufactures, which should take 
in the members of the old company, and those who soli* 
cited for the separate commerce charter; and that the 
capital of the united company should be 1,500,000/, It 
was likewise agreed, that the members of the old company 
should, over and above the 500,000/. already subscribed, 

To this tract is added, and said in tbe 
title-page to be printed in 1722, " A 
speech upon the question that the pro- 
ject called the Harburgh lottery is an 
infamous and fraudulent undertaking, 
whereby several unwary persons have 
been drawn in to their great loss y and 

that the manner of carrying it on has 
been a manifest violation of the laws of 
this kingdom." . These two pieces *ra 
curious, concur with the account by 
judge Foster, aud offer many important 
considerations in lord Harrington's via* 


be entitled to a certain share of the new stock, upon ad- 
vancing, as before, 2/. upon each share, and that the resi- 
due of the stock should be divided amongst the new mem- 
bers and their friends. One gentleman in particular se- 
cured to himself, as I am informed, no less than 300,000/1 
to be disposed of by him amongst his friends. 

" At this time shares were commonly sold at' 20/. a 
share; but before the end of the year, Harburgh stock 
sunk, as all other projects of that kind did ; and no money 
having been paid on the new stock, and no charter for 
commerce being passed, the gentlemen who solicited the 
new charter refused to be any farther concerned in the 
affair, since the opportunity for exorbitant profits was lost; 
and a new set of gentlemen and merchants, with the mem- 
bers of the old company, undertook to carry it on, and were 
incorporated by charter under the great seal of the elec- 
torate, for opening the port and carrying on the trade and 
manufactures at Harburgh. 

" It was, as I hare been informed, part of the original 
scheme, that the expence of opening the port, which was 
computed at 100,000/. should be defrayed by the profits 
of a lottery, to be drawn at Harburgh. Accordingly, after 
the new charter was passed, his majesty, by warrant under 
his sign manual and the privy seal of the electorate, em. 
powered and required the company to lay before him a 
scheme for the lottery, which they did; and sometime 
afterwards his majesty, by a second warrant under his sign 
manual and privy seal of the electorate, signed his appro- 
bation of the scheme, and empowered the company to pro- 
ceed upon it, and to deliver out tickets here for the lottery, 
and he named trustees to manage and direct the drawing 
at Harburgh. Before the lottery was opened, lord Bar- 
rington, who was sub-governor of the company, (his royal 
highness the present prince of Wales being named governor) 
thought it necessary to procure a British charter of incor- 
poration, ahdmeasucfes were taken for that purpose with the 
British ministers ; for hitherto every thing touching the 
company had been transacted with the German ministers. 

" His lordship, as I have reason to believe, was persuad- 
ed that the ministers intended that the company should 
have a British charter ; and things went so far in that way, 
that a draught of a British charter was prepared and laid 
before the attorney-general. While things were in this 
state, some of the gentlemen in London concerned in the 


affair opened a subscription for the lottery, lord Harrington 
being then in the country. This step they took, contrary 
to his lordsl&p's opinion and advice. 

" Within a few days after the subscription for the lot- 
tery was opened, advertisements were published by some 
of the gentlemen who had formerly solicited the commerce 
charter, and afterwards when the price of stock fell, had 
refused to accept their shares, treating the affair as a pub* 
lie cheat; and the matter was soon brought before the 
house of commons. 

" While it was there depending, I was, in lord Barring- 
ton* s absence, consulted by the gentlemen concerned touch- 
ing the best method for avoiding the storm which seemed 
to be gathering, and threatened the ruin of the company* 

•My advice was, that the company should, without any he- 
sitation, lay their charter, with the two warrants for the 
lottery, before the house ; and submit their case upon the 
foot of those powers ; since it would appear by those pow- 
ers, that what they had done in the affair was /lone by 
virtue of powers received from his majesty. But this adyice 
was soon laid aside, and the secretary (Mr. Ridpath)"was 
instructed to acquaint the house, as he did, that the com- 
pany having acted under powers received from his ma- 
jesty as elector, in ah affair concerning his electorate, 
they did not think themselves at liberty to lay such powers 
before the house without his majesty's permissiop. This 
answer exactly suited the views of those people who intend- 
ed to r.uin the company, without seeming to do a thing 
which reflected dishonour on his majesty. Accordingly 
the house was satisfied with the answer, so far as not to in* 
sist on a sight of the charter and warrants ; and imtne- 

. diately came to a, resolution, that tbp persons concerned 
in tine affair, had acted therein without any authority from 
bis majesty ; and lord Barring ton, who then served for Ber- 
wick upon-Tweed, was expelled the house. 
. " This matter was made an occasion for bringing this 
severe censure on lord Barrington ; who was suspected to 
have formerly taken some sjfeps very disagreeable to the 
reigning minister, sir Robert Walpole. His lordship was 
firmly attached to the administration during the time of 
lord Sunderland's ministry, and employed all his credit and 

' influence with the dissenters, which was then very great, 
to keep that body in the same, interest : but upon the death 

of lord Sundjerlajid, sir RoJ^rt Walpok^ : wbo* fox nja/»y 


B A R R I N G T O N. 2> 

years during lord Sunderland's administration, had opposed 
every public measure, Succeeded him, as prime minister, 
and could not forget 'the part which lord Barrington had 
acted against him." 

In 1725 he published in 2 vols. 8vo, his " Miscellanea 
Sacra : or, a new method of considering so much of the 
history of the Apostles as is contained in scripture ; in an 
abstract of their history, an abstract of that abstract, and 
four critical essays." In this work the noble author has 
traced, with great care and judgment, the methods taken 
by the apostles, and first preachers of the gospel, for pro- 
pagating Christianity ; and explained with great distinct- 
ness the several gifts of the spirit, bywhich they were en- 
abled to discharge that office. These he improved into an 
argument for the truth of the Christian religion ; which is* 
said to have staggered the infidelity of Mr. Anthony Col- 
lins. In 1725 he published^ in 8vo, "An -Essay on the 
several dispensations of God to mankind, in the order in 
which they lie in tfte Bible ; or, a short system of the re- 
ligion of nature and scripture," &c. He was also author 
of several other tracts, of which the principal were, 1. " A 
Dissuasive from Jacobitism ; shewing in general what the 
nation is to expect from a popish king ; and, in particular, 
from the Pretender." The fourth edition of this was printed 
m 8vo, in 1713. 2. ** A Letter from a Layman, in commu- 
nion with the church of England, though dissenting from 

her in some points, to the right rev. the bishop of — *, 

With a postscript, shewing how far the bill to prevent the 
growth of schism is inconsistent with the act of toleration, 
and the other laws of this realm." The second edition of 
this was printed in 1714, 4to. 3. " The Layman's Letter 
to the bishop of Bangor." The second edition of this was 
published in 1716, -4to; 4. " An account of the late pro- 
ceedings of the Dissenting-ministers at Sal ters' -hall \ oc- 
casioned by the differences amongst their brethren in the 
country : with some thoughts concerning imposition of hu- 
man forms for articles of feith :" in a letter to the rev. Dr. 
Gale, 17 1£, 8vo, 5. " A Discourse of natural and revealed 
Religion, and the relation they bear to each other," 1732, 
Svo. 61 "Reflections on the 12th query, contained in a 
paper, entitled Reasons offered against pushing for the' 
repeal of the corporation and tes,t-acts, and on the animad- 
versions on the answer to it," It^B, 8vo. A iiew edition of 
his* " Miscellanea Sacra" was published in 1770, 3 vols. 


Svo, Tinder the revision of his son, the present learned and 
munificent bishop of Durham. Lord Barrington sometimes 
spoke in parliament, but appears not to have been a fre- 
quent speaker. He died at his seat at Becket in Berkshire, 
after a short illness, Dec. 4, 1734, in the 66th year of his 
age. He generally attended divine worship among the dis- 
senters, and for many years received the sacrament at 
Pinner's-hall, when Dr. Jeremiah Hunt, an eminent and 
learned non-conformist divine, was pastor of the congrega- 
tion. He had formerly been an attendant on Mr. Thomas 
Bradbury, but quitted that gentleman on account of his 
zeal for imposing unscriptural terms upon the article of 
the Trinity. His lordship was a disciple and friend of Air. 
Locke, had a high value for the sacred writings, and was 
eminently skilled in them. As a writer in theology, he 
contributed much to the diffusing of that spirit of free scrip* 
tural criticism, which has since obtained among all deno- 
minations of Christians: As his attention was much turned 
to the study of divinity, he had a strong sense of the im- 
portance of what is called free inquiry in matters of re- 
ligion. In his writings, whenever he thought what he ad- 
vanced was doubtful, or that his arguments were not strict- 
ly conclusive, though they might hare great weight, be 
expressed himself with a becoming diffidence. He was 
remarkable for the politeness of his manners, and the grace- 
fulness of his address. The only virulent attack we have 
seen against his lordship, occurs in lord Orford's works, 
vol. I. p. 543, which from its contemptuous and sneering 
notice of the Barrington family, and especially the present 
worthy prelate, may be safely left to its influence on the 
mind of any unprejudiced reader. 

Lord Barrington married Anne, eldest daughter of sir 
William Daines, by whom he left six sons and three 
daughters. William, his eldest son, succeeded to his fa- 
ther's honours ; was elected, soon after he came of age, 
member for the town of Berwick, and afterwards for Ply- 
mouth ; and, in the late and present reigns, passed through^ 
the successive offices of lord of the admiralty, master of 
the wardrobe, chancellor of the exchequer, treasurer of 
the navy, and secretary at war. He died in 1793. Francis, 
the second, died young. John, the third, was a major- 
general in the army, commanded ,' the land forces at the 
reduction of the island of Guadaloupe in 1758, and died 
in 1764* Of Daiaes and Samuel some notice will follow; 


Shute, the sixth, is now bishop of Durham. Of the three 
daughters, who survived their father, Sarah married Ro- 
bert Price, esq. of Foxley in Herefordshire ; Anne, Thomas 
Clarges, esq; only son of sir Thomas Clarges, bart. ; and 
Mary died unmarried. ! 

BARRINGTON (the Hon. Daines), fourth son of the 
preceding, was born in 1727) studied some time at Oxford, 
which he quitted for the Temple, aitd after the usual course 
was admitted to the bar. He was one of his majesty's counsel 
learned in the law, and a bencher of the hon. society of the 
Inner Temple, but, although esteemed a very sound lawyer, 
he never rose to any distinguished eminence as a pleader. He 
was for some time recorder of Bristol, in which situation 
he was preceded by sir Michael Foster, and succeeded by 
Mr. Dunning, afterwards lord Ashburton. In May 1751 
he was appointed marshal of the high court of admiralty in 
England, which he resigned in 1753, on being appointed 
secretary for the affairs of Greenwich hospital ; and was 
appointed justice of the counties of Merioneth, Carnarvon, 
and Anglesey, 1757, and afterwards second justice of Ches- 
ter, which he resigned about 1785, retaining only the 
place of commissary-general of the stores at Gibraltar. 
Had it been his wish, he might probably have been pro- 
moted to the English bench, but possessed of an ample 
income, having a strong bjas to the study of antiquities, 
natural history, &c. he retired from the practice of the law, 
and applied his legal knowledge chiefly to the purposes of 
investigating curious questions of legal antiquity. His first 
publication, which will always maintain its rank, and has 
gone through several editions, was his " Observations on 
the Statutes," 1766, 4to. In the following year he pub- 
lished " The Naturalist's Calendar," which was also fa- 
vourably received. In 1773, desiring to second the wishes 
of the Rev. Mr. Elstob to give to the world the Saxon trans- 
lation of Orosius, ascribed to king Alfred, in one vol. 8vo, 
he added to it an English translation and notes, which 
neither give the meaning, nor clear up the obscurities of 
the Latin or Saxon authors, and therefore induced some 
severe observations from the periodical critics. His next 
publication was, " Tracts on the probability of reaching 
.the North Pole," 1775, 4to. He was the first proposer of 
the memorable voyage to the north pole, which was under- 

1 Biog:. Britanmca.-— Nichols's Bowyer, yoI. VI. whcre.thcr§ ii ajonger .list of 
ferd Barriugton'i Tracts. 


taken by captain Phipps, afterwards lord Mulgrave : and 
on the event of it, he collected a variety of facts and specu- 
lations, to evince the practicability of such an undertaking. 
His papers were read at two meetings of the royal society, 
and not being admitted into their " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," were published separately. It must be allowed that 
the learned author bestowed much time and labour on this 
subject, and accumulated an amazing quantity of written, 
traditionary, and conjectural evidence, in proof of the pos-, 
sibility of circumnavigating the pole ; but when his testi- 
monies were examined, they proved rather ingenious than 
satisfactory. In 1781 he published "Miscellanies on va- 
rious subjects," 4to, containing some of his papers in the 
Philosophical Transactions, and other miscellaneous es- 
says composed or compiled by him, on various subjects of 
antiquity, civil and natural history, &c. His contributions 
to the Philosophical Transactions and to the Archaeologia 
are numerous, as may be seen in the indexes of these' 
works. He was a member of both societies, and a vice- 
president of that of the antiquaries, which office he resigned 
in his latter days on account of his bad state of health. He 
died after a lingering illness, at his chambers in the King's 
Bench walk, Temple, March 11, 1800, aged 73, and 
was interred in the vault of the Temple church. Mr. Bar- 
rington was a man of amiable chs^racter, polite, com- 
municative, and liberal. * 

BARRINGTON (Hon. Samuel), brother to the pre- 
ceding, and fifth son of the first lord viscount Barrington, 
was bom in 1729, and entered very young into the service 
of the British rtavy, passing through the inferior stations 
of midshipman and lieutenant with great reputation. He 
first went to sea in the Lark, under the command of lord 
George Graham, and in 1744, he was appointed a lieu- 
tenant by sir William Rowley, then commanding a squa- 
dron in the Mediterranean. In 1746, he had the rank of 
master and commander in the Weazel sloop, in which he 
took a French privateer off Flushing. During the same 
year, or in 1747, he became post-captain, by being ap- 
pointed totheBellona frigate (formerly a French privateer) 
in which he took the Duke de Chartres outward bound 
East India ship, of 800 tons, and of superior force, after 
a severe engagement, in which the French lost many killed 

» Nichols's Life of Bowyer, vol. III. 


and wounded. After the peace of 1748, he had the com- 
mand of the Sea-horse, a twenty-gun ship in the Mediter- 
ranean, and while there, was dispatched from Gibraltar to 
Tetuan, to negociate the redemption of some British cap- 
tives, in which he succeeded. He had afterwards the com- 
mand of the Crown man of war, on the Jamaica station, and 
was in commission during the greater part of the peace. 
When the war broke out again between Great Britain and 
France, in 1756, he was appointed to the command of the 
Achilles of 60 guns. In 1759, he signalized his courage 
in an engagement witfi the Count de St. Florentin, French 
man of war, of equal force with the Achilles ; she fought 
for two hours, and had 1 1 6 men killed or wounded, all her 
masts shot away, and it was with difficulty she was got into 
port. The Achilles had twenty-five men killed or wound- 
ed. In the Achilles, captain Bar ring ton was after this dis- 
patched to America, from whence she returned about the 
close of the year 1760. In the Spring of the ensuing year, 
captain Barrington served undfr admiral Keppel, at the 
siege of Belleisle. To secure a landing for the troops, it 
became necessary to attack a fort and other works, in' a 
sandy bay, intended to be the place of debarkation ; three 
ships, one of which was the Achilles, were destined to this 
service. Captain Barrington got first to his station, and soon 
silenced the fire from the fort and from the shore, and 
cleared the coast for the landing the troops, and although 
soon obliged to re-embark, they were well covered by the 
Achilles, and other ships. Ten days after the troops made 
good their landing, at a place where the mounting the rock 
was, as the commanders expressed it, barely possible, and 
captain Barrington was sent home with this agreeable news. 
After the peace of 1763, captain Barrington in 1768 com- 
manded the Venus frigate, in which ship the late duke of 
Cumberland was entered as a midshipman. In her he sailed 
to the Mediterranean, and as these voyages are always in- 
tended both for pleasure and improvement, he visited the 
most celebrated posts in that sea. Soon after his return, 
the dispute between Great Britain and Spain, respecting 
Falkland's Island, took place, and on the fitting out of the 
fleet, captain Barrington was appointed to the command of 
the Albion, of 74 guns, and soon after made colonel of 
marines. He found some little difficulty, from a scarcity 
of seamen, in manning his ship, and had recourse to a hu* 
mourous experiment He offered a bounty for aU lajnp.- 
Vol. IV. D A 


lighters, and men of other trades which require alertness, 
who would ente%; and soon procured a crew, but of such a 
description that they were, for some time, distinguished 
by the title of Barrington' s blackguards. He soon, how- 
ever, changed their complexion. He had long borne the 
character of being a thorough-bred seaman, and a rigid 
disciplinarian. His officers under him were the same, and 
they succeeded in making the Albion one of the best dis- 
ciplined ships in the royal navy. The convention between 
the two courts putting an end to all prospect of hostilities, 
the Albion was ordered, as a guardship, to Plymouth ; and 
in this situation captain Barrington commanded her for 
three years, made himself universally esteemed, and shewed 
that he possessed those accomplishments which adorn the 
officer and the man. In the former capacity he had so 
completely established his character, as to be looked up to 
,as one who, in case of any future war, would be intrusted 
with some important command. In the latter, the traits 
of benevolence which are known, exclusive of those which 
he was careful to keep sebret, shew, that with the rough- 
ness of a seaman, he possessed the benevolence of a Chris- 
tian. An economical style of living enabled him to indulge 
his inclination that way, with a moderate income. On the 
breaking out of the war with France, captain Barrington, 
having then been thirty-one years a post-captain in the 
, navy, was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, and dis- 
patched with a squadron to the West Indies. He found 
.himself, on his arrival, so much inferior to the enemy, that 
he could not preserve Dominic^ from falling into their 
hands. However, before the French fleet under D'Estaing 
could reach the West Indies, he was joined at Barbadoes 
by the troops under general Grant from America. He 
then immediately steered for St, Lucia, and the British 
troops had gained possession of a part of the island, when 
the French fleet, under the command of count D'Estaing, 
appeared in sight. Barrington lay in the Grand Cul de 
Sac, with only three ships of the line, three of fifty guns, 
and some frigates, and with this force, had not only to 
defend himself against ten sail of the line, many frigates, 
and American armed ships, but also to protect a large 
fleet of transports, having on board provisions and stores 
for the army, and which there had not yet been time to 
land ; so that the fate of the army depended on that of 
the fleet. During the night the admiral caused the trans- 



ports to be warped into the bay, and moored the men of 
war in a line without them. D'Estaintj, elated with the 
hopes of crushing this small naval force under Bar ring ton, 
attacked him next morning, first with ten sail of the line, 
but failing, he made a second attack with his whole force, 
and was equally unsuccessful, being only able to carry oft* 
one single transport, which the English had not time to 
warp within the line. This defence is among the first na- 
val atchievements of the war. In an attack by land, on 
general Meadows's intrenchments, the count was equally 
repulsed, and the ^land soon after capitulated. Admiral 
Byron shortly after arriving in the West Indies, Barring- 
ton, of course, became second in command only. In the 
action which took place between the British fleet and the 
French on the 6th of July, 1775, admiral Barringtoii, in 
the Prince of Wales, commanded the van division. The 
enemy were much superior to the English, but this dis-. 
co very was not made till it was too late to remedy it. Ad- 
miral Barriugton, in the Prince of Wales, with the Boyrie 
and Sultan, pressed forward, soon closed with the enemy's 
fleet, and bravely sustained their attack until joined by 
other ships. It was not, however, the intention of the 
French admiral to risk a general engagement, having the 
conquest of Grenada in view, and his ships being cleaner 
than those of the English, enabled him to choose his dis- 
tance. The consequence was, that several of the British 
ships were very severely handled, whilst others had no 
share in the action. Barrington was wounded, and had 
twenty-six men killed, and forty-six wounded, in his own 
ship. Soon after this engagement, admiral Barrington, on 
account of ill-health, returned to England, These two 
actions established our admiral's reputation, and he was 
looked on as one of the first officers in the English navy. 
The ferment of parties during the close of that war occa- 
sioned many unexpected refusal of promotion ; and as 
admiral Barrington was intimately connected with lord 
Shelburne, col. Barre, and several other leading men in 
opposition, it was probably owimg to this circumstance that 
he refused the command of the channel fleet, which was 
offered to him after the resignation of admiral Geary in 1,780, 
and on his declining to accept it, conferred on admiral 
Darby. In 1782, he served, as second in command, un- 
der lord Howe, and distinguished himself at the memorable 
relief of Gibraltar. The termination of the war put a pe- 

D 2 


riod to his active services. In February 1786, he w$s made 
lieutenant-general of marines ; and on Sept. 24, 1787, ad* 
miral of the blue. During the last ten years of his life, his 
ill state of health obliged him to decline all naval command. 
He died at his lodgings in the Abbey Green, Bath, August, 
16, 1800. 1 

BARROS or De BARROS (John), a Portuguese his- 
torian, was born at Viseu in 1496, and brought up at 
the court of king Emanuel, with the younger branches of 
the royal family. He made a rapid progress in Greek 
and Latin learning. The infant Jua% to whom he was 
attached, in quality of preceptor, having succeeded the 
king his father in 1521, de Barros had a place in the 
household of that prince. In 1522 he became governor 
of St. George <le la Mine, on the coast of Guinea in 
Africa. Three years afterwards, the king having recalled 
him to court, appointed him treasurer of the Indies : this 
post inspired him with the thought of writing the history 
of those countries, and in order to finish it, he retired to 
Pombal, where he died in 1570, with the reputation of an 
excellent scholar and a good citizen. Be Barros has di- 
vided his History of Asia and the Indies into four decads. He 
published the first under the title " Decadas d'Asia," in 
1552, the second in 1553, and the third in 1563. The 
fourth did not appear till 1615, by command of king Philip 
III. who purchased the manuscript of the heirs of de Barros. 
This history is in the Portugueze language. Possevin and 
the president de Thou speak more favourably of it than la 
Boulaye-le Goux, who considers it as a very confused 
mass ; but certainly Barros has collected a great many facts 
that are not to be found elsewhere, and with less love of 
the hyperbole, and a stricter attachment to truth, he would 
have deserved a place among the best historians. SeVferal 
authors have continued his work, and brought it down to 
the xiiith decad. Th6re is an edition of it, Lisbon, 1736, 
3 vols, folio. Alfonso Ulloa translated it into Spanish. Bar- 
ros also wrote " Chronica do imperador Clarimando," a 
species of romance in the style of Amadis, and some 
treatises on subjects of morality, religion, and education, 

for the use of the young princes. * 


1 Annual Register, and various Journals and Magazines.— Beatson's Political 
Aforeri.— Diet. Hist— Antonio Bibl. Hisp. where is a list of his minor works. 


BARROW (Isaac), bishop of St. Asaph in the reign of 
Charles II. was the son of Isaac Barrow of Spiney Abbey 
in Cambridgeshire, and uncle of the celebrated mathema- 
tician, who will form the subject of the next article. He 
was born in 1613, admitted July 1620 of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, next year chosen scholar, and in 1 63 1 , librarian. In 
Dec. 1 64 1 , he was presented to the vicarage of Hinton, by his 
college, of which he was a fellow, and resided thereuntil eject* 
ed by the presbyterians in 1643. He then removed to Ox- 
ford, where his learning and abilities were well known, and 
where he was appointed one of the chaplains of New Col- 
lege, by the interest of his friend, Dr. Pink, then warden. 
Here he continued until the surrender of Oxford to the 
parliamentary army, when he was obliged to shift from 
place to place, and 6uffer with his brethren, who refused to 
submit to the usurping powers. At the restoration, how- 
ever, he was not only replaced in his fellowship at Peter- 
house, but chosen a fellow of Eton college, which he held 
in commendam with the bishopric of Mann. In 1660, 
being then D. D. he was presented by Dr. Wren, bishop of 
Ely, to the rectory of Downham, in the Isle of Ely; and, 
in 1662, resigned his fellowship of Peterhouse. In July 
1663, he was consecrated bishop of Mann, in king Henry 
Vllth's chapel, Westminster, on which occasion his ne- 
phew, the mathematician, preached the consecration ser- 
mon. In April 1664, he was appointed governor likewise 
of the Isle of Mann, by his patron, Charles earl of Derby ; 
and executed his office with the greatest prudence and ho- 
nour during all the time in which he held the diocese, and 
for some months after his translation to the see of St. Asaph. 
He was ever of a liberal, active mind ; and rendered him- 
self peculiarly conspicuous as a man of public spirit, by 
forming and executing good designs for the encourage- 
ment of piety and literature. The state of the diocese of 
Mann at this time was deplorable, as to religion. The 
clergy were poor, illiterate, and careless, the people grossly 
ignorant and dissolute. Bishop Barrow, however, intro- 
duced a very happy change in all respects, by the esta- 
blishment of schools, and improving the livings of the 
clergy. He collected with great qare and pains from pious 
persons about eleven hundred pounds, with which he pur- 
chased of the earl of Derby all trie impropriations in the 
island, and settled them upon the clfcrgy in due proportion. 


He obliged them all likewise to teach schools in their re- 
spective parishes, and allowed thirty pounds per annum for 
a free-school, and fifty pounds per annum for academioal 
learning. He procured also from king Charles II. one hun- 
dred pounds a year (which, Mr. Wood says, had like to 
have been lost) to be settled upon his clergy, and g^ve one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds of his own money for a lease 
upon lands of twenty pounds a year, towards the mainten- 
ance of three poor scholars in the college of Dublin, that 
in time there might be a more learned body of clergy in 
the island. Hp gave likewise ten pounds towards the build- 
ing a bridge over a dangerous water ; and did several other 
acts of charity and beneficence. Afterwards returning to 
England for the sake of his health, and lodging in a house 
belonging to the countess of Derby in Lancashire, called 
Cross- hall, he received news of his majesty having con- 
ferred on him the bishopric of St. Asaph, to which he was 
translated March 21, ,1669, but he was permitted to hold 
the see of Sodor and Mann in commendam, until Oct. 167 1, 
in order to indemnify him for the expences of his transla- 
tion. His removal, however, from Mann, was felt as a 
yery great loss, both by the clergy at large, and the inha- 
bitants. His venerable, although not immediate, successor, 
Dr. Wilson, says of him, that " his name and his good deeds 
will be remembered as long as any sense of piety remains 
among them.'' His removal to St. Asaph gave him a fresh 
opportunity to become useful and popular. After being 
established here, he repaired several parts of the cathedral 
church, especially the north and south ailes, and new co- 
vered them with lead, and wainscotted the east part of the 
choir. He laid out a considerable sum of money in repair- 
ing the episcopal palace, and a mill belonging to it. In 
1678 hje built an alms-house for eight poor widows^ and 
endowed it with twelve pounds per annum for ever. The 
same year, he procured an act of parliament for appropri- 
ating the rectories of Llanrhaiader and Mochnant in Den- 
bighshire and Montgomeryshire, and of Skeiviog in the 
county of Flint, for repairs of the cathedral church of St. 
Asaph, and the better maintenance of the choir therein, 
and also for the uniting several rectories that were sine- 
cures, and the vicarages of the same parishes, within the 
said diocese. He designed likewise to build a free-school, 
and endow it, but was prevented bydealh; but in 16S7, 
v bishop Lloyd, who succeeded him in the see of St. Asaph, 


recovered of his executors two hundred pounds, towards a 
free-school at St. Asaph. 

Bishop Barrow died at Shrewsbury, June 24, 1680, and 
was interred in the cathedral church-yard of St. Asaph, on 
the south side of the west door, with two inscriptions, one 
of which seeming to favour the popish doctrine of praying 
for the dead, gave some offence, especially as it was said, 
we know not ^n what authority, that it was drawn up by the 
bishop himself. l 

BARROW (Isaac), an eminent mathematician and di- 
vine of the seventeenth century, was descended from ap 
ancient family of that name in Suffolk. His father was 
Mr. Thomas Barrow, a reputable citizen of London and 
linen-draper to king Charles I.; and his mother, Anne, 
daughter of William Buggin of North-Cray in Kent, esq. 
whose tender care he did not long experience, she dying 
when he was about four years old. He was born at Lon- 
don in October 1630, and was placed first in the Charter- 
house school for two or three years, where his behaviour 
afforded but little hopes of success in the profession of a 
scholar, for which his father designed him, being quarrel- 
some, riotous, and negligent. But when removed to Fel- 
stead school in Essex, his disposition took a more happy 
turn, and he quickly made so great a progress in learning, 
that his master appointed him a kind of tutor to the lord 
viscount Fairfax of Emely in Ireland, who was then his 
scholar. During his stay at Felstead, he was admitted, 
December the 15th 1643, being fourteen years bf age, 
a pensioner of Peter-house in Cambridge, under his uncle 
Mr. Isaac Barrow, then fellow of that college. But 
when he was qualified for the university, he was entered a 
pensioner in Trinity-college, the 5th of February 1645 ; 
his uncle having been ejected, together with Seth Ward, 
Peter Gunning, and John Barwick, who had written 
against the covenant. His father having suffered greatly 
in his estate by his attachment to the royal cause, our 
young student was obliged at first for his chief support to 
the generosity of the learned Dr. Hammond, to whose me- 
mory he paid his thanks, in an excellent epitaph on the 
doctor. In 1647, he was chosen a scholar of the house ; 
and, though he always continued a staunch royalist, and 

1 Butler's Life of Bp. Hildesley, p. 302.— Biog. Brit.— -Ath. Ox. vol, II.— 
Life of Dr. John Barwick. — Lives of the English Bishops, 8vo. 1731, p. 120.-— 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy. 



never would take the covenant, yet, by his great merit 
and prudent behaviour he preserved the esteem and good- 
will of bis superiors. Of this we have an instance in Dr. 
Hill, master of the college, who had been put in by the 
parliament in the room of Dr. Comber, ejected for ad- 
hering to the king. One day, laying his hand upon our 
young student's head, he said, " Thou art a good lad, 
'tis pity thou art a cavalier;" and when, in an ovation on 
the Gunpowder-treason, Mr. Barrow had so celebrated the 
former times, as to reflect much on the present, some fel- 
lows were provoked to move for his expulsion ; but the 
master silenced them with this, " Barrow is a better man 
than any of us." Afterwards when the engagement was im- 
posed, he subscribed it ; but, upon second thoughts, re- 
penting of what he had done, he applied himself to the 
commissioners, declared his dissatisfaction, and prevailed to 
have his name razed out of the list. He applied himself 
with great diligence to the study of all parts of literature, 
especially natural philosophy ; and though he was yet but a 
young scholar, his judgment was too great to rest satisfied 
with the shallow and superficial philosophy, then taught 
and received in the schools. He applied himself therefore 
to the reading and considering the writings of the lord Ve- 
rulam, M. Des Cartes, Galileo, &c. who seemed to offer 
something more solid and substantial. In 1648, Mr. Bar- 
row took the degree of bachelor of arts. The year follow- 
ing, he was elected fellow of his college, merely out of 
regard to his merit ; for he had no friend to recommend 
him, as being of the opposite party. And now, finding 
the times not favourable to men of his opinions in matters 
of church and state, he turned his thoughts to the profes- 
sion of physic, and made a considerable progress in ana- 
tomy, botany, and chemistry: but afterwards, upon de- 
liberation with himself, and with the advice of his uncle, 
he applied himself to the study of divinity, to which he 
was further obliged by his oath on his admission to his 
fellowship. By reading Scaliger on Eusebius, he per- 
ceived the dependance of chronology on astronomy ; which 
put him upon reading Ptolemy's Almagest : and finding 
that book and all astronomy to depend on geometry, lie 
made himself master of Euclid's Elements, and from 
thence proceeded to the other ancient mathematicians. 
He made a short essay towards acquiring the Arabic lan- 
guage, but soon deserted it. With these severer specu- 


lations, the largeness of bis mind had room for the amuse* 
ments of poetry, to which he was always strongly addicted. 
This is sufficiently. evident from the many performances he 
has left us in that art. Mr. Hill, his biographer, tells us, 
he was particularly pleased with tljat branch of it, which 
consists in description, but greatly disliked the hyperboles 
of some modern poets. As for our plays, he was an enemy 
to them, as a principal cause of the debauchery of the 
times ; the other causes he thought to be, the French edu- 
cation, and the ill example of great persons. For satires, 
he wrote none ; his wit, as Mr. Hill expresses it, was 
" pure and peaceable." 

In 1652, he commenced master of arts, and, on the 12th 
of June the following year, was incorporated in that degree 
at Oxford. When Dr. Duport resigned the chair of Greek 
professor, he recommended his pupil Mr. Barrow to succeed 
him ; who justified his tutor's opinion of him by an excellent 
performance of the probation exercise : but being looked 
upon as a favourer of Arminianism, the choice fell upon 
another ; and this disappointment, it is thought, helped to 
determine him in his resolution of travelling abroad. In 
order to execute this design, he was obliged to sell his books. 
Accordingly, in the year 1655, he went into France; 
where, at Paris, he found his father attending the English 
court, and out of his small means made him a seasonable 
present. The same year his " Euclid" was printed at 
Cambridge, which he had left behind him for that purpose. 
He gave his college an account of his journey to Paris in a 
poem, and some farther observations in a letter. After a 
few months, he went into Italy, and stayed sometime at 
Florence, where he had the advantage of perusing several 
books in the great duke's library, and of conversing with 
Mr. Fitton, an Englishman, his librarian. Here his po- 
verty must have put an end to his travels, had he not been 
generously supplied with money by Mr. James Stock, a 
young merchant of London, to whom he afterwards dedi- 
cated his edition of Euclid's Data. He was desirous to 
have seen Rome; but the plague then raging in that city, 
he took ship at Leghorn, November the 6th 1656, for 
Smyrna. In this voyage they were attacked by a corsair 
of Algiers, who, perceiving the stout defence the ship 
made, sheered off and left her; and upon this occasion 
Mr. Barrow gave a remarkable instance of his natural cou- 
rage and intrepidity. At Smyrna, he made himself welcome 
to Mr. Bretton the consul (upon whose death he after- 


wards wrote an elegy), and to the English factory. From 
thence he proceeded to Constantinople, where he met 
with a very friendly reception from sir Thomas Ben dish 
the English ambassador, and sir Jonathan Daws, with whom 
he afterwards kept up an intimate friendship and corre- 
spondence. This voyage, from Leghorn to Constantino- 
ple, he has described in a Latin poem. At Constantino- 
ple, he read over the works of St. Chrysostom, once bi- 
shop of that see, whom he preferred to all the other fathers. 
Having stayed in Turkey above a year, he returned from 
thence to Venice, where, soon after they were landed, 
the ship took fire, and was consumed with all the goods. 
From thence he came home, in 1659, through Germany 
and Holland, and has left a description of some parts of 
those countries in his poems. Soon after his return into 
England, the time being somewhat elapsed, before which 
all fellows of Trinity-college are obliged to take orders, or 
quit the society, Mr. Barrow was episcopally ordained by 
bishop Brownrig, notwithstanding the unsettled state of 
the times, and the declining condition of the church of 
England. Upon the king's restoration, his friends ex- 
pected he would have been immediately preferred on ac- 
counts of his having suffered and deserved so much ; but it 
came to nothing, which made him wittily say (which he 
has not left in his poems), 

Te magis optavit rediturum, Carole, nemo, 
Et nemo sensit te rediisse minus. 

However, he wrote an ode upon that occasion, in which 
he introduces Britannia congratulating the king upon his 
return. In 1660, he was chosen, without a competitor, 
Greek professor of the university of Cambridge. His ora- 
tion, spoken upon that occasion, is preserved among his 
Opuscula. When he entered upon this province, he de- 
signed to have read upon the tragedies of Sophocles : but, 
altering his intention, he made choice of Aristotle's rheto- 
ric. These lectures, having been lent to a person who 
never returned them, are irrecoverably lost. The year 
following, which was 1661, he took the degree of bachelor 
in divinity. July the 16th, 1662, he was elected professor 
of geometry in Gresham-college, in the room of Mr. Law- 
rence Rooke, chiefly through the interest and recommen- 
dation of Dr. Wilkins, master of Trinity- college, and af- 
terwards bishop of Chester. In this station, he not only 
discharged his own duty, but supplied, likewise, the ab- 


seace of Dr. Pope the astronomy professor. Among his 
lectures, some were upon the projection of the sphere ; 
which being borrowed and never returned, are lose : but 
his Latin oration, previous to his lectures, is in his works. 
The same year, 1662, he wrote an epithalamium on the 
marriage of king Charles and queen Catherine, in Greek 
verse. About this time, Mr. Barrow was offered a valu- 
able living, but the condition annexed of teaching the pa- 
tron's son, made him refuse it, as too like a simoniacal 
contract. Upon the 20th of May 1663, he was elected a 
fellow of the royal society, in the first choice made by the 
council after their charter. The same year, Mr. Lucas 
having founded a mathematical lecture at Cambridge, Mr. 
Barrow was so powerfully recommended, by Dr. Wilkins, 
to that gentleman's executors Mr. Raworth and Mr. Buck, 
that he was appointed the first professor ; and the better to 
secure the end of so noble and useful a foundation, he 
took care that himself and his successors should be obliged 
to leave yearly to the university ten written lectures. We 
have his prefatory oration, spoken in the public mathe- 
matical school, March the 14th, 1664. Though his two 
professorships were not incompatible, he resigned that of 
Gresham- college, May the 20th, 1664. He had been in- 
vited to take the charge of the Cotton library ; but, after 
a short trial, he declined it, and resolved to settle in the 
university.. In 1669, he resigned the mathematical chair 
to his very worthy friend the celebrated Isaac Newton, 
being now determined to exchange the study of the ma- 
thematics for that of divinity, partly from a strong incli- 
nation for the latter, and partly because his mathematical 
works were less favourably^ received than he thought they 
deserved. In 1670, he wrote a Latin poem upon the 
death of the duchess of Orleans, an epicedium upon the 
duke of Albemarle, and a Latin ode upon the Trinity. 
He was only a fellow of Trinity-college, when he was col- 
lated by his uncle, the bishop of St. Asaph, to a small 
sinecure in Wales, anc by Dr. Seth Ward, bishop of 
Salisbury, to a prebend in that cathedral ; the profits of 
.both which he applied to charitable uses, and afterwards 
resigned them, when he became master of his college. In 
the same year he was created doctor in divinity by man- 
date. In 1672, Dr. Pearson, master of Trinity-college, 
being, upon the death of bishop Wilkins, removed to the 
bishopric of Chester, Dr. Barrow was appointed by the 



king to succeed him ; and his majesty was pleased to say 
upon that occasion, " he had given it to the best scholar 
in England." His patent bears date February the 13th 9 
1672, with permission to marry, which he caused to be 
erased, as contrary to the statutes, and he was admitted 
the 27th of the same month. He gave the highest satis- 
faction to that society, whose interest he constantly and 
carefully consulted. In 1675, he was chosen vice-chan- 
cellor of the university. This great and learned divine 
died of a fever, the 4th of May 1677, and was buried in 
Westminster- abbey, where a monument was erected to 
him by the contribution of his friends *. His epitaph was 
written by his friend Dr. Maple toft He left his manu- 
scripts to Dr. Tillotson and Mr. Abraham Hill, with per T 
mission to publish what they should think proper. He left 
little behind him, except books 5 which were so well 
chosen, that they sold for more than the prime cost. 
Though he could never be prevailed to sit for his picture* 
some of his friends contrived to have it taken without hi* 
knowledge, whilst they diverted him with such discourse 
as engaged his attention. As to his person, he was low of 
stature, lean, and of a pale complexion, and negligent of 
his drfess to a fault ; of extraordinary strength, a thin skin, 
and very sensible of cold ; his eyes grey, clear, and some- 
what short-sighted ; his hair a light brown, very fine, and 
curling. He was of a healthy constitution, very fond of 
tobacco, which he used to call his panpharmacon, or uni- 
versal medicine, and imagined it helped to compose and 
regulate his thoughts. If he was guilty of any intemper- 
ance, it seemed to be in the love of fruit, which he thought 
very salutary. He slept little, generally rising in the 
winter months before day. His conduct and behaviour 
were truly amiable ; he was always ready to assist others, 
open and communicative in his conversation, in which he 

* The following circumstances, con- 
cerning Dr. Barrow's death, are re- 
lated by Mr. Roger North, in his Life 
of Dr. John North. " The good Dr. 
Harrow ended his days in Iiondon, in a 
prebend's house .that had a little stair 
to it out of the cloisters, which made 
him call it a Man's nest y and I presume 
it is so called at this day. The mas- 
ter's disease was an high fever. It had 
been his custom, contracted when (upon 
the fund of a travelling fellowship) he 
was at Constantioople, in all his mala- 

dies, to enre himself with opium. And, 
being very ill (probably) augmented 
his dose, and so inflamed his fever, and 
at the same time obstructed the crisis : 
for he was as a man knocked down, and 
had the eyes as of one distracted. Our 
doctor (Dr. North) seeing him so, was 
struck with horror; for he, that knew 
him so well in his best health, could 
best distinguish ; and when be left 
him, he concluded he should see him 
no more } and so it proved.'* 


generally spoke to the importance, as well as truth, of any 
question proposed ; facetious in his talk upon fit occasions, 
and skilful to accommodate his discourse to different ca- 
pacities ; of indefatigable industry in various studies, clear 
judgment on all arguments, and steady virtue under all 
difficulties; of a calm temper in factious times, and df 
large charity in mean estate ; he was easy and contented 
with a scanty fortune, and with the same decency and mo- 
deration maintained his character under the temptations of 
prosperity. In short, he was, perhaps, the greatest scho- 
lar of his times ; and, as an ingenious writer expresses it, 
" he may be esteemed as having shewn a compass of in- 
vention equal, if not superior, to any of the moderns, sir 
Isaac Newton only excepted." 

Dr. Barrow's works are very numerous, and indeed va- 
rious, mathematical, theological, poetical, &c. and such as 
do honour to the English nation. They are principally as 
follow: l."EuclidisElementa," Cantab. 1655, 8vo. 2."Eu- 
clidisData," Cantab. 1657, 8vo. 3. " Lectiones Opticaexviii,'* 
Lond. 1669, 4ta. 4. " Lectiones Geometricse xiii," Lond. 
1670, 4to. 5. u Archimedis Opera, Apollonii Conicoruin 
libri iv. Theodosii Sphericorumlib. iii. ; nova methodo il- 
lustrata, et succincte demonstrata," Lond. 1675, 4to. The 
following were published after his decease, viz. 6. " Lectio, 
in qua theoremata Archimedis de sphoera et cylindro per 
methodum indivisibilium investigate, ac breviter investi- 
gate, exhibentur," Lond. 1678, 12mo. 7. " Mathematical 
Lectiones habitae in scholis publicis academiae Cantabri- 
giensis, an. 1664,. 5, 6, &c." Lond. 1683. 8. All his En- 
glish works in 3 volumes, Lond. 1683, folio. — These are 
all theological, and were published by Dr. John Tillotson. 
9. " Isaaci Barrow Opuscula, viz. Determinationes, Cond- 
ones ad Clerum, Orationes, Poemata, &c. volumen quar- 
tum," Lond. 1687, folio. Dr. Barrow left also several cu- 
rious papers on mathematical subjects, written in bis own 
hand, which were communicated by Mr. Jones to the au- 
thor of " The Lives of the Gresham Professors," a parti- 
cular account of which may be seen in that book, in the 
life of Barrow. Several of his works have been translated 
into English, and published ; as the Elements and Data of 
Euclid ; the Geometrical Lectures, the Mathematical Lec- 
tures. And accounts of some of them were also given in 
several volumes of the Philos. Trans. 


Dr. Barrow must ever be esteemed, in all the subjects 
which exercised his pen, a person of the clearest percep- 
tion, the finest fancy, the soundest judgment, the pro- 
foundest thought, and the closest and most nervous rea- 
soning. u The name of Dr. Barrow (says the learned Mr. 
Granger) will ever be illustrious for a strength of mind and 
a compass of knowledge that did honour to his country. 
He was unrivalled in mathematical learning, and especially 
in the sublime geometry ; in which he has been excelled 
only by his successor Newton. The same genius that 
seemed to be born only to bring hidden truths to light, and 
to rise to the heights or descend to the depths of science, 
would sometimes amuse itself in the flowery paths of poe- 
try, and He composed verses both in Greek and Latin.'* 

Several good anecdotes are told of Barrow, as well of 
his great integrity, as of his wit, and bold intrepid spirit 
and strength of body. His early attachment to fighting 
when a boy is some indication of the latter ; to which may 
be added the two following anecdotes : in his voyage be- 
tween Leghorn and Smyrna, already noticed, the ship was. 
attacked by an Algerine pirate, which after a stout resist- 
ance they compelled to sheer off, Barrow keeping his post 
at the gun assigned him to the last. And when Dr. Pope 
in their conversation asked him, " Why he did not go 
down into the hold, and leave the defence of the ship' to 
those, to whom it did belong ?" He replied, " It con- 
cerned no man more than myself: I would rather have lost 
my life, than to have fallen into the hands of those mer- 
ciless infidels.'* 

There is another anecdote told of him, which shewed 
not only his intrepidity, but an uncommon goodness of dis- 
position, in circumstances where an ordinary share of it 
would have been probably extinguished. Being once on a 
visit at a gentleman's house in the country, where the ne- 
cessary was at the end of a long garden, and consequently 
at a great distance from the room where he lodged; as he 
was going to it before day, for he was a very early riser, a 
fierce mastiff, that used to be chained up all day, and let 
loose at night for the security of the house, perceiving a 
strange person in the garden at that unusual time, set upon 
him with great fury. The doctor caught him by the 
throat, grappled with him, and, throwing him down, lay 
upon him : once he had a mind to kill him; but he altered 
bis resolution, on recollecting that this would be unjust, 


since the dog did only his duty, and he himself was in 
fault for rambling out of his room before it was light. At 
length he called out so loud, that he was heard by some of 
the family, who came presently out, and freed the doctor 
and the dog from the danger they both had been in. 

Among other instances of his wit and vivacity, they .re- 
late the following rencontre between him and the profligate 
lord Rochester. These two meeting <5ne day at court, 
while the doctor was king's chaplain in ordinary, Roches- 
ter, thinking to banter him, with a flippant air, and a low 
formal bow, accosted him with, " Doctor, 1 am yours to 
my shoe-tie :" Barrow perceiving his drift, returned the 
salute, with, " My lord, I am yours to the ground." Ro- 
chester, on this, improving his blow, quickly returned it, 
with, " Doctor, I £m yours to the centre ;" which was as 
smartly followed up by Barrow, with, " My lord, I am 
yours to the antipodes." Upon which, Rochester, dis- 
daining to be foiled by a musty old piece of divinity, as he 
used to call him, exclaimed, " Doctor,- 1 am yours to the 
lowest pit of hell ;" upon which Barrow, turning upon his 
heel, with a sarcastic smile, archly replied, " There, my 
lord, I leave you." 

Dr. Barrow's sermons are yet admired for the style and 
moral sentiment. Yet in him, says Dr. Blair, one admires 
more the prodigious fecundity of his invention, and the 
uncommon strength and force of his conceptions, than the 
felicity of his execution, or his talent in composition. We 
see a genius far surpassing the common, ^peculiar, indeed, 
almost to himself; but that genius often shooting wild, and 
unchastised by any discipline or study «of eloquence. His 
style is unequal, incorrect, and redundant, but uncom- 
monly distinguished for force and expressiveness. On 
every subject, he multiplies words with an overflowing co- 
piousness, but it is always a torrent of strong ideas and 
significant expressions which he pours forth. ! 

BARRY (George), D. D. a clergyman of Scotland, was 
born, in 1 748, in the county of Berwick. He was educated 
in the university of Edinburgh, and for a short time was 
employed as private tutor to the sons of some gentlemen 
in Orkney, by whose patronage he became second mi- 
nister of the royal burgh and ancient cathedral of Kirkwall ; 

> l Biog. Brit. — Pope's. Life of Seth Ward.— Ward's Gresham Professors.— r 
Blair's Lectures. — Birch's Life of TJllotson, p. 53. 105.— Granger's Biog. Hi** 
tory, and Granger's Letters, p. 407. 


from whence, about 1796, he was translated to the island 
and parish of Shapinshay. Here he discharged the duties 
of the pastoral office with zeal, and the approbation of his 
parishioners. He first attracted public notice by the statisti- 
cal account of his two parishes, published by sir;, John Sin^ 
clair in that work (" Statistical Reports"), which has done 
so much credit to the talents of the clergy of Scotland* 
Dr. Barry had also great merit in the education of youth, 
which he superintended in his parish and its neighbourhood 
with the happiest effect. Sensible of his zeal in this re- 
spect, the society for propagating Christian knowledge in 
Scotland, about the year 1800, chose him one of their 
members, and gave him' a superintendence over their 
schools at Orkney. Soon after the university of Edinburgh 
conferred on him the degree of doctor in. divinity. For 
some years before his death, he was employed in drawing 
tip a work of great value and authenticity, entitled " The 
History of the Orkney Islands ; in which is comprehended 
an account of their present as well as their ancient state, 
&c." 4to. This was published a short time after his death, 
which took place May 14, 1805. * 

BARRY (Girald), usually called Giraldus Cambren- 
sis, or Girald of Wales, was born at the castle of Maina- 
per, near Pembroke, in 1 146. By his mother he was de- 
scended from the princes of South Wales ; and his father, 
William Barry, was one of the chief men of that princi- 
pality. Being a younger brother, and intended for the 
church, he was sent to St. David's, and educated in the 
family of the bishop of that see, who was his uncle. He 
acknowledges in his history of his own life and actions, 
that in his early youth he was too negligent and playful ; 
but his uncle and his masters remonstrated with him so 
sharply, that he became diligent, and soon excelled his 
school-fellows. When about twenty years of age, he was 
sent to the university of Paris, where he continued for 
three years, acquiring great fame by his skill in rhetoric, 
and on his return he entered into holy orders, and ob- 
tained several benefices in England and Wales. Finding 
that the Welch were very reluctant in paying tithes of 
wool and cheese, he applied to Richard, archbishop of 
Canterbury, and was appointed his legate in Wales for 
rectifying that disorder, and for other purposes. He exe-» 

i Gent. Mag. rol. LX£V. 

» A H a Y. 49 

cuted this commission with great spirit, excommunicating 
all without distinction, who neglected to pay. He also. 
informed against the, old archdeacon of Brechin for being 
married, and procured bim to be deprived of his arch-* 
deaconry, which was bestowed on this officious legate. In 
otherwise discharging the duties of this new office, he 
acted with great vigour, which involved bim in many quar* 
rels ; but, according to his own account, he was always in 
tbe right, and always victorious. On bis uncle's death, 
be was elected by the chapter of St David's, bishop of 
that see', but he declined, accepting it, owing to the infor- 
mality of not applyihg to the king for his licence, although 
in reality he knew that the king, Henry II. would never 
have confirmed such an election, and did in fact express 
his displeasure at it, in consequence of which another per* 
son was chosen. Girald, however, was not reconciled to 
the disappointment, and determined to get rid of his cha- 
grin by travelling, and studying for some time longer at 
Paris. Here he pursued the civil and canon law, and with 
his usual vanity be boasts what a prodigious fam# he ac-» 
quired, especially in the knowledge of papal constitutions, 
or decretals, as they are called. In 1179, he was elected 
professor of the canon law in the university of Paris; but 
rejected the honour, expecting more solid advantages in 
his own country. In 11 SO, he returned home through 
Flanders and England, and in bis way stopped at Canter- 
bury, where he emphatically describes (what may be well 
allowed him) the great luxury of the monks of tjjat place. 
At length he got home, where be found the whole country 
in a flame, the canons and archdeacons of Menevia having 
joined with the inhabitants in driving out the bishop of 
that see, the administration of which was committed to our * 
author, by the archbishop of Canterbury. Under this au~ 
thority he governed the see of St. David's for three or four 
years, and made wouderful reformations in it. The abdi- 
cated bishop, whose name was Peter, did not acquiesce in 
the conduct of his clergy, but by letters suspended and 
excommunicated the canons and archdeacons, uncited and 
unheard : and at length, Girald, not having power to re- 
dress them, resigned his charge to tbe archbishop, who 
absolved the excommunicated. Bishop Peter imputed his, 
disgrace, or at least the continuance of- it, to Girald ; great 
contests arose, and appeals were made to Rome : but at 
length they . were reconciled, and the. bishop restored. 
Vol. IV. E 

50 BARRY, 

About the year 1184, king Henry II. invited Girald to 
court, and made him his chaplain, and at times he at- 
tended the king for several years, and was very useful to 
him in keeping matters quiet in Wales. Yet though the 
king approved of his services, and in private often com- 
mended his prudence and fidelity, he never could be 
prevailed on to promote him to any ecclesiastical bene- 
fices, on account of the relation he bojre to prince Rhees, 
and other grandees of Wales. In 1 185, the king sent him 
to Ireland with his son John, in quality of secretary and 
privy-counsellor to the young prince: but the expedition! 
did not meet with success, because earl John made use 
only of youthful counsels, and shewed no favour to the 
old adventurers, who were men experienced in the affairs 
of Ireland. While Girald thus employed himself in Ire- 
land, the two bishoprics of Ferns and Leighlin fell va- 
cant, which earl John offered to unite, and confer on him ; 
but he rejected the promotion, and employed himself in 
collecting materials for writing his Topography and history 
of the conquest of Ireland, which he compiled and pub- 
lished a few years after. In the spring of the year 1 186, 
John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin, convened a synod of 
his clergy, in Christ-church of that city, at which Girald 
was one of the preachers/ but by the account of it in his 
life, it appears to have been a turbulent assembly. Hav- 
ing obtained great fame in Ireland, as he tells us himself, 
between Easter and Whitsuntide 1187, he returned to 
Wales, and employed all his time in writing and revising 
his Topography, to which, when he had put the last hand, 
he took a journey to Oxford, and repeated it in a public 
audience of the university ; and as it consisted of three 
distinctions, he repeated one every day of three succes- 
sively; and in order to captivate the people, and secure 
their applause, the first day he entertained all the poor of 
the town, the next day the doctors and scholars of fame 
and reputation, and the third day the scholars of the 
lower rank, the soldiers, townsmen, and burgesses. In 
the year 1188, he accompanied Baldwin, archbishop of 
Canterbury, in a journey through the rough and moun- 
tainous parts of Wales, in order to preach up to the 
people the necessity of taking the cross, and engaging 
in an expedition in defence of the Holy Land. Here our 
author shews the vast success his eloquence met with, in 
persuadipg the greatest part of the country to engage in 

BARRY. .51 

this adventure, when the archbishop was able to do no- 
thing. Girald himself took the cross at this time, and it 
afforded him the opportunity of writing his " Itinerarium 
Cambriae" The same' year he went over into France, 
in the retinue of king Henry II, which he did by the ad- 
vice of the archbishop of Canterbury, and Ranulph de „ 
Glanville, chief-justice of England; but the king dying 
the year after, he was sent back by Richard I. to preserve 
the peace of Wales, and was even joined with the bishop 
of Elyj as one of the regents of the kingdom. After re- 
fusing one or two bishoprics, in hopes to succeed to St. 
David's, which was his favourite object, this latter became 
vacant in 1198, and he was unanimously elected by the 
chapter. Yet here again he was disappointed, owing to 
the opposition of Hubert archbishop of Canterbury, and 
was involved in a contest, which lasted five years, during 
which he took three journies to Rome, and was at last 
defeated. Soon after this, he retired from the world, and 
spent the last seventeen years of his life in study, com- 
posing many of his writings. He was unquestionably a 
man of genius and learning, but as a historian, full of 
credulity and fable ; and as a man, one of the most vain 
upon record. Ware, and the editor of the Biog. Britan- 
nica, havu given a long list of hh manuscript works, which 
are in the Cotton and Harleian libraries in the British 
museum, the archbishop's library at Lambeth, the 
Bodleian, Oxford, and the public library and Bene't col- 
lege library, Cambridge. Those printed are: 1. " To- 
pographia Hibernioe," Francfort, 1602, and in Holin- - 
•shed. 2. " Historia Vaticinalis, de expugnatione Hi- 
bernian" Francfort, 1602, both published by Camden. 
3. " Itinerarium Cambriae," published with annotations 
by David Powel, 1585, 8vo. 4. " De laudibus Cam- 
bronim," also published by Powel. 5. " Gemma Ec- 
clesiastica," Mentz, 1549, under the title of " Gem- 
ma animae," without the author's name. 6. u Liber se- 
cundus de descriptione WallieeV*— published by Wharton, 
in An glia Sacra, part II. p, 447. Camden every where 
quotes Girald us as an author of undoubted credit and 

In 1806, sir* Richard Colt Hoare, bart. published in two 
splendid quarto volumes, " The Itinerary of archbishop 
Baldwin through Wales, A. D. 1.188, by Giraldus de 
Barri; translated into English, and illustrated with views, 

£ 2 

£2 BARRY. 

annotations, and a life of Giraldus." In this life, an ele- 
gant and elaborate composition, although the facts are not 
materially different from the preceding, yet the colouring 
is pore highly favourable, and we refer with pleasure to 
it as a memoir in which the curiosity of the aptiquary 
will be amply gratified. Sir Richard thus briefly sums 
up the character of Girald : " Noble in his birtb, and 
comely in his person ; mild in his manners, and affable 
in bis conversation ; zealous, active, and undaunted in 
.maintaining the rights and dignities of his church ; moral 
in his character, and orthodox in his principles; charitable 
and disinterested, though ambitious ; learned, though su- 
perstitious. Such was Giraldus. And in whatever point 
of view we examine the character of this extraordinary 
man, whether as a scholar, a patriot, or a divine, we may 
justly consider him as one of the brightest luminaries that 
adorned the annals of the twelfth century." l 

BARRY (James), lord Santry, descended from a Welch 
family, was the son of a merchant in Dublin, and edu- 
cated in the profession of the law. When admitted at the 
bar, he practised for some years with great reputation and 
success. In 1629, the king conferred upon him the office 
of his majesty's serjeant at law, for the kingdom of Ireland* 
at a yearly fee of twenty pounds ten shillings sterling, and 
in as full a manner as the same office was granted before 
to sir John Brereton, knt. ; and lord Wentworth, after- 
wards earl of Strafford and lord deputy of Ireland, soon 
discovered his abilities, took him under his protection, 
and laid hold of the first opportunity he had to promote 
him. Accordingly, on the 5th of August 1634, he ob- 
tained a grant of the office of second baron of the ex- 
chequer of Ireland, to hold during pleasure, with such 
fees, rewards, and profits, as sir Robert Oglethorpe, sir 
Lawrence Parsons* sir Gerard Lowther, or any other se- 
cond baron, did or ought to receive ; and he soon after 
received the honour of knighthood. He obtained this fa- 
vour, notwithstanding a powerful recommendation from 
England in behalf of another ; and it was. merely the fruit 
of the lord Wentworth's friendship, of which he had oc- 
casion, soon after, of making a public acknowledgement. 
After the year 1640, when the parliament of Ireland were 

1 Leiand.— Tanner and Bale.-^Biog. Brit— Henry's Hist, of Great Britain, 
9«1. VI.— Nicolion'* Historical Library.— Cave, vol. II.— fcaxii Onooaasticon* 

B A R R r. M 

about to send over a committee of their body to England, 
to impeach the earl of Strafford, he joined all his weight 
and interest with sir James Ware, and other members of 
the house of commons, to oppose those measures; though 
the torrent was so violent, that it was fruitless, nor do we 
hear much of our baron during the long course of the re-* 
bellion, till a little before the restoration of king Charles H+ 
in the year 1660, when he was appointed chairman of the 
convention, which voted his majesty's restoration without 
any -previous conditions, in which resolution, no doubt,, he 
was instrumental, since we find His majesty took his merit 
into consideration a very short time after. For on the 
17th of November that year, the king issued a privy seal 
for advancing him .to the office of chief-justice in the king's 
bench in Ireland, and another on the 18th of December 
following, in consideration of his eminent fidelity and 
zeal shewn in his majesty's service, for creating him lord 
baron of Santry, in the kingdom of Ireland, to him and the 
heirs male of his body '; and he was soon after called to 
the privy council. He died in March 1672, and was bu- 
ried in Christ church, Dublin. His only publication wasj 
" The case of Tenures upon the. commission of defective 
titles, argued by all the judges of Ireland, with the reso* 
lution, and reasons of their resolution," Dublin, 1637, 
fol. ; and 1725, 12njio, dedicated to his patron, lord 
Strafford. * 

BARRY (James), an English artist of considerable 
fame, was the eldest son of John Barry and Julian Roerv 
den, and was born in Cork, Oct 11, 1741. His father 
was a builder, and in the latter part of his life a coasting 
trader between England and Ireland. James was at first 
destined to this last business, but as he disliked it, his 
father suffered bim to pursue his inclination, which led 
him to drawing and reading. His early education he re* 
ceived in the schools at Cork, where he betrayed some 
symptoms of that peculiar frame of mind which became 
more conspicuous in his maturer years. His studies were 
desultory, directed by no regular plan, yet he aqcumu*- 
lated a considerable stock of knowledge. As his mother 
was a zealous Roman Catholic, he fell into the company 
of some priests, who recommended the study of polemical 
divinity, and probably all of one class, for this ended in 
bis becoming a staunch Roman Catholic. 


1 Biof. Brit. 

54 BARRY. • - 

Although the rude beginnings of his art cannot be traCecl, 
there is reason to think that at the age of seventeen he 
bad attempted oil-painting, and between the ages of se- 
venteen and twenty-two he executed a picture, the subject 
" St. Patrick landing on the sea-coast of Cashell," which 
he exhibited in Dublin. This procured htm some repu- 
tation, and, what was afterwards of much importance, 
the acquaintance of the illustrious Edmund Burke. During 
his stay in Dublin, he probably continued to cultivate his 
art, but no particular work can now be discovered. After 
a, residence of seven or eight months in Dublin, an oppor- 
tunity offered of accompanying some part of Mr. Burke's 
family to London, which he eagerly embraced. This took 
place in 1764, and on his arrival, Mr. Burke recommended 
nim to his friends, and procured for him his first employ- 
ment, that of copying in oil drawings by the Athenian - 
Stuart. In 1765, Mr. Burke and his other friends fur- 
nished him with the means of visiting Italy, where he 
surveyed the noble monuments of art then in that country, 
with the eye of an acute, and often very just critic, but 
where, at the same time, his residence was rendered un- 
comfortable by those utohappy irregularities of temper, 
which, more or less, obscured all his prospects in life. 

After an absence of five years, mostly spent at Rome, 
he arrived in England in 1771, and claimed the admira- 
tion of the public, not unsuccessfully, by his " Venus" 
•and his " Jupiter and Juno," the former one of his best 
pictures. In his " Death of Wolfe," he failed, princi- 
pally from his introducing naked figures, and he was 
obliged to yield, somewhat reluctantly, to the more po- 
pular picture of Mr. West. This " Death of Wolfe," which 
he painted in 1776, was the last he exhibited at the royal 
academy. About 1774, he conceived an aversion to por- 
trait-painting, from a dread of being confined to the 
modern costume of dress, which certainly at that time was 
far less graceful, and less correspondent with the human 
figure, than at present. It is well known, however, that 
he violated his own principles in some of the figures in- 
troduced in his great work in the society's rooms in the 
Adelphi, when he was under no kind 'of constraint; but 
this difference between theory and practice was in many 
instances remarkable in Barry. 

When a design was formed of decorating St. Paul's ca» 
^thedral with the works of our most eminent painters and 

BARRY. 55 

sculptors, Barry was to have been employed, and his sub- 
ject was " The Jews rejecting Christ, when Pilate entreats 
his release," but the scheme was discouraged, and its 
probable success can now be only a subject of speculation. 
In 1775, he appeared as an author, in a publication en- 
titled, an " Inquiry into the real and imaginary obstruc- 
tions to the acquisition of the arts in England," in answer 
to Winckleman. In this treatise there are some fanciful 
opinions, but upon the whole it is the best and most dis- 
passionate of all the productions of his pen, and a masterly 
defence of the capabilities of English artists under proper 
encouragement; and it contains many just remarks on 
that state of public taste which is favourable to the per- 
fection of the art. The same train of ideas has been since 
pursued by Mr. Shee, in his poetical works; an artist, 
whose productions of the pencil, great and superior as 
they are, suggest a doubt whether if he bad been a writer, 
and only a writer, he would not have been the first man of 
his age, in the philosophy of the art, in exquisite fancy 
and taste, and that variety of imagery and illustration 
which belongs only to poets of the higher class. 

After the scheme of decorating* St. Paul's had been given 
up, it was proposed to employ the same artists in deco- 
rating the great room in the Adelphi, belonging to the 
society of arts, but this was refused by the artists them- 
selves, probably because they were to be remunerated in 
equal shares, by an exhibition of the pictures. We can- 
not much wonder at their declining a scheme, which pro- 
mised to reduce them to this kind of level, and would 
indeed imply an equality in every other respect. Three 
years afterwards, -however, in 1777, Mr. Barry undertook 
the whole, and his offer was accepted. It would have 
been singular, indeed, if such an offer had been rejected, 
as his labour was to be gratuitous. He has been heard to 
say, that at the time of his undertaking this work, he had 
only sixteen shillings in his pocket ; and that in the pro- 
secution of bis labour, he was often after painting all day 
obliged to sketch or engrave at night some design for the 
prim-sellers, which was to supply him with the means of 
his frugal subsistence. He has recorded some of his prints 
as done at this time, such as his Job, dedicated to Mr. 
Burke ; birth of Venus ; Polemon ; head of lord Chat* 
bam ; king Lear, &c. 

56 BARRY. 

Of his terms with the society, we know only that the 
choice of subjects was .allowed him, and the society was 
to defray the expence of canvas, colours, and models. 
In the course of his labours, however, he found that he 
bad been somewhat too disinterested, and wrote a letter to 
sir George Saville, soliciting such a subscription among 
the friends of the society as might amount to 100/. a year. 
He computed that he should finish the whole in two years, 
and pay back the 200/. to the subscribers by means of an 
exhibition ; but he very candidly added, that if the ex- 
hibition should produce nothing, the subscribers would 
lose their money. This subscription did not take effect* 
and the work employed him seven years ; at the end of 
which, the society granted him two exhibitions, and at 
different periods voted him fifty guineas, their gold medal, 
and again 200 guineas, and a seat among them. Of this 
£reat undertaking, a series of six pictures, representing 
the progress of society, and civilization among mankind, 
it has been said " that it surpasses any work which has 
been executed within these two centuries, and considering 
the difficulties with which the artist had to struggle, any 
that is now extant." As the production of one man, it is 
undoubtedly entitled to high praise, but it has ail Barry's 
defects in drawing and colouring, defects the more re* 
maskable, because in his printed correspondence and lee* 
tures, his theory on these subjects is accurate and unex- 
ceptionable. These pictures were afterwards engraved, 
but what they, produced is not known. In 1792, however, 
be deposited 700/. in the funds, and to this wealth he 
never afterwards made any great addition, for he never 
possessed more than 60/. a year from the funds, a sum 
barely sufficient to pay the rent and other charges of his 
house, but as his domestic ceconomy was of. the meanest 
kind, this sum was probably not insufficient. 

In 1782, he was elected professor of painting, in room 
of Mr. Penny, but did not lecture until 1784. His lee- 
.tures, now printed, are unquestionably among the best of 
his writings. • He had long meditated an extensive design,, 
that of painting the progress of theology, or, " to deli- 
neate the growth of that state of mind which connects man 
with his Creator, and to represent the misty medium of 
connection which the Pagan world bad with their false 
Cods, and the union of Jews and Christians with their 

BARRY. 61 

true God, by means of revelation/' At the time of his 
death, he was employed on etchings or designs for this 
purpose, but made no great progress. In the mean time 
he published his " Letter to the Dilettanti," a work which 
his biographer justly characterises as not quite so tranquil 
or praise- worthy. 

The appointment of professor of painting* honourable 
as it was, and the duties of which he might have discharged 
with reputation to himself, became in his hands the source 
of misfortune and disgrace. Original, and in many re- 
spects extremely singular in his opinions, he proposed 
changes and innovations which could not consistently be 
complied with, and by these means he often subjected 
himself to the pain of a refusal. His great object was, to 
appropriate a fund, accumulated from the receipts of ex- 
hibitions, to form a gallery of the old masters, for the use 
of the pupils. In this, and in many other efforts which he 
made with the same view, he entirely failed ; so that, by 
continual opposition, he at length rendered himself so 
obnoxious to the jealousy of his brethren, that early in 
March 1799, a body of charges was received by the council 
at the royal academy, against the professor of painting ; 
upon which the following resolution was passed, " that the 
charges and information were sufficiently important to be 
laid before the whol$ body of academicians to be ex- 
amined ; and if they coincide in opinion, the heads of 
those charges to be then communicated to the professor 
of painting." This was intimated t6 Mr. Barry, by order 
of the council. On the 19th of March, the academy re- 
ceived the minutes of the council respecting the charges, 
and referred them to a committee elected for the purpose. 
The academy met again the 1 5th of April, to Teceive the 
report of the committee, when Mr. Barry arose, and de- 
manded to be furnished with a copy of the report. This 
being denied, h6 protested against the injustice of the 
whole proceeding, and withdrew, declaring in plain terms, 
that " if they acted in conjunction with his enemies, with- 
out giving him the opportunity of answering for himself, 
and refuting the charges alleged against him, he should 
be ashamed to belong to the academy." Having with- 
drawn, Mr. Barry was removed by a vote from the pro- 
fessor's ch^ir, and by a subsequent vote, expelled the 
academy. The whole proceedings were then laid before 
his majesty, who was pleased to approve them, and Mr. 

$8 BARRY. 

.Barry's name was accordingly struck off from the roll of 

Soon after this event, the earl of Buchan set on foot a 
subscription, which amounted to about 1000/. with which 
his friends purchased an annuity for his life ; but his death 
prevented his reaping any benefit from this design. The 
.manner of his death is thus related by his biographer : 
4< On the evening of Thurday, Feb. 6, 1806, he was seized 
as he entered the house where he usually dined, with the 
cold fit of a pleuritic fever, of so intense a degree, that 
all his (acuities were suspended, and he unable to arti- 
culate or move. Some cordial was administered to him, 
and on his coming a little to lumself, he was taken in a 
coach to the dopr of his owu house, which, the keyhole 
being plugged with dirt and pebbles, aa had been often 
done before, by the malice, or perhaps the roguery of 
boys in the neighbourhood, it was impossible to open. 
'The night being dark, and he shivering under the pro- 
gress vi his disease, his* friends thought it advisable to 
drive away without loss of time to the hospitable mansion 
of Mr. Bononni. By the kindness of that good family, a 
bed was procured in a neighbouring house, to which he 
was immediately conveyed. Here he desired to be left, 
and locjked himself up, unfortunately, for forty hours, 
without the least medical assistance. What took place in 
•the jmean time, he could give but little account of, as he 
represented himself to be delirious, and only recollected 
his being tortured with a burning pain in his side, and with 
difficulty of breathing. In this short time was the death- 
blow given, which, by the prompt and timely aid of copious 
bleedings, might have been averted ; but without this aid, 
such had been the re-action of the hot fit succeeding the 
rigours, and the violence of the inflammation on the pleura, 
that an elusion of lymph bad taken place, as appeared 
afterwards upon dissection. In the afternoon of Saturday, 
Feb. 8; he rose and crawled forth to relate his complaint 
to the writer of this account. He was pale, breathless, 
and tottering, as he entered the room, with a dull pain in 
his side, a cough short and incessant, and a pulse quick 
and feeble. Succeeding remedies proved of little avail. 
With exacerbations and remissions of fever, he lingered 
to the 22d of February, when he expired." His remains, 
after lying in state in the great room of the society of arts, 
Adelphi, was interred in St. Paul's cathedral,, with dug 

BARRY- 59 

solemnity, and the attendance of many of his friends aud 
admirers, among whom was not one artist. 

For Barry's character we may refer to an elaborate 
article by his biographer. To us it appears that with un- 
questionable talents, original genius, and strong enthu- 
siasm for his art, he was never able to accomplish what he 
projected, or to practise all that he professed. Few men 
appear to have had more correct notions of the principles 
of art, or to have departed more frequently from them. 
His ambition during life was to excel no less as a literary 
theorist, than as a practical artist, and it must be allowed 
that in both characters he has left specimens sufficient to 
rank him very high in the English school. Where be has 
failed in either, we should be inclined to attribute it to 
the peculiar frame of his mind, which, in his early as 
well as mature years, appears to have been deficient in 
soundness : alternately agitated by conceit or flattery ; 
and irritated by contradiction, however gentle, and sus- 
picion, however groundless. This was still more striking 
to every one conversant in mental derangement, when he 
exhibited at last, that most common of all symptoms, a 
dread of plots and conspiracies. This went so far at one 
time, that when robbed, as he said, of a sum of money, 
he exculpated common thieves and housebreakers, and at- 
tributed the theft to his brother artists, jealous of his re*, 
putation ; yet the money was afterwards found where he 
had deposited it. The same unhappy malady may account 
for his many personal eccentricities of Conduct, over which 
a veil may now be thrown. Nor is it necessary to specify 
His literary publications, as they were all collected in two 
volumes 4to, published in 1809, under the title of " The 
Works of James Barry/ 9 with a life, from which the ' 
present sketch has been principally taken. l 

BARTAS (Wiluam D£ Salluste du), the son of a 
treasurer of France, was born in the year 1544, at Mon- 
fort in Armagnac, and not on the estate de Bartas, which 
is in the vicinity of that little town. Henry IV. whom he 
served with his sword, and whom hte celebrated in hig 
-verses, sent him on various commissions to England, Den- 
mark, and Scotland. He had the command of a company 
of cavalvy in Gascony, under the marechal de Matignon. 

1 Set also E'iw»rds*s Anecdote* of PainUm, and PUkinrton'i Diet. Edit* 

«d BARTA'S. 

Be was in religious profession a Calvinist, and died in 
1590 at the age of 46. The work that has most contri- 
buted to render his name famous, is the poem entitled 
u Commentary of the Week of the creation of the world,** 
in seven books; Pierre de l'Ostal, in a miserable copy of 
verses addressed to du Bartas, and prefixed to his poem, 
says that this book is " greater than the whole uni verse.' * 
This style of praise on the dullest of all versifiers, was 
adopted at the time, but has not descended to purs. The 
style of du Bartas is incorrect, quaint, and vulgar; hi* 
descriptions are given under the most disgusting images. 
In his figures, the head is the lodging of the understand- 
ing ; the eyes are two shining casements, or twin stars ; 
the nose, the gutter or the chimney ; the teeth, a double 
pallisade, serving as a mill to the open gullet ; the bands* 
the chambermaids of nature, the bailiffs of the mind, and 
the caterers of the body ; the bones, the posts, the beams, and 
the columns of this tabernacle of flesh. We have several 
Other works by the seigneur du Bartas. The most extra-r 
ordinary is a little poem, composed to greet the queen of 
Navarre on making her entry into Nerac. Three nymphs 
contend for the honour of saluting her majesty. The 
first delivers her compliments in Latin, the second in 
French, and the third in Cascon verses. Du Bartas, how- 
ever, though a bad poet, was a good man. Whenever 
the military service and his other occupations left any lei- 
sure time, he retired to the chateau de Bartas, far from 
the tumult of arms and business. He wished for nothing 
more than to be forgotten, in order that he might apply 
more closely to study, which he testifies at the conclusion 
of the third day of his week. Modesty and sincerity- 
formed the character of du Bartas, according to the ac- 
count of him by the president de Thou. " I know (says 
that famous historian) that some critics find his style ex- 
tremely figurative, bombastic, ami full of gasconades. For 
my part/* adds he, u who have long known the candour of 
his manners, and who have frequently discoursed with 
bim, when, during the civil wars, I travelled in Guienne 
with him, I can affirm that I never remarked any thing of 
the kind in the tenor of his behaviour ; and, notwithstand- 
ing his great reputation, he always spoke with singular mo- 
desty of himself and his works." His book of the " Week," 
whatever may now be thought of it, was attended with a. 
success not inferior to that of the best performances* 

B A R T A S. 61 

Within the space of five or six years, upwards of thirty 
editions were printed of it. It found in all places, com- 
mentators, abbreviators, translators, imitators, and adver- 
saries. His works were collected and printed in 1611, 
folio, at Paris, by Kigaud. His " Week," and other 
poems, were translated into English by Joshua Sylvester, 
1605, 4to, and have been frequently reprinted, although 
not of late years. * 

B ARTH (John), a native of Dunkirk, an eminent naval . 
hero, was thfc soil of an humble fisherman, and was born 
in 165"1. Before the year 1675, he was famous for a va- 
riety of acts no less singular than valiant, to particularize 
which would take up too much of our room. His courage 
having been signalised on a variety of occasions, he was 
appointed in 1692 to the command of a squadron consisting 
of seven frigates and a fire-ship. The harbour of Dun- 
kirk was then blocked up by thirty-two ships of war, 
English and Dutch. He found means to pass this fleet, 
and the next day took four English vessels, richly freighted, 
and bound for the port of Archangel. He then proceeded 
to set fire to eighty-six sail of merchant ships of various 
burdens. He next made a descent on the coast of Eng- 
land, near Newcastle, where he burnt two hundred houses, 
and brought into Dunkirk prizes'to the amount of 500,000 
crowns. About the close of the same year, 1692, being 
on a cruise to the north with three men of war, Ije fell in 
with a Dutch fleet of merchant ships loaded with corn, 
tinder convoy of three ships of war ; Barth attacked them* 
captured one of them, after having put the others to flight, , ' 
which he then chased, and made himself master of sixteen 
of their number. In 1693, he had the command of the 
Glorieux, of sixty-six guns, to join the naval armament 
commanded by Tourville, which surprised the fleet of 
Smyrna. Barth, being separated from the rest of the 
fleet by a storm, had the fortune to fall in with six Dutch 
vessels, near to Foro, all richly laden ; some of these he 
biirnt, and drove the rest ashore. This active and inde-* 
fatigable seaman set sail a few months afterwards with six 
ineu of war, for convoying to France, from the port of 
Velker, a fleet loaded with corn, and conducted it suc- 
cessfully into Dunkirk, though the English and the Dutch 

1 Gen. Diet, in Sal lust. — Moreri. — Diet HUt.— For an account of the English 
♦dkioot, «ee Gent. Mag. LXX. p. 950. 

62 BARTH, 

had sent three ships of the. line to intercept it. In tfrer 
spring of 1694 he sailed with the same ships, in order to 
return to Velker to intercept a fleet loaded with com. 
This fleet had already left the port, to the number of a 
hundred sail and upwards, under escort of three Danish 
and Swedish ships. It was met between the Texel and 
the Vlee, by the vice-admiral of Friesland. Hidde, who 
commanded a squadron composed of eight ships of war, 
had already taken possession of the fleet. But on the 
morrow, Barth came up with him at the height of the 
Texel; and, though inferior in numbers and weight of 
metal, retook all the prizes, with the vice-admiral, and 
two other ships. This brilliant action procured him a 
patent of nobility. Two years afterwards, in J 696, Barth 
occasioned again a considerable loss to the Dutch, by cap- 
turing a part of their fleet, which he met at about six 
leagues from the Vlee. His squadron consisted of eight 
vessels of war, and several privateers ; and the Dutch fleet 
of two hundred sail of merchant ships, escorted by a num- 
ber of frigates. Barth attacked it with vigour, and boarding 
the commander himself, took thirty merchant ships and 
' four of the convoy, suffering only a trifling loss. He wasj 
however, unable to complete his triumph. Meeting almost 
immediately with twelve Dutch men of war, convoying a 
fleet to the north, he was obliged to set fire to his prizes, 
to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, and 
himself escaped only by being in a fast. sailing ship: 
This celebrated mariner died at Dunkirk the 27th of April 
1702, of a pleurisy, at the age of 51. Without patrons, 
and without any thing to trust to but himself, he became 
chef d'escadre, after having passed through the sevfcral 
inferior ranks. He was tall in stature, robust, well made, 
though of a rough and clumsy figure. He could neither 
write nor read ; having only learnt to subscribe his name; 
He spoke little, and incorrectly ; ignorant of the manners 
of polite companies, he expressed and conducted himself 
#n all occasions like a sailor. When the chevalier de 
Forbin brought him to court in 1691, the wits of Versailles 
said to one another : " Come, let us go and see the che** - 
valier de Forbin with his led-bear." In order to be very 
fine on that occasion, he appeared in a pair of breeches 
pf gold tissue, lined with silver tissue ; and, on coming 
away, he complained that his court-dress had scrubbed 
him so that he was almost flaved. Louis XIV. having or- 

BARTH. «$ 

• <* 

dered him into bis presence, said to him : " John Barth, 
I have just now appointed you chef-d'escadre."— * i You 
have done very well, sir," returned the sailor. This 
answer having occasioned a burst of laughter among the 
courtiers, Louis XIV. took it in another manner. " You 
are mistaken, gentlemen," said he, " on the meaning of the 
answer of John Barth ; it is that of a man who knows his 
own value, and intends to give me fresh proofs of it." 
Barth, in fact, was nobody, except when on board his 
ship ; and there he was more fitted for a bold action than 
for any project of much extent. In 1780, a life of this 
celebrated commander was published in 2 vols. 12 mo, at 
Paris. l 

BARTHELEMl (John James), an eminent French wri- 
ter, was born at Cassis, a sea-port in Provence, the 20th 
Jan. 1716. His family had been long established at Au- 
bagne, in that neighbourhood, where it had been univer- 
sally respected. His mother, the daughter of e merchant 
at Cassis, he lost at the age of four years. When he ar- 
rived at the age of twelve years, he was sent to school at 
Marseilles, whence he was transferred to the seminary of 
the Jesuits, where he received the tonsure. White with 
the Jesuits, he formed a plan of study for himself, inde- 
pendent of the professors of the college, and applied with 
unwholesome sedulity to the study of Greek, Hebrew, 
Chaldean, and Syriac, by which he for some time lost his 
health, and nearly his life. At the beginning of this ar- 
duous course of study, he became acquainted with a young 
Maronite, who had been educated at Rome, but was then 
resident at Marseilles, from whom he acquired a funda- 
mental knowledge of the Arabic language, and learned to 
speak it with facility. By the advice of this person he 
committed to memory several Arabic sermons, which he 
delivered to a congregation of Arabian and Armenian Ca- 
tholics, who were ignorant of the French language* 

At the outset of these pursuits, when he was about twen- 
ty-one years of age, some merchants of Marseilles came to ' 
him with a kind of beggar, who had made his appearance 
on 'change, giving himself out for a Jewish rabbi, learned 
but distressed, and who boldly challenged to have his pre- 
tensions investigated by some Oriental scholar. Our author 
endeavoured to evade the task, by representing, that his 

1 Morcri.— Oict Hist. % . . 



mode of study could at most enable him to read/ but not 
at all to converse in the dialects of the East ; but there was 
no resisting. The Jew began to repeat the first Psalm in 
Hebrew. Our author recognized it, stopped him at the 
end of the first verse, and addressed him with one of the 
colloquial phrases from his Arabic Grammar. The Jew 
then repeated * the second verse, and our author another 
phrase ; and so on to the end of the Psalm, which com- 
prised the whole scriptural knowledge of the rabbi. Our 
author closed the conference with another sentence in Ara- 
bic, and, with more good nature than strict propriety, said, 
that he saw no reason to intercept the intended charity of 
the merchants. The Jew, delighted beyond expectation, 
declared, that he had travelled over Turkey and Egypt, 
but had no where met with the equal of this young theolo- 
gian ; who acquired prodigious honour by this ridiculous 
adventure. In vain he endeavoured to tell the story fairly ; 
every one chose the marvellous colouring \ he was extolled  
as a prodigy ; and his reputation established at Marseilles, 

Having finished his academical studies, he retired to 
Aubagne, where he resided some time, but often visit- 
ing Marseilles, and those persons with whom he had been 
connected there. Among these were Mr. Cary, a collector 
of medals, and Pere Segaloux of the convent of Minims, 
with whom he studied astronomy. 

In 1744 he went to Paris, carrying a letter with. him to 
Mons. de Boze, keeper of the royal medals, a learned man, 
whose age and infirmities predisposing bim to retire from 
labour, he selected our author as an associate in the care 
and arrangement of the cabinet, and his appointment was 
confirmed by Mons. de Maurepas, minister of that depart- 
ment. Our author lost no time in arranging in perfect 
order the large and valuable collection of Mons. D'Etrees 
and the abbe Kothelin, which had remained in a very con- 
fused state. These he separated, compared, and described 
in a supplementary catalogue. At this time his career in 
these pursuits was threatened with an interruption. Hi* 
friend and countryman, Mons. de Bausset, bad engaged to 
promote him in the church, and being now bishop of Be- 
ziers, invited him to accept the office of vicar-general. 
Having promised to follow the fortunes of his friend, our 
author h^d no intention of retracting his engagement; but 
wishing to be released from it, he submitted his thoughts 
on the subject to the' bishop, who with great kindness dis- 


charged him from the obligations he held himself under, 
and left him to follow the bent of his inclinations. In 
1747 he was elected associate of the academy of inscrip- 
tions, and in 1753, on the death of M. de Boze, with 
whom he bad been associate seven years, he was made 
keeper of the cabinet of medals, to which office he was 
promoted^ notwithstanding some considerable opposition. 

The succeeding year Mons. de Stainville, afterwards 
duke de Choiseul, being appointed ambassador at Rome, 
invited our author to accompany him to Italy, an offer 
which his official duty induced him to decline. In 1755, 
however, he was enabled to take this journey with his 
friend Mons. de Cotte, and his residence in Italy was ren- 
dered particularly agreeable by the continuance of Mons* 
de Stainville there, who introduced him to the celebrated 
pope Benedict XIV. At Naples he became acquainted 
with Mazocchi, who was employed in the task of unfold- 
ing the numerous ancient manuscripts that had been found 
io Herculaneum. So little success had attended this under- 
taking at that period, that it would probably have been, 
abandoned, but for the encouragement given to the pro- 
secution of it by our author. It is related as a proof of the 
extent of his memory, that having applied in vain for li- 
berty to copy one of these manuscripts, in order to send a 
fac-simile of the ancient hand-writing to France, and being 
only suffered to examine it, he read it over attentively five 
or six times, and suddenly leaving the apartment, copied the 
fragment from memory, and correcting when he came back 
some slight errors, he sent it the same day to the academy of 
belles lettres, enjoining secrecy, that no blame might at- 
tach to Mazocchi. While at Rome he gave a new and 
satisfactory explanation of the beautiful mosaic of Pa- 
lestina, afterwards printed in the Transactions of the Aca- 
demy of inscriptions. 

In 1757, Mons. de Stainville returned to Paris, and be- 
ing appointed to the embassy of Vienna, our author joined 
him there, with madarne de Stainville, who had remained 
behind at Rome, and an offer was made him to undertake 
a voyage to Greece, and. up the Levaot, at the king's ex- 
pense ; but he declined the undertaking, on the same 
ground as he had avoided a former proposal, as being in- 
compatible with the duties of his office. In this place, we 
may observe, that he has shewn his gratitude to his patron, 
M. de Stainville, and bis lady, by describing thepa in the 
Vol. IV. F 


cc Travels of Anacharsis," under the names of Arsames and 

Through the means of this patron, then become duke 
of Choiseul, and principal of the king's ministers, in the 
room of cardinal de Bernis, our author, in 1758, was amply 
provided for, first by pensions on the archbishopric of the 
Abbey and the treasure of St. Martin of Tpurs, and after- 
wards by the place of secretary-general of the Swiss ; be- 
sides which he enjoyed a pension of 5000 livres on the 
Mercure. His attachment to his patron was highly honour- 
able to him. In 1771, on the dismission of the duke de 
Choiseul, and his banishment to Chanteloup, our author did 
not hesitate to follow him : and when that minister was 
compelled to resign the office of general of the Swiss, he 
would have given up his place of secretary immediately, 
if his patron had not interfered. He went, however, to 
Paris, and offered the surrender of his brevet to the count 
d'Affry, who refused to accept it, being willing to protect 
our author if he would give up his friend. This he posi- 
tively refused to do. : upon which M. d' Affry, much to his 
honour, accepted the resignation, granting him 10,000 
livres out of the annual profits of the place, and Bar- 
thelemi set off next day for Chanteloup. 

Barthelemi was now in possession of a considerable in- 
come, not less than 35,000 livres per annum, and this he 
employed in a manner highly commendable. Ten thousand 
he distributed to men of letters in distress, and the remain- 
der he enjoyed with great liberality. He took under hia 
protection three of his nephews, and settled and esta- 
blished them in the world. He promoted the welfare also 
of the rest of his family which remained in Provence, and 
he collected a numerous and valuable library, which he 
disposed of sometime before his death. In 1788, he pub- 
lished his celebrated work, " The Travels of Anachafsi* 
the Younger in Greece," the excellence of which it is un- 
necessary to point out, as the repeated editions of the 
English translation have made it familiar in this country. In 
1789 he was prevailed upon to accept the vacant seat in 
the French academy, which he had before declined. Iii 
1790, on the resignation of M. Le Noir, librarian to tlie 
king, that post was offered to our author by M. de St. 
Priest He declined it, however, as interfering with his 
literary pursuits, being then preparing for the press a work 
he had long meditated, a Catalogue Raisonu6e of the rich 



cabinet be bad long bad under his care* In the execution 
of this project he was, defeated by the unhappy circum- 
stances of the times, which pressed very severely upon him 
in other respects. His places and appointments, by the 
madness of the moment, were suppressed, and he was at 
the close of his life reduced to great difficulties. Still, 
however, he was never known to complain, and might be 
seen daily traversing the streets of Paris on fpot, bent 
double with age and infirmity, making his accustomed visit* 
to madame De Choiseul. 

In the year 1792, a visible change took place in his con* 
stitution ; his health declined, and he became subject to 
fainting fits, which deprived him of his senses for many 
hours together. This state of imbecility was rendered more 
unhappy. On the 30th of August 1793, he, with his ne~ 
phew and six other persons belonging to the public library* 
were denounced under pretence of aristocracy, by persons 
to whom he was an utter stranger. Being then at madame 
de Choiseul's, he was removed from her house, and con* 
ducted to the prison called Les Magdelonettes. Though, 
from his great age and bodily infirmities, he was sensible 
he could not long survive the severity of confinement, still 
he submitted to his fate with that calmness and serenity of 
mind which innocence only can inspire. So great was the 
estimation in which he was held, that in prison every at-* 
tention was paid to his convenience. A separate chamber 
was allotted to him and bis nephew, where they received, 
on the evening of their imprisonment, an early visit from 
madame de Choiseul. By her interference, aided by some 
others, the order for his arrest was revoked, and before 
midnight he was released and carried back to her house, 
from whence he had been taken. To compensate, in, some 
degree, for the insult offered him (for evea the wretches 
then in power could not Jivest themselves of all sense of 
shame), he in October following was proposed on the ex-* 
ecution of Carra, and the resignation of Champfort, to suc- 
ceed the former as principal librarian ; but he chose to de* 
cline it, on account of his age and infirmities. These last 
increased visibly, and about the beginning of 1795, being 
then in his eightieth year, his decease appeared visibly ap<* 
proaching, and it was probablyiiastened by the extreme 
severity of the season. He died on the 25th of April, with 
little corporal suffering, preserving his senses so entirely 
to the last, that he was reading Horace, in company witk 

f 2 

«* B A It T H £ L E M I. 

kid nephew, two hours before his death, and was probably 
unconscious of his approaching fate. 

His person was tall, and of good proportion, and the 
structure of his frame seemed well adapted to support the* 
vigorous exertions of his mind. Houdon, an artist of me- 
lit, has finished an excellent bust of him. " He leaves," 
says his biographer, " each of his relations a father to be- 
wail, his friends an irreparable loss to regret, the learned 
of all countries an example to follow, and the men of all 
times a model to imitate." 

The works of the abbe Barthelemi, published separately, 
are, 1. " Les Amours de Carite et de Polydore," a romancer 
translated from the Greek, 1760, 12 mo, and 1796. 2. 
*' Lettres sur quelques monumens Pheniciefls," 1766$ 4to. 
3. " Entretiens sur i'etat de la Musique Grecque au qua? 
trieme siecle," 1777, 8vo. 4. "Voyage du jeune Ana- 
charsis," already mentioned, of which there have been va- 
rious editions of the original, particularly a superb one by 
Didot, and translations into English, and other languages. 
5. About the time of his death he was preparing a vast 
medallic history, under the title of " Paleogfaphie numis- 
matique," 3 vols. fol. 6. " Discours prononcfi a Paca-» 
demie Fran^aise," 1789, 4to. 7. "Voyage in Italie,"180lJ 
Svo. 8. " Dissertation sur une inscription Greque, rela- 
tive aux finances des Atheniens," 1792, 8vo. 9. " CEuvres 
diversds," published by Sainte Croix, 1798, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Besides these he wrote many papers on subjects of classical 
antiquity in the Memoirs of the Academy, vol. X. to LXXX. 1 
French physician and medical writer, was born Dec. 1734, 
at Montpellier, and discovered in his earliest years a noble 
ardour for study, particularly of the languages, both an- 
cient and modern, which laid*the foundation for that ex- 
tensive and various knowledge for which he was afterwards 
distinguished. Having at length given the preference to 
medicine as a profession, he applied himself to that art 
under the ablest masters ; and such was his proficiency, that 
he obtained his doctor's degree in 1753, when only nineteen 
years of age. In 1756 he was crowned by the academy 
of inscriptions and belles lettres at Paris, having been before, 
in 1754, appointed physician to the military hospital in 

> From a memoir of his life drawn up by the duke de Nivernoii, and translated 
in the Gent, and European Magazines for 1796.— DicU Hist.— See also CeiiW 
Mas;. 1795, p, 6*7 j 1796, p. &, 93. 

B A R T H E S. €9 

Normandy. Daring this service he made many observa* 
tions and inquiries, which were published in the Memoirs 
of the academy of sciences. In 1757 he was sent to the 
army in Westphalia, with the rank of consulting physician, 
and in 1761 he was appointed professor of medicine at 
Montpellier, where he became as celebrated as Boerh'aave 
at Ley den, Stahl at Hall, or Cull en at Edinburgh, giving 
such a new direction to the medical studies as to create an 
important epoch in the history of that school. Here he 
filled the professpr's chair for twenty years, with the 
highest reputation. In 1775, he was named joint chancel- 
lor of the faculty of Montpellier, and in 1786 pbtained the 
full title of chancellor. About six ye^rs before, be had 
been appointed member of the court of accounts and fi- 
nance, and some time before that, physician to the duke 
of Orleans. About the time that he visited Paris, and 
formed an intimacy with tbe leading men in the learned 
world, particularly d'Alembert and Malesberbes, he be r 
came a member of the academy of sciences of Paris, Ber- 
lin, Gottingen, and Stockholm. At length he was chosen 
corresponding member of the national institute of France, 
and professor, honorary and actual, of the new school of 
medicine at Montpellier, physician to the French govern*, 
ment, and consulting physician to the emperor. He died 
at Paris, Oct. 15, 1806, aged seventy-two. His works, 
according to the Diet. Historique, are various medical 
theses and dissertations, memoirs published by various aca- 
demies, particularly that of Paris, in the years 1799 and 
1801 ; and, 1. "La nouvelle mecanique de I'homme et des 
animaux," 1802. 2. " L'Histoire des maladies goutteuses, 
Paris, 1802. 3. " Discours sur le genie d'Hippocrate, 

{>jronounced in the school of Montpellier. 4. " Traite sur 
e Beau," a posthumous work. In Fourcroy's catalogue 
we find another publication attributed to him, under the 
title of " Elnathan, ou les ages de l'homme, trad, du Chal- 
deen," 1802, 3 vols. 8vo. The compiler of this catalogue 
calls him fiarthes-Marmorieres. 1 

BARTHIUS (Caspar), a very learned and voluminous 
writer, was born at Custrin in Brandenburg, June 22, 1 587. 
His father was professor of civil law at Francfort upon the 
Oder, councillor to the elector of Brandenburg, and his 
chancellor at Custrin. Having discovered in his son very 

* Diet Historique. 



early marks of genius, he provided him with proper masters; 
but he enjoyed only a little time the pleasure of seeing the 
fruits of his care, for he died in 1597. Mr. Baillet has in- 
serted Caspar in his "Enfans c£l£bres;" where he tells us, 
that, at twelve years of age, he translated David's psalms 
into Latin verse of every measure, and published several 
Latin poems. Upon the death of his father he was sent to 
Gotha, then to Eisenach, and afterwards, according to 
custom, went through the different universities in Germany. 
When he had finished his studies, he began his travels ; 
he visited Italy, France, Spain, England, and Holland, 
improving himself by the conversation and works of the 
learned in every country. He studied the modern as well 
as ancient languages, and his translations from the Spanish 
and French shew that he was not content with a superficial 
knowledge. Upon his return to Germany, to took up his 
residence at Leipsic, where he led a retired life, his pas- 
sion for study having made him renounce all sort of em- 
ployment ; so that as he devoted his whole time to books, 
toe need be the less surprised at the vast number which he 

Barthius formed early a resolution of disengaging him* 
self entirely from worldly affairs and profane studies, in 
order to apply himself wholly to the great business of sal- 
vation : he did not, however, put this design in execution 
till towards the latter end of his life ; as appears from his 
Soliloquies, published in 1654. He died Sept. 1658, 
aged 71. 

Barthius, in his comment On Statius, after noticing that 
that poet congratulated himself on having written two hun- 
dred and seventy-eight hexameters in two days, adds, that; 
he himself was not ignorant of what it is to make a great many 
Verses in a short time, as he translated into Latin the first three 
books of the Iliad, which contain above two thousand verses, 
in three days. In 1 607, he published, at Wittemberg, a col- 
lection of u Juvenilia ;" containing all the poems which he 
wrote from the thirteenth to the nineteenth year of his 
age. When only sixteen he wrote a treatise, or disserta- 
tion, on the manner of reading to advantage the Latin au- 
thors, which shows that his own reading was ' as judicious 
as extensive, and both far exceeding what could be ex* 
pected at that age. This piece is inserted in the 50th book 
of bis " Adversaria." His, other works were, 1. lt Zodiacus 
vit# Christianse," Francfort, 1 623, 2. " Epidorpidon ex mero 

B A R T H I U S. 71 

Scazonte Libri III. in quibus bona pars humanae Sapientiae 
metro explicatur," ibid. 1623. 3, " Tarracus Hebius," EpU 
grams, divided into thirty books, and dedicated to king 
James, date not mentioned. 4. " Amabilium Anacreonte 
decantati," 1612, with many other works, original and 
translated, which are now forgotten, except his editions of 
Claudian and of Statius, and his " Adversaria," fol. Franc- 
fort, 1624 and 1648. This last is a collection of remarks 
on various authors and subjects, which proves most ex- 
tensive reading and erudition, with, what frequently ac- 
companies these, some defect of judgment in the arrange- 
ment. Barthius was in all respects an extraordinary man, 
and his writings published and left in manuscript, form a 
mass scarcely to be equalled in the annals of literary indus- 
try. It is recorded of him that he never made use of any 
collections, or common-place books, trusting to the vigour 
of his memory, and that he very rarely corrected what he 
had written. l 

BARTHOLINE (Caspar), an eminent physician, was 
born Feb. 12, 1585, at Malmoe or Malmuylin in Scandina- 
via, where his father was a Lutheran divine. In his third 
year, it is said, he could read with ease, and at thirteen 
he composed Greek and Latin orations, and pronounced 
them in public, and at eighteen, he went to study in the 
university of Copenhagen. In 1603 he removed to Ro- 
stock, and thence to Wirtemberg. He continued three 
years in this last place, where he applied himself to phi- 
losophy and divinity with so much assiduity, that he rose 
always before break of day, and went to bed very late. 
When he had finished his studies, he took his degree of 
master of arts in 1607. 

Bartholine now began his travels ; and, after having 
gone through part of Germany, Flanders, and Holland, he 
passed over to England, whence he removed to Germany, 
in order to proceed to Italy. After his departure from 
Wirtemberg, he had made physic his principal study, and 
neglected nothing to improve himself in the different uni- 
versities through which he passed. He received every- 
where -marks of respect ; at Naples particularly they so- 
licited him to be anatomical professor, but he declined it. 
In France he was offered the Greek professorship at Sedan, 

1 Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vol. VII,— Moreri.— -Saxii Onomast.— Blount's Cen- 


which he also refused. After he had travelled as far as the 
frontiers of Spain, he returned to Italy, in order to perfect 
himself in the practice of medicine. He went from thence 
to Padua, where he applied with great care to anatomy 
and dissection. After some stay in this place be removed 
to Basil, where he had studied physic some time before ; 
and here he received his doctor's degree in physic in 1610. 
He next went to Wirtemberg and Holland, and intended 
to have extended his travels still farther, had he not been 
appointed professor of the Latin tongue at Copenhagen ; 
but he did not enjoy this long ; for, at the end of six 
months, in 1613, he was chosen professor of medicine, 
which was much more adapted to his talents and disposi- 
tion. He held this professorship eleven years, when he 
fell into an illness, which made him despair of life : in this 
extremity he made a vow, that if he was restored to health, 
he would apply himself to no other study than that of di- 
vinity. He recovered, and kept his promise. Conrad 
Aslach, the professor of divinity, dying some years after, 
Caspar was appointed his successor, the 12th of March 
3 624; the king also gave him the canonry of Roschild. 
He died of a violent colic, the 13th of July 1629, at Sora, 
whither he had grfne to conduct his eldest son. His works 
are,* 1. " Problematum philosophicorum et medicorum mis- 
cellaneae observationes," 1611, 4to» 2. " Opuscula qua- 
tuor singularia, de lapide nephritico, &c." Hafniae, 1623 
and 1663. 3. " Anatomic* institutiones," 1611, often re- 
printed. 4. " Controversial Anatomicae," 1631. 5." Syn- 
tagma medicum et chirurgicum de cauteriis," 1642. 6. 
u Enchiridion physicum}?' 1625. 7. " Systema physicum," 
1628. 8. " Manuductio ad veram phycologiam ex sacf. 
litter. &c." 1631, 12 mo. Brochmand pr6nounced a fu- 
neral oration, containing a life of Bartholine. l 

BARTHOLINE (Thomas,) son of the preceding, and 
likewise a celebrated physician, was born at Copenhagen ' 
the 20th Oct. 1616. After some years education in bis 
own country, he went to Leyden in 1637, where he stu- 
died physic for three years. He travelled next to France ; 
and resided two years at Paris and Montpellier, in order to 
improve himself under the famous physicians of these twd 
universities. He went from thence to Italy, and continued 

1 Moreri.— rMangpt Bibl. Script. Med.— Halter Bibl. Anat«— Saxii Onomasti* ' 
con.-»Niceroii; vol. VI. 


three years at Padua, where he was treated with great ho* 
nour and respect, and was made a member of the Incogniti 
by John Francis Loredan, After having visited most parts 
of Italy, he went to Malta, from that to Padua, and then to 
Basil, where he received his doctor's degree in physic, the 
14th of Oct. 1645, The year following he returned to his 
native country, where he did not remain long without em- 
ployment ; for, upon the death of Christopher Longomon- 
tanus, professor of mathematics at Copenhagen, he was ap- 
pointed his successor in 1647. In 1648 he was named to 
the anatomical chair ; an employment more suited to his 
genius and inclination, which he discharged with great as- 
siduity for thirteen years. His intense application having 
rendered his constitution very infirm, he resigned his chair 
in 1661, and the king of Denmark allowed him the title of 
honorary professor. He retired to a little estate he .had 
purchased at Hagegted, near Copenhagen, where he in- 
tended to spend the remainder of his days in peace and 
tranquillity. An unlucky accident, however, disturbed him 
in his retreat : his house took fire in 1670, and his library 
was destroyed, with all his books and manuscripts. In con- 
sideration of this loss, the king appointed him his physi* 
cian, with a handsome salary, and exempted his land from 
all taxes. The university of Copenhagen, likewise, touched 
with his misfortune, appointed him their librarian ; and in 
1675 the king honoured him still farther, by giving him a 
6eat in the grand council of Denmark. He died the 4th of 
Dec. 1680, leaving a family of five sons and three daughters. 
Gaspard, one of the sons, succeeded him in the anatomical 
chair; another was counsellor-secretary to the king, and 
professor of antiquities ; John was professor of theology ; 
Christopher, of mathematics; and Thomas, mentioned 
hereafter, professor of history. Margaret, one of the 
daughters of this learned family, acquired considerable fame 
fofr her poetical talents. 

The principal of Bartholine's works are, 1. u Anatomia 
Caspari Bartholini parentis n.ovis observationibus primum 
locupletata," L. Bat. 1641, 8vo. 2. " De unicornu ob- 
•ervationes novae. Accesserunt de aureo cornu Olai Wor- 
jnii eruditorum judicia," Patavii, 1645, 8vo. 3. " De 
nionstris in Natura et Medicina," Basil, 1645, 4to. 4. 
" Antiquitatum veteris puerperii synopsis, operi magno ad 
eruditos praFtmissa," Hafnia?, 1646, 8vo. 5. " De luce 
animalium libri tres, admirandis historiis rationibusque 


novis referti,'* L. Bat. 1647, 8vo. 6. " De armillis veterum, 
pracsertitn Danorum Schedibn/' Hafniae, 164S, 8vo. A 
more full catalogue, including all his papers, memoirs, &c. 
may be seen in Mangel's Bibliotheca. Bartholine has' the 
honour to rank with those who have contributed essentially 
to llie improvement of medical science. He added consi- 
derably to the discovery of the lacteal vessels, and that of 
the lymphatics. l 

. BARTHOLINE (Thomas), son of the preceding, be- 
came eminent in the science of jurisprudence, in the pro- 
secution of which he studied at the universities of Copen- 
hagen, Leyden, Oxford, Paris, Leipsic, and at London. 
On his return home he was appointed professor of history 
and civil law, and held the offices of assessor of the consis- 
tory, secretary, antiquary, and keeper of the royal archives. 
He died Nov. 5, 1690. He published, 1. " De Holgero 
Dano," 1677, 8vo. 2. " De Longobardis," 1676, 4to. 
3. " De equestris ordinis Danebrogici a Christiano V. in- 
stauratt origine," fol. 4. " De causis mortis a Danis gen- 
tilibus contempt*." 5. " Antiquit. Danic. libri tres,'\ 
1689, 4to. He left also, but unfinished, an ecclesiastical 
history of the North. * 

BARTHOLINE (Erasmus), one of the sons of Caspar, 
was born Aug. 13, 1625, at lloschild. After pursuing his 
studies at Copenhagen, he travelled from 1646 to 1657, 
through England, France, Italy, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands. In 1654 he was admitted to the degree of doctor at 
Padua, and on his return to Denmark he was appointed 
professor of medicine and geometry. The time of his 
death we have no where been able to discover. He pub- 
lished, 1. " De figura nivis dissertatio," Hafniae, 1661, 8vo. 
2. " De cometis anni 1664 et 1665," ibid. 1665, 4to. 3. 
" Experimenta crystali Islandici disdiaclasti," 1665, 1670, 
4to. 4. " De naturae mirabilibus, quaestiones academicae," 
1674, 4to. 5. " De Aere," 1679, 8vo. There were others 
pf this family, celebrated in their day for learning and per- 
sonal worth, but whose memoirs have not been handed 
<down with much precision. 3 

BARTHOLOMEW of the Martyrs, a pious and 
learned Dominican, and archbishop of Braga in Portugal, 
was born in May, 1514, in the city of Lisbon. His father's 

I Moreri.— -*Manget Bibl. Script Med. — Hailer. Bibl. Anat. — Saxii Qnomasti- 
eon.—Niccrou, vol. VI. 
• * Moreri. a Diet. Hist.— Moreri.— Saxii OnomastiCbn. 


Tfamc was Dominic Fernandez; but as the son happened to 
be baptised in the church of our Lady of the Martyrs, he 
adopted this last name instead of that of his family. In 
1523 he took the habit of the order of St. Dominic, and 
after 5 arriving at his doctor's degree, was appointed precep- 
tor to Don Antonio, son of the infant Don Lewis, brother of 
king John III. For twenty years also he taught divinity, 
and acquired such a character for sanctity and talents, that 
on a vacancy for the archbishopric of Braga, Bartholomew 
was universally recommended ; but he persisted for a long 
time in refusing it, until threatened with excommunication. 
Nor was this reluctance affected, for he had such a fixed 
repugnance against undertaking this high charge, that the 
compulsion employed threw him into a disorder from which 
it wis thought he could not recover. When it abated, bow- 
ever, he went to bis diocese, and began to exercise his 
functions in the most exemplary manner. In 1561 he was 
present at the council of Trent, under pope Pius IV. where 
he discovered such knowledge and spirit as to acquire ge- 
neral esteem. It was he who advised the fathers of this 
council to begin business by a reformation of the clergy; 
and when some of the bishops demanded if be meant to 
extend bis reform to the most illustrious cardinals, he re- 
plied, that those " most illustrious 1 ' cardinals stood very 
much in need of a " most illustrious" reformation. In 
1563 he went with cardinal de Lorraine to Rome, where the 
pope received hinA with every mark of esteem and confi- 
dence. Here he spoke his mind on ecclesiastical abuses 
with great freedom, and observing the custom in one of 
their assemblies, that the bishops stood uncovered, while 
the cardinals sat covered, he remonstrated with the pope so 
effectually, that this affront to the episcopal dignity was no 
longer tolerated. His principal motive, however, for this 
journey to Rome,* was to obtain leave to resign his archbi- 
shopric; but the pope refused, on which he returned to 
Trent, and as soon as the council was over, went to Braga, 
where he remained until the pontificate of Gregory XIII. 
who at length accepted his resignation. After this he led a 
tetired life, entirely occupied in acts of charity and devo- 
tion. He died in the convent of Viana, July 16, 1590, in 
the seventy-seventh year of his age. His works were pub- 
lished at Rome, 1744, 2 vols. fol. and consist of pious trea- 
tises, and an itinerary of his travels, in which we discover 
much of the excellence of his character. M. le Maitre de 


Saci published his life in 4to and 12mo, 1664. He was 
beatified by pope Clement XIV. in 1773,* 

BARTOL1 (Daniel), a learned and laborious Jesuit, 
was born at Ferrara in 1608. After having professed the 
art of rhetoric, and for a long time devoted himself to 
preaching, his superiors fixed him' at Rome in 1650, From 
that period till his death he published a great number of 
works, as well historical as others, all in the Italian language. 
The most known and the most considerable is a history of 
his society, printed at Rome, from 1650 to 1673, in 6 vols, 
folio; translated into Latin by father Giannini, and printed 
at Lyons in 16(6 et seq. All his other works, the historical 
excepted, were collected and published at Venice in 1717, 
3 vols, in 4to. Both the one and the other are much 
esteemed, no less for their matter, than for the purity, the 
precision, and the elevation of their diction ; and this Je- 
suit is regarded by his countrymen as one of the purest 
writers of the Italian language. Haller praises his phi? 
losophical works, and Dr. Burney that on Harmony, 
published at Bologna, 1680, under the title €t Del Suono 
de Tremori Armonici e dell' Udito," a truly scientific and 
ingenious work, in which are several discoveries in harmo- 
nics, that have been pursued by posterior writers on the 
subject. He died at Rome, Jan. 13, 1685, at the age of 
seventy- seven, after having signalized himself as much by 
his virtues as by his literary attainments. * 

BARTOLO, or BARTHOLUS, an eminent lawyer, was 
born in 13 1 3, at Saxo Ferrato, in the march of Ancona. 
He studied law under the ablest masters at Perugia and 
Bologna ; and when the university of Pisa was founded, he 
was appointed one of its professors, although then only in 
his twenty-sixth yean After remaining here eight or nin# 
years, he left Pisa for a, professor's chair at Perugia, where 
he was honoured wjth the title and privileges of a citizen. 
In 1355, when the emperor Charles IV. came to Italy^ 
Bartoto was appointed to make him a complimentary ad- 
dress at Pisa. Taking advantage of so favourable an op r 
portunity, he obtained for that infant university the same 
privileges enjoyed by more ancient establishments of the 
kind ; and the emperors bestowed many favours on Bartolo 
himself, particularly his permission to use thg arms of th$ 

1 Antonio Bibl. Hisp.— Moreri.— Diet. Hist 

* Diet. Hist.— Moreri.— Haller Bibl. An*t— Bnraey'i Hi^t. of Music, vol. I If. 

. B A RT O L 0. 77 

lings of Bohemia. Some authors are of opinion that these 
honours were conferred upon him on account of the famous 
Golden Bull, which Charles published the year after, and 
in preparing which he had availed himself of Bartolo's as* 
sistance. But Bartolo did not enjoy his honours long : on his 
return to Perugia he died, according to the most probable 
account, in bis forty-sixth year. So short a life seems in- 
adequate to the extensive learning he is acknowledged 
to .have accumulated, and particularly to the voluminous 
works which he published. Gravina, who does ample jus- 
tice to his learning, censures him for the introduction of 
those subtleties which obscured the study of the civil lawj 
and from the specimen given by his biographers, of a cause 
between the Virgin Mary and the Devil, gravely argued in 
his works, we have perhaps now reason to rank him among 
the deservedly forgotten quibblers of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. In his own days, however, he reached the highest 
possible height of reputation ; he was honoured with the 
epithets of the u star and luminary of lawyers," " the mas- 
ter of truth," " the lanthern of equity," " the guide of the 
blind," &c. His works were printed at Venice, 1590, in 
10 or 11 volumes folio. * 

BARTOLOCCI (Julius), a Cistercian monk, born at 
Celano in the kingdom of Naples in 1613, was professor of 
the Hebrew tongue at the college of the Neophytes and 
Transmarins at Rome, from 1651 to the time of his death, 
Nov. 1, 1687, aged seventy-four. There is by him a Bib- 
liotheca Rabbinica, entitled " Bibliotheca magna rabbin ica 
de scriptoribus et scriptis Hebraicis, ordine alphabetico 
Hebraice et Latin e digestis;" in folio, 4 vols. Rom. 1675* 
Father Charles Joseph Imbonati, one of his disciples, added 
a fifth volume, under the title of " Bibliotheca Latino-He- 
braica." M. Simon allows that Bartolocci possessed a 
great fund of Rabbinical learning, but was deficient in 
sacred criticism, and in strict impartiality, and that his 
work, in order to be made really useful, should be abridged 
into a single volume. * 

BAftTON (Elizabeth), commonly called " The holy 
Maid of Kent," a religious impostor in the reign of Henry 
VIII. was a servant at Aldington in Kent, and had long 
been troubled with convulsions, which distorted her limbs 
and countenance, and threw her body into the most violent 

1 Moreri. — Fabr. B'ibl. Qr»c. et Bibl. Med. Bvl — Saxii OnouaasUcolu 
• Moreri.— ^SUboh'm Bibl. Critique, val, I. chap, 6. 

78< BARTON. 

agitations ; and die effect of the disorder was such, that? 
even after she recovered, she could counterfeit the same 
appearance.. Masters, the minister of Aldington, with 
other ecclesiastics, thinking her a proper instrument for 
their purpose, persuaded her to pretend, that what she 
said and did was by a supernatural impulse, and taught her 
to act her part in a manner well calculated to deceive the. 
public. Sometimes she counterfeited a trance; then com-, 
ing to herself, after many strange contortions, would break 
out into pious ejaculations, hymns, and prayers, sometime* 
delivering herself in set speeches, sometimes in uncouth 
monkish rhymes. She pretended to be honoured with vi- 
sions and relations, to hear heavenly voices, and the most 
ravishing melody. She declaimed against the wickedness 
of the times, against heresy and innovations, exhorting the 
people to frequent the church, to hear masses, to use fre-: 
quent confessions, and to pray to our lady and all the saints. 
All this artful management, together, with great exterior 
piety, virtue, and austerity of life, not only deceived the 
vulgar, but many far above the vulgar, such as sir Thomaa 
More, bishop Fisher, and archbishop Warham, the last of 
whom appointed commissioners to examine her. She was 
now instructed to say, in her counterfeit trances, that the 
blessed Virgin had appeared to her, and assured her that 
she should, never recover, till she went to visit her image, 
in a chapel dedicated to her in the parish of Aldington. 
Thither she accordingly repaired, processionally and in 
pilgrimage, attended by above three thousand people and 
many persons of quality of both sexes. There she fell in-, 
to one of her trances, and uttered many things in honour of 
the saints and the popish religion ; for herself she said, that 
by the inspiration of God she was called to be a nun, and 
that Dr. Bocking was to be her ghostly father. This Dr. 
Bocking was a canon of Christ church in Canterbury, and an 
associate in carrying on the imposture. In the mean time 
the archbishop was so satisfied with the reports made to 
him about her, as to order her to he put into the nunnery? 
of St. Sepulchre, Canterbury, where she pretended to have 
frequent inspirations and visions, and also to work miraclea 
for all such as would make a profitable vow to our lady at 
the chapel in the parish of Aldington. Her visions and 
revelations were also carefully collected and inserted in a 
book, by a monk called Deering. 
The priests, her managers, having thus succeeded in the 

BARTON. • 73 

imposture, now proceeded to the' great object of it ; and 
Elizabeth Barton was directed publicly to announce, how 
God had revealed to her, that " in case the king should 
divorce queen Catherine of Arragon, and take another 
wife during her life, his royalty would not be of a month's 
duration, but he should die the death of a villain." Bishop 
Fisher, and others, in the interest of the queen, and of the 
Romish religion, hearing of this, held frequent meetings 
with the nun and her accomplices, and at the same time 
seduced many persons from their allegiance, particularly 
the fathers and nuns of Sion, the Charter-house, and 
Sheen, and some of the observants of Richmond, Green- 
wich, and Canterbury. One Peto, preaching before the 
king at Greenwich, denounced heavy judgments upon him 
to his face, telling him that " he had been deceived by 
many lying prophets, while himself, as a" true Micaiah, 
warned him that the dogs should lick his blood, as they had 
licked the blood of Ahab." Henry bore this outrageous 
insult with a moderation not very usual with him ; but, to 
undeceive the people, he appointed Dr. Curwin to preach 
before him the Sunday following, who justified the king's 
proceedings, and branded Peto with the epithets of " re- 
bel, slanderer, dog, and traitor," Curwin, however, was 
interrupted by a friar, and called 4( a lying prophet, who 
sought to establish the succession to the crown by adul- 
tery;" and proceeded with such virulence, that the king 
was obliged to interpose, and command him to be silent; 
yet though Peto and the friar were afterwards summoned 
before the council, they were only reprimanded for their 

Encouraged by this lenity of the government, the eccle- 
siastics in this conspiracy resolved to publish the revelations 
of the nun, in their sermons, throughout the kingdom ; they 
had Communicated them to the pope's ambassadors, u» 
whom they also introduced the maid of Kent; and they ex- 
horted queen Catherine to persist in her resolutions. At 
length this confederacy becoming politically serious, Henry 
ordered the maid and her accomplices to be examined in 
the star-chamber. Here they confessed all the particulars 
of the imposture, and afterwards appeared upon a scaffold 
erected at St. Paul's Cross, where the articles of therr con- 
fession were publicly read in their hearing. Thence they 
were conveyed to the Tower, until the meeting of parlia- 
ment, when the whole affair was pronounced a conspiracy 

50 • BARTON* 

against the king's life and crown. The nun, with her con- 
federates, Bocking, Deering, &c. were attainted of high 
treason, and executed at Tyhurn, April 20, 1534; Eliza-* 
beth confessed the imposture, laying the blame on her 
accomplices, the priests, and craving pardon of God and 
the king. 

It is remarkable that the historian, Saunders, in his Latin 
work upon certain martyrs for popery, under Henry VIII. 
and Elizabeth, would willingly reckon this nun and her 
people among them, though their own confessions justified 
their condemnation. l 

BARW1CK (John), an eminent English divine, was 
born at Wetherslack, in Westmoreland, April 20, 1612. 
His parents were not considerable either for rank or riches ; 
but were otherwise persons of great merit, and happy in 
their family. John, the third son, was intended for the 
church, but being sent to school in the neighbourhood, 
he lost much time under masters deficient in diligence 
and learning. At length he was sent to Sedberg school, 
in Yorkshire, where, under the care of a tolerable master, 
he gave early marks both of genius and piety. In the 
year 1631, and the eighteenth of his age, he was admitted 
of St, John's college* at Cambridge, under the tuition of 
Mr. Thomas Fothergill, who proved at once a guardian 
and a preceptor, supplying his necessities, as well as in- 
structing him in learning. By this help Mr. Barwick 
quickly so distinguished himself, that when a dispute arose 
about the election of a master, which at last came to be 
heard before the privy-council, the college chose Mr. 
Barwick, then little above twenty, to manage for them, 
by which he not only became conspicuous in the univer- 
sity, but was also taken notice of at court, and by the 
ministry. In 1635 he became B. A. while these affairs 
were still depending. April the 5th, 1636, he was created 
Fellow, without opposition, and in 1638 be took the de- 
gree of M. A. When the civil war broke out, and the 
king wrote a letter to the university, acquainting them 
that he was in extreme want, Mr. Barwick concurred with 
those loyal persons, who first sent him a small supply in 
money, and afterwards their college- p! ate, and upon in- 
formation that Cromwell, afterwards the protector, lay 

1 Biog. Brit. — Collier's Church History.— More's Life of sir 1*. More, p, 205* 
—Strype's Xafe of Cnuuuer, p. 22. Memorials, 180—2. 

BARW1CK, 81 

with a party of foot at a place called Lower Hedges, be- 
tween 4 Cambridge and Huntington, in order to make him- 
self master of this small treasure, Mr. Barwick made one 
of the party of horse which conveyed it through by-roads 
safely to Nottingham, where his majesty had set up his 
standard. By this act of loyalty the parliament was so 
provoked, that they sent Cromwell with a body of troops 
to quarter in the university, where they committed the 
most brutal outrages. Mr. Barwick also published a piece 
against the covenant, entitled " Certain Disquisitions and 
Considerations, representing to the conscience the unlaw- 
fulness of the oath entitled A Solemn League and Co* 
venant for Reformation, &c. as also the insufficiency of 
the arguments used in the exhortation for taking the said 
covenant. Published by command," Oxford, 1644. In 
this, he was assisted by Messrs. Isaac Barrow, Seth Ward, 
Peter Gunning, and others. The above is the date of the 
second edition, the first having been seized and burnt. 
Having by this time provoked the men in power, he re- 
tired to London, and soon after was intrusted with the 
management of the king's most private concerns, and car* 
ried on with great secrecy a constant correspondence be- 
tween London and Oxford, where the king's head-quarters 
then were, an employment for which there never was a 
man perhaps better fitted. For with great modesty, and 
a temper naturally meek, he had a prudence, sagacity, 
and presence of mind. He lived upon his first coming to 
town with Dr. Morton, then bishop of Durham, at Dur- 
ham-house, which being an old spacious building, afforded 
him great conveniences for hiding his papers, and at the 
same time his residence with that prelate as his chaplain, 
countenanced hi&remaining in London. One great branch 
of his employment, was the bringing back to their duty 
some eminent persons who had been misled by the fair 
pretences of the great speakers in the long parliament. 
Amongst those who were thus reclaimed by the care of 
this religious and loyal gentleman, were sir Thomas Mid- 
dleton and colonel Roger Pope, both persons of great 
credit with the party, and both very sincere converts. 
By his application, likewise, Mr. Cresset was convinced 
of his errors, and became an useful associate in the dan* 
gerous employment of managing the king's intelligence. 
Even after the king's affairs became desperate, Mr. Bar* 
wick still maintained his correspondence ; and when hi* 
Vol. IV, % Q 


majesty was in the hands of the army, had frequent access 
to him, and received his verbal orders. To perform his 
duty the more effectually, he had the king's express com- 
mand to lay aside his clerical habit ; and in the dress of a 
private gentleman, with his sword by his side, he remained 
without suspicion in the army, and gave the king much useful 
intelligence ; and even when his majesty came to be con- 
fined in Carisbrook castle, in the closest manner, Mr. Cresset, 
who was placed about him through the dexterous manage- 
ment of Mr. Barwick, preserved his majesty a free inter- 
course with his friends ; for this purpose he first deposited 
with Mr. Barwick a cypher, and then hid a copy of it in 
a crack of the wall in the king's chamber. By the help 
q{ this cypher, the king both wrote and read many letter* 
every week, all of which passed through the hands of Mr. 
Barwick. He likewise was concerned in a well-laid design' 
for procuring the king's escape, which, however, was un- 
luckily disappointed. These labours, though they were 
very fatiguing, did not hinder him from undertaking still 
greater ; for when Mr. Holder, who had managed many 
correspondences for the king, was discovered and impri- 
. soned, he had so much spirit and address as to procure 
admittance to, and a conference with him, whereby his 
cyphers and papers were preserved, and Mr. Barwick 
charged himself with the intelligence which that gentle- 
man had carried on. After this he had a large share in 
bringing about the treaty at the Isle of Wight, and was 
now so well known to all the loyal party, that even those" 
who had never seen him, readily trusted themselves to hi* 
care, in the most dangerous conjunctures. When the king 
was murdered, and the royal cause seemed to be desperate, 
Mr. Barwick, though harassed with a continual cough, 
followed by a spitting of blood, and afterwards by a con- 
sumption of his lungs, yet would not interrupt the daily 
correspondence he maintained with the ministers of king: 
Charles II. At last, when he was become very weak, 
he was content that his brother, Dr. Peter Barwick, should 
share in his labours, by attending the post-office, which 
he did for about six months ; and then this office was de- 
volved on Mr. Edward Barwick, another of his brothers. 
This, gentleman had not been engaged ^wo months in this 
perilous business, before one Bostock, who belonged to 
the post-office, betrayed both. him and Mr. John Barwick, 
together with, some letters which came from the kingV 


kniuisters abroad, into the bands of those who were then, 
possessed of the government. These letters were super- 
scribed to Mr. James Van delft, Dutch merchant in Lon- 
don, which was a fictitious name made use of to cover 
their correspondence. ' Upon his examination, Mr. Bar*, 
wick did all he could to take the blame upon himself, in 
order to free bis brother Edward. Yet so careful he was 
of offending against truth, that he would not deny his 
knowledge of the letters, but insisted that he was not 
bound to accuse himself. Those who examined him wer$ 
not ashamed to threaten him, though half dead with his 
distemper, with putting him to the torture if he did not 
immediately discover all who were concerned with him* 
To this Mr. Barwick answered with' great spirit, that nei^ 
tber himself, nor any of his friends, had done any thing 
which they knew to be repugnant to the laws ; and if by 
the force of tortures, which it was not likely a dry and 
bloodless carcase like his would be able to bear, any thing 
should be extorted which might be prejudicial to others, 
such a confession ought to go for nothing. Mr. Edward 
Barwick behaved with the like firmness, so that not so 
much as one person fell into trouble .through their mis- 
fortune ; and as for Mr. John Barwick, he had the presence 
of mind to burn his cyphers and other papers before thoso 
who apprehended him could break open his door. This 
extraordinary fortitude and circumspection so irritated 
president Bradshaw, sir Henry Mildmay, and others of the 
council who examined them, that, by a warrant dated tho 
9th of April 1650, they committed both the brothers to 
the Gate-house, where they were most cruelly treated, and 
three days afterwards committed Mr. John Barwick to the 
Tower. The reason they assigned for this change of his 
prison was, that he might be nearer to the rack, assuring 
him that in a few days they would name commissioners to 
examine him, who should have that engine for their se* 
cretary. Mr. Francis West, who was then lieutenant of 
the Tower, put him in a dungeon >vhere he was kept from 
pen, ink, and paper, and books, with restraint from 
seeing any person except his keepers ; and, as aii addi- 
tional punishment^ had boards nailed before his window to 
exclude the fresh air. In this melancholy situation he 
remained many months, during which time the diet he 
used was herbs or fruit, or thin water-gruel, made of oat- 
taeal or barley, with currants boiled in it, and sweetened 


with a little sugar, by which he recovered beyond all ex- 
pectation, and grew plump and fat. A cure so perfect, 
and so strange, that Dr. Cheyne, and other physicians 
Have taken notice of it in their writings as a striking 
instance of the power of temperance, even in the most 
inveterate diseases. While he was thus shut up, his friends 
laboured incessantly for his service and relief, and his 
majesty king Charles II. for whom he thus suffered, gave 
the highest testimonies of his royal concern for so faithful 
a subject. After fifteen months passed in confinement, 
Mr. Otway, and some other friends, procured a warrant 
from president Bradshaw to visit him, who were not a little 
Surprised to find him in so good health, whom they had 
seen brought so low, as to engage this very Mr. Otway to 
take care of his burial. His prudence and patience under 
this persecution was so great, that they had a happy effect 
on all who came about him. Robert Brown, who was de- 
puty lieutenant of the Tower, became first exceeding civil 
to him, and afterwards his convert, so as to have his child 
baptized by him ; and, which was a still stronger proof 
of his sincerity, he quitted the very profitable post he 
held, and returned to his business, that of a cabinet-maker. 
Nay, Mr. West, the lieutenant of the Tower, who treated 
him so harshly at his entrance, abated by degrees of this, 
rigour, and became at l&st so much softened, that he was 
as ready to do him all offices of humanity, removing him 
out of a noisome dungeon into a handsome chamber, where 
he might enjoy freer air, and sometimes even the com- 
pany of his friends. He likewise made assiduous appli- 
cation to the council of state, that while Mr. Warwick 
remained in the Tower, he might have an allowance granted 
him for his subsistence ; and when he could not prevail, 
he supplied him from his own table. Indeed, after two 
years confinement, the commonwealth did think fit to 
allow him five shillings a week, which he received for 
about four months. Then, through the same friendly in- 
tercession of Mr. West, he was discharged on the 7th of 
August, 1652, but upon giving security to appear at any 
time within a twelve-month before the council of state. 
He then visited his old patron, the bishop of Durham, 
his aged parents, and the incomparable lady Savile ; but 
the place he chose for his residence was the house of sir 
Thomas Eversfield, of Sussex, a man of great integrity 
as well as learning, with whom he lived for many months. 



After the expiration of the year, to which the recognizance 
entered into by himself and his friends, Mr. Thomas Roy- 
•ton, student of Gray's-inn, and Mr. Richard Royston, of 
London, bookseller, extended, he began to think of get- 
ting up his bond, and entering agafin into the king's service. 
With this view he found it expedient to pay a visit to 
president Bradshaw, who, as he had now quarrelled with 
Cromwell, received him civilly, and told him he probably 
would hear no more of his recognizance. On this assu- 
rance, he began to enter again into business, and drew 
over several considerable persons, such as colonel John 
Clobery, colonel Daniel' Redman, and colonel Robert 
Venables, to the king's service, with whom he conferred 
on several schemes for restoring monarchy, in all which 
they were long disappointed by Cromwell. His friend, 
sir Thomas Eversfield, dying, and his widow retiring to 
the bouse of her brother, sir Thomas Middleton, at Chirk 
castle, in Denbighshire, Dr. Barwick accompanied her 
thither, and remained for some time with sir Thomas, who 
was his old friend. His own and the king's affairs calling 
him back to London, he lived with his brother, Dr. Pet^r 
Barwick, in St. Paul's Church-yard, and there managed 
the greatest part of the king's correspondence, with as 
much care, secrecy, arid success as ever. While he was 
thus engaged, he received some interruption by the re- 
vival of that old calumny on the church of England, th* 
Nag's head ordination, to which he furnished bishop Bram- 
hall with the materials for a conclusive answer. His mo- 
desty and private way of living preserved him from much 
notice, even in those prying times ; and yet, when proper 
occasions called for more open testimonies of his principles, 
Mr. Barwick did not decline professing them, as appeared 
by his assisting Dr. John Hewet, while in prison for a 
plot against Cromwell, and even on the scaffold, when he 
lost his head. By the death of this gentleman, bis branch 
of intelligence, and the care of conveying some hundred 
pounds which he had collected for the king's use, devolved 
upon Mr. Barwick ; who, though he had already so much 
upon his hands, readily undertook, and happily performed 
it. The concern Mr, Barwick had for the king and for 
the state, did not hinder him from attending, when he 
was called thereto, the business of the church, in which, 
however, he had a very worthy associate, Mr. Richard 
JUlestrey, who took the most troublesome part on himself. 


by performing several dangerous joumies into Flanders, la 
order to receive the king's commands by word of mouth. 
In the rising of sir George Booth, he had a principal con* 
cern in the managing of the design, and in providing for 
the safety of such as escaped after it miscarried. Not long 
after he narrowly missed a new imprisonment, through 
the treachery of some who were intrusted by the king's 
ministers: for by their intelligence, Mr. Ailestrey was 
seized as soon as he landed at Dover, and one of Mf. 
Barwick's letters intercepted, but it is supposed to have 
been imperfectly decyphered. In the midst of these diffi- 
culties died the good old bishop of Durham, whom Mr. Bar*- 
'wick piously assisted in his last moments, preached his 
funeral sermon, and afterwards wrote his life, which he 
dedicated to the king. All the hopes that now remained 
.of a restoration rested upon general Monk, and though 
Mr. Barwick had no direct correspondence wifh him, yet 
he furnished him with very important assistance in that 
arduous affair. After there seemed to be no longer any 
doubt of the king's return, Mr. Barwick was sent over by 
ihe bishops to represent the state of ecclesiastical affairs, 
and was received by. his majesty with cordial affection, 
preached before him the Sunday after his arrival, and was 
immediately appointed one of his chaplains. Yet these 
extraordinary marks of the king's favour never induced 
him to make any request for himself, though he did not 
let slip so fair an opportunity of recommending effectually 
several of his friends, and procuring for them an acknow- 
ledgment suitable to each of their services. On his return 
he visited the university of Cambridge, where he very ge- 
nerously relinquished his right to his fellowship, in favour 
' of an intruder, because he had the reputation of being a 
young man of learning and probity. Before he left the 
university, he took the degree of D. D. upon which oc- 
casion he performed his exercise, merely to support the 
discipline of the university. The thesis on this occasion 
was very singular, viz. That the method of imposing pe- 
nance, and restoring penitents in the primitive church 
was a godly discipline, and that it is much to be wished it 
was restored. Th? Latin disputation upon this question 
lias been preserved, and it was chiefly for the sake of in- 
' serting it> that Dr. Peter Barwick composed his brother's 
; life in Latin. When the church of England was restore^ 
*- f>y king Charles II. the deans and chapters revived, Df, 

BAEWrCK; st 

Barwick, according to his usual modesty, contented him* 
self with recommending his tutor, old Mr. Fothergill, to 
a prebend in the cathedral church of York; but as to 
himself, he would have rested content with the provision 
made for him by his late patron, the bishop of Durham, 
who had given him the fourth stall in his cathedral, and 
.the rectories of Wolsingbam, and Houghton in le Spring ; 
and used to say that he had too much. Among other ex- 
traordinary offices to which he was called at this busy 
time, one was to visit Hugh Peters, in order to draw from 
him some account of the person who actually cut off the 
head of king Charles I. ; but in this neither he nor Dr. Dol- 
ben, his associate, had any success. Before the restoration 
there had been a design of consecrating Dr. Barwick, 
bishop of Man ; but the countess of Derby desiring to 
prefer her chaplain, the king, of his own motive, would 
have promoted him to the see of Carlisle, which the 
doctor steadily refused, that the world might not imagine 
the extraordinary zeal he had shewn for episcopacy flowed 
from any secret hope of his one day being a bishop* 
Upon this he was promoted to the deanery of Durham, 
with which he kept the rectory of Houghton. He took 
possession of his deanery on the feast of All Saints, 1660, 
and as he enjoyed a large revenue, be employed it in re- 
pairing public buildings, relieving the poor, and keeping 
up great hospitality, both at the house of his deanery an4 
at Houghton. But before the year was out,, he was called 
from these cares, in which hg would willingly have spent 
his whole life, by his being made dean of St. Paul's, a 
preferment less in value, and attended with much more 
trouble than that he already possessed. As soon as he had 
done this, he put an end to all granting of leases, even 
where he had agreed for the fine with the tenants, and did 
many other things for the benefit of his successor, wnich 
shewed his contempt of secular advantages, and his sin- 
cere concern for the rights of the church. He took posr 
session of the deanery of St. Paul's, about the middle of 
October, J 661, and found, as he expected, all in very 
great disorder with respect 'to the church itself, and every 
thing that concerned it. He set about reforming these 
abuses with a truly primitive spirit, and prosecuted with 
great vigour the recovery of such revenues as in the late 
times of distraction had been alienated from the church $ 
though with respect tp bis own particular concern? he was 

at BARWIC K r 

never rigid to any body, but frequently gave up things to 
/ which he had a clear title. By bis interest with his ma- 
jesty he obtained two royal grants under the great seal of 
England, one for the repair of the cathedral, the other 
for enumerating and securing its privileges. In this re* 
spect he was so tender, that he would not permit the lord 
mayor of London to erect there a seat for himself at the 
expence of the city, but insisted that it should be done at 
the charge of the church. Towards the repairing the ca- 
thedral, he, together with the residentiaries, gave the 
rents of the houses in St. Paul's Church-yard as a settled 
fund, besides which they advanced each of them 500/. a 
piece, and, in many other respects, he demonstrated that 
neither the love of preferment, nor the desire of wealth, 
bad any share in his acceptance of this dignity. He was 
next appointed one of the nine assistants to the twelve 
bishops commissioned to hold a conference with the like 
number of presbyterian ministers upon the review of the 
liturgy, usually called the Savoy conference, because held 
at the bishop of London's lodgings in the Savoy. He 
was also, by the unanimous suffrage of all the clergy of the 
province of Canterbury assembled in convocation, chosen 
prolocutor on the 18th of February, 1661 ; in which office 
he added to the reputation he had before acquired. His 
application, however, to the discharge of so many and so 
great duties brought upon him his old distemper, so that 
in November* 1662, he was confined to his chanrfber: he 
heightened his disease by officiating at the sacrament the 
Christmas-day following, after which he was seized with 
a violent vomiting of blood. Upon this he was ad- 
vised to a change of air, and retired to Therfield in Hert- 
fordshire, of which he was rector, but finding himself 
there too far from London, he returned to Chiswick, where 
he in some measure recovered his health. As soon as he 
found he had a little strength, he applied himself there to 
the putting in order the archives of St. Paul's church, but 
this return of active employment was followed by an ex- 
traordinary flux of blood, which rendered him very weak, 
and defeated his favourite design of retiring to Therfield. 
When he first found his health declining, he made choice 
of and procured this living, intending to have resigned 
his deanery and office of prolocutor, to those who had 
vigour enough to discharge them, and to spend the re- 
mainder of his days in the discharge of his pastoral office, 

B A R W I C K. 69 



to which he thought himself bound by his taking orders. 
But coming upon some extraordinary occasion to London, 
he was seized with a pleurisy, which carried him off in 
three days. He was attended in his last moments by Dr. 
Peter Gunning, afterwards bishop of Ely, and as he lived, 
so he died, with all the marks of an exemplary piety, on 
the 22d of October, 1664, after he had struggled almost 
twelve years with this grievous distemper. By his will he 
bequeathed the greatest part of his estate to charitable 
uses,* and this with a judgment equal to his piety. His 
body was interred in the cathedral of St. Paul's, with an 
epitaph composed by Mr. Samuel Howlet. The character 
of Mr. Barwick may be easily collected from the preceding 
sketch, but is more fully illustrated, in his life published by 
Dr. Peter Barwick, a work of great interest and amuse- 
ment His printed works are very few. Besides the tract 
on the covenant, before mentioned, we have only his 
" Life of Thomas Morton, bishop of Durham, and a fu- 
neral sermon," 1660, 4to; and "Deceivers deceived," a 
sermon at St. Paul's, Oct. 20, 1661," 1661, 4to. Many 
of his letters to chancellor Hyde are among Thurloe's State 
Papers. * 

BARWICK (Peter), physician in ordinary to king 
Charles II. was brother to the preceding, and born in 1619, fc 
at Wetherslack in Westmoreland. From the same gram- 
mar-school as his elder brother, he removed to St. John's 
college in Cambridge in 1637, and continued there about 
six years. In 1642, being then in the twenty-fourth year 
of hjs age, he took his degree of bachelor of arts. In 1 644, 
he was nominated by the bishop of Ely, to a fellowship of 
St. John's, in his gift, but the usurper being then in power, 
he never availed himself of it. Probably, indeed, he had 
left the college before he obtained this presentatiop, and 
perhaps about the same time his brother did, which was in 
the foregoing year. It is uncertain, whether, at that time, 
he had made any choice of a profession; so that being 
invited into Leicestershire, in order to become tutor 
to Ferdinando Sacheverell, esq. of Old Hayes in that 
county, a young gentleman of great hopes, he readily ac- 
cepted the proposal, and continued with him for some 
time. In 1647, he returned to Cambridge, and took his 

1 Biog. Brit — Life by Dr. Peter Barwick, Lat. and English ; the English, 
translation by Hilkiah Bedford, with a»n§ curioua and useful notes. 


degree of master of arts, applying himself then assiduously 
to the study of physic, and about the same time, Mr. Sache- 
verelLdied, and bequeathed our author an annuity of 
♦twenty pounds. How he disposed of himself for some 
3 r ears, does not very clearly appear, because he who so 
elegantly recorded the loyal services of his brother, has 
studiously concealed his own. It is, however, more than 
probable, that he was engaged in the service of his sove« 
*eign, since it is certain that he was at Worcester in 1651, 
'where he had access to his royal master king Charles II. 
who testified to him a very kind sense of the fidelity of hi* 
family. In 1655, he was created doctor of physic, and two 
years afterwards, he took a house in St. Paul's church-yard, 
and much about the same time, married the widow of Mr. 
8ayon, an eminent merchant. Being thus settled, he soon 
gained a very great repute in the city, for his skill in his 
profession, and among the learned, by his judicious de- 
fence of Dr. Harvey's, discovery of the Circulation of the 
Blood, which was then, and is still, admired as one of the 
best pieces written ppon that subject. At this house he 
entertained his brother Dr. John Barwick, who repaired at 
his own expence an oratory he found there, and daily readl 
the service of the established church, and with a few steady 
.royalists, prayed for his exiled master. After the restora-n 
tion in 1 660, he was made one of the king's physicians in 
ordinary, and in the year following, received a still stronger 
proof of his majesty's kind sense of his own and his brother's 
services by a grant of arms expressive of their loyalty. In 
1666, being compelled by the dreadful fire to remove from 
St. Paul's church yard, where, much to his honour, he 
was one of the few physicians who remained all the time of 
the plague, and was very active and serviceable in his 
profession, he took another house near Westminster-abbey, 
for the sake of being near that cathedral, to which he con- 
stantly resorted every morning at six o'clock prayers. He 
was a very diligent physician, and remarkably successful 
in the small-pox, and in most; kinds of fevers. Yet he was 
far from making money the main object of his care; for 
during the many years that he practised, he not only gave 
advice and medicines gratis to the poor, but likewise cha- 
ritably administered to their wants in other respects. In 
1671, he drew up in Latin, which he wrote with unusual 
elegance and purity, the life of the dean his brother, an£ 
took care to deposit it, an8 the original papers serving tQ 

BARW I'C K. 91 

Support the facts mentioned, in the library in St. John's 
college at Cambridge. Another MS. he gave to Dr. Wood- 
ward, and one he left to his family. Twenty years after 
this, when our author was in the seventy-fourth year of his 
age, and his eye-sight so much decayed, that he was 
forced to make use of the hand of a friend, he added an 
appendix in defence of the Eixiv IWim*^, against Dr. Wal- 
ker, who was very well known to him, and of whom in that 
treatise he has given a very copious account. This piece 
of his is written with a good deal of asperity, occasioned 
chiefly by the frequency of scurrilous libels against the 
memory of Charles I. In 1694, being quite blind, and 
frequently afflicted with fits of the stone, he gave over 
practice, and dedicated the remainder of his life to the 
service of God, and the conversation of a few intimate 
friends, amongst whom was Dr. Busby, the celebrated 
master of Westminster-school. He died Sept. 4, the same 
year, in the eigbty-sixth year of his age, and by his own 
direction, was interred without any monument, as well as 
■with great privacy, near the body of his dear wife, in the 
parish church of St. Faith's, under St. Paul's. He was a 
man of a very comely person, equally remarkable for the 
•solidity of his learning, and for a wonderful readiness as 
well as elegance in expressing it. His piety was sincere* 
his reputation unspotted, his loyalty and his modesty 
most exemplary. In all Stations of life he was ad- 
mired and beloved, and of a chearful and serene mind in 
all situations. He was happy in the universal approbation 
of all parties, as he was himself charitable to all, and never 
Tenement but in the cause of truth. He left behind him 
*an only daughter, Mary, who married sir Ralph Button 
of Sherbournein Dorsetshire, bart. The life of his brother 
was published, in Latin, 1721, 8vo, and in English, with an 
account of the writer, 1724. Mr. Hilkiah Bedford was 
editor of both. J 

BASEDOW (John Bernard), an author of some merit 
pn the subject of education, was born at Hamburgh in 
1723. His father appears to have been a person of a rigid 
temper, and so frequent in correcting his son with severity, 
as to drive him from home for a time, during which the 
boy served as a domestic in the house of a land-surveyor at 
Hoi stein. Being, however, persuaded to return, he was 

. * #iof. 9rit.-*Pr«fa<* to i)ie SaglUh translation of tjit Life qf dtap Harwich 


placed at the public school at Hamburgh, where he made 
himself respected by his talents, and the aid he was enabled 
•to give to his indolent schoolfellows. When advanced to 
the higher class, he attended the lectures of professors 
itichey and Reitnarus, from whose instructions, particularly 
those of Reimarus, he derived great improvement : but he 
afterwards allowed that he did not pay a regular attention 
to the sciences, and passed much of his time with indolent 
and dissolute companions. He had little disposition for 
study, and remained for some time undetermined in the 
choice of a profession. His father was ambitious that he 
should be a clergyman, and the means being provided, he 
went to Leipsic in 1744, to prosecute his studies particu- 
larly in theology. Here he continued for two years, at- 
tending the lectures of professor Crusius, who had begun 
to philosophize on religion ; and these lectures, with the 
writings of Wolf, to which he also applied, induced a 
sceptical disposition, which more or less prevailed in all his 
writings and opinions during his life. In 1749, he was 
appointed private tutor to the son of a gentleman at Hol- 
stein, and this situation gave him an opportunity of bring- 
ing to the test of experience, the plan of an improved me- 
thod of education, which he bad, for some time, in con- 
templation. The attempt succeeded to his wishes, and 
his pupil, who was only seven years old, when put under 
-him, and could merely read the German language, became 
able in the space of three years, not only to read Latin 
authors, but to translate from the German into that lan- 
guage, and also to speak and write it with a degree of 
fluency. The young gentleman had also made consider- 
able progress in the principles of religion and morals, in 
history, geography, and arithmetic. 

In 1753, Basedow was chosen professor of moral philo- 
sophy and belles lettres at the university, of Sorde, where 
he enjoyed further opportunities of pursuing. his favourite 
object. While in this station, he published several worka 
which were well received, particularly a treatise on prac r 
tical philosophy, for all classes, in which the particulars of 
Jiis plan are fully explained ; and a grammar of the Ger- 
man language. From Sorde, . he was nominated to a pro- 
fessorship at Altona, and now employed his leisure hours 
in communicating to the tforid the result of his theological 
studies, but the world was so little prepared to forsake the 
principles of their forefathers, that he met with the most 


strenuous opposition from every quarter. Among his 
most distinguished opponents were the rev. Messrs. Gosse, 
Winkler, and Zimmerman, who represented his doctrines 
as hostile to religion and morals, while the magistrates 
prohibited the publishing and reading of his works, and the 
populace were ready to attack his person. His biographer 
praises the firmness with which he supported all this, re- 
joicing in the hopes, that Germany would one day be en- 
lightened with his doctrines, and these hopes have certain- 
ly been in a considerable degree realized. The rest of his 
life appears to have been spent in controversies with his 
opponents, and in endeavours to establish public schools of 
instruction on his new plan, in all which he met with some 
encouragement from men of rank and influence, but not 
sufficient to enable him to carry any of his plans into exe- 
cution. With respect to his scheme of education, if we 
may judge from the outline in our authority, there was 
nothing of mystery or invention in it. He entertained 
the idea that the compulsive methods, so generally adopt- 
ed, are calculated to retard the progress of improvement, 
while the pupil was under the care of his tutor, and 
to give him a disgust for learning after he has escaped from 
the rod, and said that early education is, in some cases, of 
too abstracted a nature ; and, in others, that it is confined 
merely to words as preparatory to the knowledge of things ; 
while, in reality, the useful knowledge of things ought to 
be made preparatory to the knowledge of words. Con- 
formably to this idea, he attempted to adapt every branch 
of science to the capacity of his scholars, by making judg- 
ment keep pace with memory, and by introducing them to 
an engaging familiarity with the objects of pursuit. Thisr 
he attempted to effect, by the invention, due arrangement, 
and familar explanation of figures and prints, of which 
young minds are naturally fond ; and by means of which, 
they have a more perfect impression of an object than the 
most elaborate description could possibly give. For those 
who were further advanced, he called in the aid of different 
species of mechanism, and different models, by means of 
which the pupil might form precise ideas, obtain accurate 
knowledge, and, in some instances, acquire address in a 
manner correspondent with that love of active amusements 
which characterizes youth. 

After many unsuccessful efforts to establish a school 
which he called his " Philanthropinum," he finally reiin- 


quished it, owing to quarrels among the teachers, which? 
afforded no very striking proof of the superior excellenee 
of his system. He then endeavoured to find relief in the 
bottle, and this hurried him into a train of conduct which, 
completed the destruction of his reputation. He died at 
Magdeburg h in 1790. His works on religious subjects are 
very numerous, but little known out of Germany. ! 

BASIL (St.) surnamed The CTitpAT, on account of his 
learning and piety, was born at Caesarea in Cappadocia, in . 
the year 326. He received the first part of his education 
under his father. He went afterwards and studied under 
the famous Libanius at Antiochia and Constantinople, and 
from thence to Athens, where he met with Gregory Na- 
zianzen, with whom he had a very cordial intimacy. After, 
finishing his studies, he returned to his native country in 
the year 355, arid taught rhetoric. Some time after he 
travelled into Syria, Egypt, and Libya, to visit the monas-. 
teries of these countries ; and the monastic life so much 
suited his disposition, that upon his return home he resolved 
to follow it, and became the first institutor of it in Pontus 
and Cappadocia. Eusebius bishop of Caesarea conferred 
the order of priesthood upon Basil, who soon after retired 
into his solitude, having had some misunderstanding with 
his bishop ; but he came to a reconciliation with him about; 
three years after, and his reputation was at length so great, 
that, upon the death of Eusebius, in the year 370, he was 
chosen his successor. It was with some difficulty that he 
accepted of this dignity ; and no sooner was he raised to : 
it, than the emperor Valens began to persecute him because 
he refused to embrace the doctrine of the Arians. Valen* 
came twice to Caesarea, and finding he was not able to in- 
fluence Basil, resolved to banish him from that place. He 
ceased at length, however, to molest Basil, who now began 
to use his utmost endeavours to bring about a re- union be-* 
twixt the eastern and western churches, then much divided 
about some points of faith, and in regard to Meletius and 
Paulinus, two bishops of Antioch. The western churches 
acknowledged Paulinus for the lawful bishop, and would 
have no communion with Meletius, who was supported by 
the eastern churches- But all his efforts were ineffectual, 
this dispute not being terminated till nine months after hi* 

* Biog. Anecdotes of Basedow, published at Magdeburgh, 1791, arid abridged 
ia the Month. Rev. rot. VII. N. sAsaxii Oabtaasticofi, vol. VIII* 


basil: * MP 

death. Basil was likewise engaged in some contests re* 
lating to the division the emperor had made of Cappadocia 
into two provinces. Anthinius, bishop of Tayane, the 
metropolis of the new province, was desirous to extend 
his limits, which Basil opposed. They contested chiefly 
about a little village named Zazime. Basil, in order to 
preserve it in his jurisdiction, erected a bishopric, and 
gave it to his friend Gregory of Nazianzen, but Anthimus 
took possession before him ; and Gregory, who loved 
peace, retired from thence. Basil had also some disputes 
with Eustathius, and was engaged in most of the contro- 
versies of his age. Calumny, malice, and the domineering 
power of Arianism afflicted him with various trials, in which 
his patience was unwearied ; and as his body became en* 
feebled by increasing distempers, his mind seems to have 
collected more vigour. Finding himself rapidly declining, 
after he had governed the church of Cacsarea eight years 
and some months, he ordained some of his followers, and 
was then obliged to take to his bed. The people flocked 
about his house, sensible of the value of such a pastor. 
For a time he discoursed piously to those about him, and 
sealed his last breath with the ejaculation, " Into thy hands 
I commend my spirit.' 1 He died in the year 379. By 
studying the works of Origen, he contracted a taste for 
exposition by no means very perspicuous. It is more to 
be regretted that a man of such extensive learning and 
piety should have been so attached to the monastic spirit, 
the excessive austerities of which impaired his constitution. 
His doctrines are consequently clouded with superstitious 
mixtures, although it is evident that he held the essential 
articles of Christianity in the utmost reverence. 

There have been several editions of St. Basil's works, or 
parts of them, printed before 1500, but the best is that 
published by the society of the Benedictines of the congre- 
gation of St. Maur, in 3 vols. fol. Gr. and Latin. The first 
two volumes of this edition were published in 1722, under 
the care of father Gamier, who dying in 1725, the third 
volume was completed by father Maran, but not until 1730. 
Jn 1764, M. Herman, a doctor of the Sorbonne, published 
a life of St. Basil, 2 vpls. 4to. The French have transla- 
tions of his letters, and some other parts of his works pub- 
lished separately. l 

1 Dupin.— Cave, vol. I. both valuable articles. — Lardaert Works.— Mosbeim 
and Miiner'* EccJ. Histories.— Sax ii Onomnsticon, 

$6 BASIL. 

BASIL, bishop of Ancyra in the year 336, was ordained 
to that office by the bishops of Eusebius's party, in room of 
Marc ell us, whom they had deposed : but Basil was excom- 
municated, and his ordination declared void in the council 
of Sardica, although he continued still in the possession of 
his see. He disputed against Photinus in the council of 
Sirmium, in the year 351, and there confounded that he- 
retic. He was one of the greatest enemies to the Arians, 
or Anomaeans, i. e. those who openly vindicated the opi- 
nion of Arius, and maintained that the Word was not like 
to the Father. But he was, notwithstanding, considered 
as the head of the Semi- Arians, who maintained that the 
Son was similar to the Father in his essence, not by nature, 
but by a peculiar privilege. Basil maintained this opinion 
and procured it to be established by the authority of a 
council, which was held at Ancyra in the year 358, and 
defended it at Seleucia and Constantinople, against the 
Eudoxians and Acacians, who deposed him in the year 
360, after charging him with many crimes. St. Jerome in- 
forms us, that Basil wrote a book against Marcellus, his 
predecessor ; a treatise of Virginity ; and some other lesser 
pieces, of which no remains are extant, but he had the re- 
putation of a man of learning and eloquence. Although 
he is placed by some at the head of the Semi- Arians, yet 
it is not quite certain that he was deemed a heretic. St. 
Basil speaks of him as a Catholic bishop, and Athanasius 
confesses, in his book of Synods, that Basil of Ancyra and 
those of his party, did not differ from them that professed 
the consubstantiality, but only in words, and therefore Hi-* 
lary and Philastrius call the bishops of the council of Sir- 
mium, held against Photinus, of which Basil of Ancyra 
was the chief, orthodox bishops. l 

BASILIDES, one of the chief leaders of the Egyptian 
Gnostics, flourished in the second century. These Gnos- 
tics blended the Christian doctrine with both the Oriental 
and the Egyptian philosophy. They did not acknowledge 
an eternal principle of darkness or evil. They maintained 
that our Saviour consisted of two persons, Jesus the son of 
Joseph and Mary, and Christ, the son of God, who en- 
tered into him at his baptism, and went out of him when 
he was apprehended by the Jews : some, if not alt of them, 
allowed the reality of his human body. Basilides, who 

* Cave, vol. I.— Dupin.— Ltrdner's Work*, 

B A S I L I D E S. 97 

bad the ambition to be the founder of a sect, contrived the 
following modification of the heresy of the Gnostics, He 
pretended that God, from his own essence, bad produced 
seven angels, or JEons. Two of these, called " power" 
and " wisdom," engendered the angels of the highest or- 
der, who having formed heaven for their own residence, 
. produced other angels of a subordinate nature, and these 
again produced others, till three hundred and sixtyrfive 
different orders or ranks were successively formed ; all of 
which had one Abraxas for their common head. The 
lowest order living on the confines of the eternal, malig- 
nant, and self-animated matter, created this world, and the 
inhabitants thereof. God added rational souls to men, and 
subjected them to the government of angels. At length 
the angels fell off from their allegiance to God, and into 
terrible contests among themselves. He who governed the 
Jewish nation was the most turbulent of all. In pity, there- 
fore, to mankind, who groaned under their oppression and 
discordant influence, God sent forth his son Christ* a prin- 
cipal jEon, to enter into the man Jesus, and by him restore 
the knowledge of God, and destroy the dominion of the 
angels, piarticularly of him who governed the Jews. 
Alarmed at this, the god of the Jews caused apprehend 
and crucify the man Jesus, but could not hurt the ^Lon 
who dwelt in him. Such souls as obey Jesus Christ shall 
at death be delivered from matter, and ascend to the su- 
preme God : but disobedient souls shall successively pass 
into new bodies, till they at last become obedient. 

This doctrine, in point of morals, if we may credit the 
accounts of most ancient writers, was favourable to the 
lusts and passions of mankind, aud permitted the practice 
of all sorts of wickedness. But those whose testimonies 
are equally worthy of regard, give a quite different account 
of this teacher, and represent him as recommending the 
practice of virtue and piety in the strongest manner, and 
as having condemned not only the actual commission of 
iniquity, but even every inward propensity of the mind U> 
a vicious conduct* But in some respects he certainly gave 
offence to all real Christians. He affirmed it to be lawful 
for them to conceal their religion, to deny Christ, when 
their lives were in danger, and to partake of the feasts of 
the Gentiles that were instituted in consequence of the 
sacrifices offered to idols. He endeavoured also to diminish 
the character of those who suffered martyrdom for the caus$ 

Vol. IV. H 

38 B A S I L I D E S. 

of Christ, impiously maintaining, that they were more 
heinous" sinners than others, and that their sufferings were 
to be looked upon as a punishment inflicted upon them by 
the divine justice. * He was led into this enormous error, 
by a notion that all the calamities of this life were of a 
penal nature. This rendered his principles greatly sus- 
pected : and the irregular lives of some of his disciples 
seemed to justify the unfavourable opinion that was enter- 
tained of their master. Beausobre, in his history of Ma- 
li icheism, discusses these points with great candour. Ba- 
silides wrote many books, which are now lost. Clemens 
Alexandrinus, cites the 23d of his explications of the 
gospel, but of what gospel is doubtful : probably it might 
be one written by him, and which bore his name. In imi- 
tation of Pythagoras he obliged his scholars to a five years 
silence, teaching them to know all, and penetrate all ; 
themselves being invisible, and unknown. " Know yourself, 
says he/ and let nobody know you. The many must not, 
and cannot know their affairs ; but only one of a thousand, 
and two of ten thousand. It is not at all proper for you to 
discover openly your mysteries, but to retain them in si- 
lence." After he had spread his doctrine over the greatest 
part of Egypt, he died at Alexandria about the year 130, 
according to Fleury, and in the year 133, according to 
Jerom and Tillemont. 1 

BASIN, or BASINIO, of Parma, was a celebrated Ita- 
lian poet of the fifteenth century. He was born at Parma, 
about 1421, and was educated under Victorin of Feltro at 
Mantua, and afterwards by Theodore Gaza and Guarino at 
FerraraJ where he became himself professor. From Fer- 
rara, he went to the court of Sigismond Pandolph Mala- 
testa, lord of Rimini, and there passed the few remaining 
years of his life, dying at the age of thirty-six, in 1457. 
He had scarcely finished his studies, when he composed a 
Lath; poem, in three books, on the death of Meleager, 
which exists in manuscript in the libraries of Modena, Flo- 
rence, and Parma. In this last repository there is also a 
beautiful copy of a collection of poems printed in France, 
to which Basin io appears to have been the greatest contri- 
butor. This collection was written in honour of the beau- 
tiful Isotta degli Atti, who was first mistress and afterwards 
wife to the lord of Rimini. If we may believe these poeti- 

1 Mosheim. — Eccl. Hist.— Lardner's Works.— Caye, vol. I.— -Moreri. 

BASIN. 9* 

* cal testimonies, she had as much genius as beauty ; she 
was also in poetry, another Sappho, and in wisdom and 
virtue another Penelope. Basinio was one of the three 
poets, who composed the praises of this lady. The collec- 
tion was printed at Paris, under the title of " Trium poe- 
tarum elegantissimorum, Porcelii, Basinii, et Trebanii 
Opuscula nunc primum edita," Paris, by Christ. Preud- 
homme, 1549. In this edition, the collection is divided 
into five books, all in praise of the lady, but the first is 
entitled " De amore JoVis in Isottam," and no distinction 
is preserved as to the contributors. In the copy, however, 
preserved at Parma, and which was transcribed in 1455, 
during the life-time of Basinio, almost all the pieces which 
compose the three books are attributed to him. In the 
same library is a long poem by him in thirteen books, en- 
titled " Hesperidog ;" another, in two books only, on 
astronomy ; a third, also in two books, on the conquest of 
the Argonauts ; a poem under the title of " An epistle on 
the War of Ascoli, between Sigismond Malatesta, and 
Francis Sforza," and other unpublished performances. It 
is rather surprising, that none of these have been pub- 
lished in a city where there are so many celebrated presses, 
and which may boast the honour of being the native place 
of one of the best poets of his time. * 

BASIER, or BASIRE (Isaac), a learned divine of the 
seventeenth century, was born in 1 607, in the island of 
Jersey, according to Wood, which an annotator on the 
Biog. Britannica contradicts without informing us of the 
place of his nativity. Grey, in his MS notes, says he was 
born at Rouen, in Normandy, but quotes no authority, nor 
do we know in what school or university he received his 
education. For some time, he was master of the college 
Or free-school at Guernsey, and became chaplain to Tho- 
mas Morton bishop of Durham, who gave him the rectory 
of Stanhope, and the vicarage of EgglesclifF, both in the 
county of Durham. In July 1640, he had the degree of 
doctor of divinity conferred upon hirti at Cambridge, by 
mandate; and was incorporated in the same at Oxford, 
the November following, about which time he was made 
chaplain in ordinary to king Charles I. ; Dec. 12, 1643, he 
was installed into the seventh prebend of Durham, to which 
he was collated by his generous patron bishop Morton. The 

} Tiraboschi, vol. VI.— Ginguene Hist. Litteraire cfltalie, cap. xxi. vol. III. 

H 2 

loo B A S I E R- 

next year, August 24, he was also collated to the arch* 
deaconry of Northumberland, with the rectory of Hawick 
annexed. But he did not long enjoy these great prefer- 
ments, as in the beginning of the civil wars, being seques- 
tered and plundered, he repaired to king Charles at Ox- 
ford, before whom, and his parliament, he frequently 
preached. In 1646, he had a licence granted him under 
the public seal of the university, to preach the word of 
God throughout England. ( Upon the surrender of the Ox- 
ford garrison to the parliament, he resolved with all the 
zeal of a missionary to propagate the doctrine of the Eng- 
lish church in the East, among the Greeks, Arabians, &c. 
Leaving therefore his family in England, he went first to 
Zante, an island near the Morea, where he made some 
stay ; and had good success in spreading among the Greek 
inhabitants the doctrine of the English church, the sub- 
stance of which he imparted to several of them, in a vul- 
gar Greek translation of our church* catechism. The suc- 
cess of this attempt was so remarkable, that it drew perse- x 
cution upon him from the Latins, as they are called, or 
those members of the Romish church, throughout the East* 
who perform their service in Latin. On this he went into 
the Morea, where the metropolitan of Achaia prevailed 
upon him to preach twice in Greek, at a meeting of some 
of his bishops and clergy, which was well received. At 
bis departure, he left with him a copy of the catechism 
above mentioned. From thence, after he had passed 
through Apulia, Naples, and Sicily again (in which last, 
at Messina, he officiated for some weeks on board a ship) 
he embarked for Syria; and, after some months stay at 
Aleppo, where he had frequent conversation with the 
patriarch of Antioch, then resident there, he left a copy of 
our church-catechism, translated into Arabic, the native 
language of that place. From Aleppo Jje went in 1652 to 
Jerusalem, and so travelled over all Palestine. At Jeru- 
salem be received much honour, both from the Greek 
Christians and Latins. The Greek patriarch (the better to 
express his desire of communion with the church of Eng- 
land, declared by the doctor to him) gave him his bull, or 
patriarchal seal, in a blank, which is their way of credence* 
and shewed him other instances of respect, while the La- 
tins received him courteously into their convent, thoughv 
he did openly profess himself a priest of the church of 
England. After some disputes about the validity of our 

EASIER. 101 

English ordinations, they procured him entrance into the 
temple of the sepulchre, at the rate of a priest, that is 
half of the sum paid by a layman ; and, at his departure 
from Jerusalem, the pope's vicar gave him his diploma in 
parchment, under his own hand and public seal, styling 
him, a priest of the church of England, and doctor of 
divinity, which title occasioned some surprise, especially 
to the French ambassador at Constantinople. Returning 
to Aleppo, he passed over the Euphrates and went into 
Mesopotamia, where he intended to send the church-cate- 
chism in Turkish, to some of their bishops, who were 
mostly Armenians. This Turkish translation was procured 
by the care of sir Thomas Bendyshe, the English ambas- 
sador at Constantinople. After his return from Mesopo- 
tamia, he wintered at Aleppo, where he received several 
courtesies from the consul, Mr. Henry Riley. In the be- 
ginning of 1653, he departed from Aleppo, and came to 
Constantinople by land, being six hundred miles, without 
any person with him, that could speak any of the European 
languages. Yet, by the help of some Arabic he had picked 
up at Aleppo, he performed that journey in the company 
of twenty Turks, who used him courteously, because he 
acted as physician to them and their friends : a study (as 
he says) to which the iniquity of the times and the oppor- 
tunity of Padua drove him. After his arrival at Constan- 
tinople, the French Protestants there desired him to be 
their minister, and though he declared to them his resolu- 
tion to officiate according to the English liturgy (a trans- 
lation whereof, for want of a printed copy, cost him no 
little labour) yet they orderly submitted to it, and pro- 
mised to settle on him, in three responsible men's hands, 
a competent stipend : and all this, as they told him, with 
the express consent of the French ambassador, but still 
under the roof and protection of the English ambassador. 
Before he quitted the Eastern parts, he intended to pass 
into Egypt, in order to take a survey of the churches of the 
Cophties, and confer with the patriarch of Alexandria, as he 
had done already with the other three patriarchs,' partly to 
acquire the knowledge of those churches, and partly to pub- 
lish and give them a true notion of the church of England ; 
but whether he accomplished his design, is not certain. 
- He went next into Transilvania, where he was entertained 
for seven years by George Ragotzi the Second, prince of 
that country ; who honoured him with the divinity-chair ia 

102 B A S I E R. 

bis new founded university of Alba Julia (or Weissenburg) 
and endowed him, though a mere stranger to him, with a 
very ample salary. During his travels he collated the se- 
veral confessions of faith of the different sorts of Christians, 
Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, Maronites, &c. which he 
kept by him in their own languages. His constant design 
and endeavour, whilst he remained in the East, was, to 
persuade the Christians of the several denominations there, 
to a canonical reformation of some errors ; and to dispose 
and incline them to a communion or unity with the 
church of England, but his pious intentions were after- 
wards defeated by the artifices of court of France. Upon 
the restoration of king Charles II. Dr. Basier was recalled 
by his majesty to England, in a letter written to prince Ra- 
gotzi. But this unfortunate prince dying soon after, of 
the wounds he received in a battle with the Turks at Gyala, 
the care of his solemn obsequies was committed to the 
doctor by his relict, princess Sophia, and he was detained 
a year longer from England. At length returning in 1661, 
he was restored to his preferments and dignities ; and 
made chaplain in ordinary to king Charles II. After 
quietly enjoying his large revenues for several years, he 
died on the 12th of Oct. 1676, in the 69th year of his age, 
and was buried in the yard belonging to the cathedral of 
Durham, where a tomb was erected over his grave, with 
an inscription. His character appears to have been that 
of a learned, active, and industrious man ; a zealous sup- 
porter of the church of England ; ^nd a loyal subject. His 
son, John Basire, esq. who had been receiver general for 
the four western counties, died on the 2d of June 1722, 
in the 77th year of his age. 

His works are, 1. "Deoet Ecclesise Sacrum ; Sacrilege 
arraigned and condemned by St. Paul, Romans ii. 22," Ox- 
ford, 1646, 4to, London, 1668, 3vo. 2. " Diatriba de an- 
tiqua Ecclesiae Britannicae libertate ;" written on occasion 
of Chr. Justell's intended Geographia Sacro-politica, but 
which was never published. It was found in the lord Hop- 
ton's cabinet after his decease, by Richard Watson, an exile 
for his loyalty, who not only caused it to be printed at 
Bruges in 1656, 8vo, but also translated it into English, 
and published it under the title of " The ancient Liberty 
of the Britannic church, and the legitimate exemption 
thereof from the Roman patriarchate, discoursed on four 
positions, and asserted, &c." 1661, 8vo. III. "The his- 


tory of the English and Scotch Presbytery," Lond. 1659, 
1660, 8vo." 4. " Oratio privata, boni Theologi (speciatim 
concionatoris practici) partes praecipuas complectens," 
Lond. 1670, 8vo, in half a sheet. 5. " The dead man's 
real speech*; being a sermon on Hebr. xi. 4. at the funeral 
of Dr. John Cosin, late bishop of Durham, 29th of April, 
1672. Together with a brief (account) of the life, digni- 
ties, benefactions, principal actions and sufferings of the 
said bishop : And an Appendix of his profession and prac- 
tice, and of his last will concerning religion." Lond. 1673, 
8vo. Mr. Wood thinks he published some other things, but 
does not mention what they were. ! 

BASINGE (John), more commonly known by the name 
, of Basin gstochius, or de Basingstoke, was born at Basing- 
stoke, a town in the north part of Hampshire, and thence 
took his surname. He was a person highly eminent for 
virtue and learning ; a perfect master of the Latin and Greek 
languages ; and also an eloquent orator, an able mathema- 
tician and philosopher, and a sound divine. The foun- 
dation of bis great learning he laid in the university of 
Oxford, and, for his farther improvement, went to Paris, 
where he resided some years. He afterwards travelled to 
Athens, where he made many curious observations, and 
perfected himself in his studies, particularly in the know- 
ledge of the Greek tongue. At his return to England, he 
brought over with him several curious Greek manuscripts, 
and introduced the use of the Greek numeral figures into this 
kingdom. He became also a very great promoter and en- 
courager of the study of that language, which was much 
neglected in these western parts of the world : and to faci- 
litate it, he translated from Greek into Latin a grammar, 
which he entitled " The Donatus of the Greeks." Our 
author's merit and learning recommended him to the esteem 
of all lovers of literature: particularly to the favour of 
Robert Grosteste, bishop of Lincoln, by whom he was 
preferred to the archdeaconry of Leicester, as he had been 
some time before to that of London. He died in 1252. 
The rest of his works are, 1. A Latin translation of a Har- 
mony of the Gospels. 2. A volume of sermons. 3. " Par- 
ticular sententiarum per distinctiones," or a Commentary 
upon part of Lombard's Sentences, &c. — It was he also 

* Biog. Brit. — Wood's Fasti, vol. 1. — Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, vol. II* 
p. 197. 

104 B A S I N G E. 

that informed Robert, bishop of Lincoln, that he had seen 
at Athens a book called " The Testament of the XII Pa- 
triarchs." Upon which the bishop sent for it, and trans- 
lated it into Latin, and it was printed among the " Ortho- 
doxographa," Basileae, 1555, foK and afterwards translated 
into English, and often reprinted, 12mo. * 

BASIRE (James), an eminent English engraver, son of 
Isaac Basire, who was an engraver and printer, was born 
Oct. 6, 1730; and bred from infancy to his father's profes- 
sion, which he practised with great reputation for sixty years. 
He studied under the direction of Mr. Richard Dalton ; was 
with him at Rome ; made several drawings from the pictures 
of Raphael, &c at the time that Mr. Stuart, Mr. Brand 
Hollis, and sir Joshua Reynolds, were there. He was ap- 
pointed engraver to the society of antiquaries about 1760; 
and to the royal society about 1770< As a specimen of his 
numerous works, it may be sufficient to refer to the' beauti- 
ful plates of the " Vetusta Monumenta," published by the 
society of antiquaries, and to Mr. Gough's truly valuable 
" Sepulchral Monuments." With the author of that splen* 
did work he was most deservedly a favourite. When he 
had formed the plan, and hesitated on actually committing 
it to the press, Mr. Gough says, " Mr. Basire's specimens 
of drawing and engraving gave me so much satisfaction, 
that it was impossible to resist the impulse of carrying such 
a design into execution." The royal portraits and other 
beautiful plates in the " Sepulchral Monuments" fully 
justified the idea which the author had entertained of his 
engraver's talents ; and are handsomely acknowledged by 
Mr. Gough. The Plate of " Le Champ de Drap d'Or" was 
finished in 1774 ; a plate so large, that paper was obliged 
to be made on purpose, which to this time is called " an- 
tiquarian paper. Besides the numerous plates which he 
engraved for the societies, hfc was engaged in a great num- 
ber of public and private works, which bear witness to the 
fidelity of his burin. He engraved the portraits of Fielding 
and Hogarth in 1762; earl Camden, in 1766, after si? 
Joshua Reynolds; Py lades and Orestes, 1770, from a pic- 
ture by West ; portraits of the Rev. John Watson, and sir 
George Warren's family ; portraits also of dean Swift, and 
Dr. Parnell, 1774; sir James Burrow, 1780; Mr. Bowyer* 
1782 ; portraits also of Dr. Munro, Mr. Gray, Mr> Thomp- 

J Biog,Brit.— Leland.r-Pitts.— Tanner, 

B A S I B E. 10S 

son, Lady Stanhope, Sir George Savile, Bishop Hoadly, 
Rev. Dr. Pegge, JMr. Price, Algernon Sydney, Andrew 
Marvell, William Camden, William Brereton, 1790, &c. &c; 
Captain Cook's portrait, and other, plates, for his First and 
Second Voyages ; a great number of plates for Stuart's 
Athens (which are well drawn). In another branch of his art, 
the Maps for general Roy's " Roman Antiquities in Bri- 
tain" are particularly excellent. He married, first, Anne 
Beaupuy ; and, secondly, Isabella Turner. He died Sept. 
6, 1802, in his seventy -third year, and was buried in the 
vault under Pentonville chapel. — The ingenuity and inte- 
grity of this able artist are inherited by his eldest son, of 
whose works it may be enough to mention only the " Ca- 
thedrals," published by the society of antiquaries, from the 
exquisite drawings by Mr. John Carter. A third James Ba~ 
sire, born in 1796, has already given several proofs of supe- 
rior excellence in the arts of drawing and engraving. l 

BASKERVILLE (Sir Simojs), knight, of the ancient 
family of the Baskervilles in Herefordshire, an excellent 
scholar and eminent physician, famous for his skill in ana- 
tomy, and successful practice in the time of king James I. and 
king Charles I. was born at Exeter 1573. His father Tho- 
mas Baskerville, an apothecary of that city, observing an 
early love of knowledge and thirst after learning in him, 
gave him a proper education for the university, to which 
he was sent when about eighteen years old, entering 
him of Exeter college, in Oxford, on the 10th of March 
1191, putting him under the care of Mr. William Helm, 
a man no less famous for his piety than learning ; under 
whose tuition he gave such early proofs of his love of virtue 
and knowledge, that he was on the first vacancy elected 
fellow of that house, before he had taken his bachelor's 
degree in arts, which delayed his taking it till July 8, 1596, 
to which he soon after added that of M. A. and when he 
was admitted, bad particular notice taken of him for his 
admirable knowledge in the languages and philosophy. Af* 
ter this, viz. 1606, he was chosen senior proctor of the 
University, when he bent his study wholly to physic, be« 
came a most eminent proficient, and was then in as 'great; 
esteem at the university for his admirable knowledge it\ 
medicine, as he had been before for other parts of learn- 
ing, taking at once, by accumulation (June 20, 1611), both 

1 Nichols's Life of Bowyer, vol. Ill, 


his degrees therein, viz. that of bachelor and doctor. Af- 
ter many years study and industry, he came to London, 
where he acquired great eminence in his profession ; being 
a member of the college of physicians, and for some time 
also president. His high reputation for learning and skill 
soon brought him into vogue at court, where he was sworn 
physician to James I. and afterwards to Charles I. with 
whom, Mr. Wood tells us, he was in such esteem for his 
learning and accomplishments, that he conferred the ho- 
nour of knighthood upon him. By his practice. he ob- 
tained a very plentiful estate, and shewed in his life a no- 
ble spirit suitable to the largeness of his fortune. What 
family he left besides his wife, or who became heir to all 
his great wealth, we cannot find. He died July 5, 164 J, 
aged sixty-eight, and was buried in the cathedral church 
of St. Paul. No physician of that age could, we imagine, 
have better practice than he, if what is reported of him be 
true, viz. that he had no less than one hundred patients a 
week > nor is it strange he should amass so great wealth as 
to acquire the title of sir Simon Baskerville the rich. * 

BASKERVILLE (John), a celebrated printer, was born 
at Wolverley, in the county of Worcester, in 1706, heir 
to a paternal estate of 60/. per annum, which fifty years 
after, while in his own possession, had increased to 90/. 
He was trained to no occupation, but in 1726 became a 
writing-master at Birmingham. — In 1737 he taught at a 
school in the Bull-ring, and is said to have written an ex- 
cellent hand. As painting suited his talents, he entered 
into the lucrative branch of japanning, and resided at 
No. 22, in Moor-street ; and in 1745 he took a building 
lease of eight acres two furlongs, north-west of the town, 
to which he gave the name of Easy Hill, converted it into 
a little Eden, and built a house in the centre : but the 
town, daily increasing in magnitude and population, soon 
surrounded it with buildings. — Here he continued the bu- 
siness of a japanner for life : his carriage, each pannel of 
which was a distinct picture, might be considered the pat- 
tern card of his trade, and was drawn by a beautiful pair of 
cream-coloured horses. His inclination for letters induced 
him, in 1750, to turn his thoughts towards the press. He 
spent many years in the uncertain pursuit, sunk 600/. be- 

* Biog. Brit— Prince 1 * Worthies of Devon.— Wood's Fasti, vol. I.— Lloyd's 
Memoirs, fol. p. 635.. 


fore he could produce one letter to please himself, and 
some thousands before the shallow stream of profit began 
to flow. 

His first attempt was a quarto edition of Virgil, 1756, 
price one guinea, but now much more valuable. This he 
reprinted in 8vo, 1758, and in that year was employed by 
the university of Oxford on an entire new-faced Greek 
type. Soon after this he obtained leave from the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, to print a bible in royal folio, and two 
editions of the Common Prayer, in three sizes, for which 
permission he paid a considerable premium. The next in 
order of his works was, " Dr. Newton's edition of Milton,** 
1759, 2 vols. 8vo; " Dodsley's Fables," 1761, 8vo ; " Ju- 
venal and Persius," 1761, 8vo; " Congreve's Works," 1761, 
3 vols. 8vo ; " The Book of Common Prayer, 5 ' 1762, Svo, 
and an edition in l2mo; u Horace, edited by Mr. Livie, 

1762, 8vo; " Addison's Works, 1763, 4 vols. 4to; " Dc 
Jennings's Introduction to the knowledge of Medals," 1763, 
3vo. He also printed editions of Terence, Catullus, Lu- 
cretius, Sallust, and Florus, in royal 4to. 

These publications rank the name of Baskerville with 
those persons who have the most contributed, at least in 
modern times, to the beauty and improvement of the ait 
of printing. But after the publication of his folio Bible in 

1763, he appears to have been weary of the profession of 
a printer; or at least declined to carry it on, except through 
the medium of a confidential agent. In 1765, he applied 
to his friend the eminent Dr. Franklin, then at Paris, to 
sound the literati respecting the purchase of his types ; but 
received for answer, " That the French, reduced by the 
war of* 1756, were so far from being able to pursue schemes 
of taste, that they were unable to repair their public build- 
ings, and suffered the scaffolding to rot before them." 

Iu regard to his private character, he was much of a hu- 
mourist, idle in the extreme, but his invention was of the 
true Birmingham model, active. He could well design, 
but procured others to execute : wherever he found merit 
he caressed it : he was remarkably polite to the stranger, 
fond of shew : a figure rather of the smaller size, and de- 
lighted to adorn that figure with gold lace. Although 
constructed with the light timbers of a frigate, his move- 
ment was stately as a ship of the line. During the twenty- 
five last years of his life, though then in his decline, he 
retained the singular traces of a handsome man. If he ex- 


hibited a peevish temper, we may consider that good -nature 
and intense thinking. are not always found together. Taste 
accompanied him through the different walks of agriculture, 
architecture, and the fine arts. Whatever passed through 
his fingers, bore the lively marks of John Baskerville. 

He .died without issue, Jan. 8, 1775. We lament to 
add, that in his will, executed about two years before, he 
unblushingly avows not only his disbelief, but his contempt 
for revealed religion, and that in terms too gross to be 
transcribed. The same aversion to Christianity induced 
him to order that he should be buried in a tomb of ma* 
sonry, in the shape of a cone, under a wind-mill in his 
garden. This was accordingly performed, and although 
his dwelling-house was destroyed in the riots in 1791, his 
remains continued undisturbed. In April 1775, his widow 
wholly declined the printing business, but continued that 
of a letter-founder until Feb. 1777. Many efforts were 
Used after Baskerville' s death to dispose of his types in this, 
country, but without effect; and in 1779, they were pur- 
chased by a literary society of Paris for 3,700/. and were 
afterwards employed on a splendid edition of Voltaire's 
Works. Many unjust and unnecessary reflections are 
made, in the work which furnishes the principal part 
of this memoir, on the booksellers and universities having 
declined to purchase those types. The answer is easy. 
Baskerville himself derived little advantage from them ; and 
at the time they were offered for sale, and for many years 
afterwards, the principal works, which came from his press 
were sold at a price so inferior as to render any farther spe- 
v culation hopeless. 1 

BASNAGE (Benjamin), the first of a family of French 
Calvinists, celebrated for learning and piety, was the son 
of N. Basnage, minister of Norwich in England, and after- 
wards of Carentan in Normandy, and was born in 1580. 
After studying divinity, he succeeded his father as minister 
of Carentan, and remained in that sacred charge the whole 
of his life, although invited to Roan, and some other more 
considerable churches, and even permitted by the national 
synod of Charenfon to change his situation. He used to 
say that his first church was his spouse, from which he 
ought not to be separated unless by death. At the above-r 
mentioned synod, he satin 1623, as deputy from the pro-* 

l Huttou's Hist, of Birmingham.— Nichols'* Life of Bowyer.— Biof . Brfc, 


B A S N A G E. 109 

vince of Normandy, but when named again in 1631, by 
die same province, the king forbid his going to the synod, 
and deprived him of bis church, until the remonstrances of 
the assembly induced his majesty to restore him. In 1637, 
he ptesided as moderator of the national synod of Alencon, 
and contributed very essentially to preserve moderation du- 
ring a crisis peculiarly important to the reformed church 
of France. In 1644, being chosen assistant moderator to 
the national synod of Charenton, he was deputed by them 
to the queen-dowager, who received him with marks of 
favour. He entered into the usual controversies with Les- 
crivain, Draconis, and other adherents of the church of 
Rome. His principal work, " Treatise on the Church," 
printed at Rochelle in 1612, was much esteemed, and ha 
left behind him, but in an imperfect state, a work against 
worshipping the Virgin Mary. He died in 1652, aft^r hav- 
ing been in the ministry fifty-one years. He is frequently 
mentioned in Quick's Synodicum, having been deputed to 
king James I. and having gone to Scotland, where he served 
the churches in matters pertaining to their temporal in- 
terest. King James's letter of leave styles him, " deputy 
from all the churches of France." ' 

BASNAGE (Anthony), eldest son of the above, was 
born in 1610, and became minister of Bayeux, and was 
called to suffer persecution in his old age, being thrown 
into the prison at Havre de Grace, when he was seventy- 
five years of age. On the revocation of the edict of Nantz 
he was set at liberty, and took refuge in Holland, where 
he probably passed the remainder of his days in quiet He 
died at Zutpnen in 1691. His son, Samuel Basnage de 
Flotmanville, .succeeded him in his congregation at Bay- 
eux, but was forced to leave France in 16S5, and retire to 
Zutphen, with the reputation of being one of the ablest of 
the French reformed clergy. He wrote " Exercitations on 
Baronius," beginning where Casaubon left off; but chang- 
ing his purpose, he turned his work into the shape of Ec- 
clesiastical Annals, published in 1706, under the title of 
" Annates politico-ecclesiastici," 3 vols. fol. and coming 
down to the reign of Phocas. This work is, undoubtedly, 
useful, but has been superseded by that of James Basnage, 
of whom we are soon to speak. Anthony died in 1721. * 

l C«. Ditt„-Coliier'i Diet, vol. IY. > Ibjd. 


BASNAGE (Henry) du Fraqueny, seconcTson of Ben- ^ 
jamin, was born at St. Mere Eglise in Lower Norman dy, , 
Oct. 16, 1615. He was admitted an advocate in the par- 
liament of Normandy in 1636, and proved one of tbe most 
learned and eloquent of bis order, and was employed in a 
great many causes, as well as political affairs of importance, 
in all wbicb he gave tbe greatest satisfaction. As a writer, 
likewise, he stood very high in the opinion of bis country- 
men. His " Commentaire sur la Coutume de Normandie," 
or common law of Normandy, was first published in 1678, 
and was. so much approved, that a new edition was pub- 
lished in 1694, 2 vols. fol. His " Traite* des Hypotheques,** 
or Mortgages, was also so popular as to go through three 
editions. before the above year. Notwithstanding his reli- 
gion, persons of rank and influence in the Romish church, 
testified tne highest esteem for him. He died at Roan, 
Oct 20, 1695. 

BASNAGE (James) dr Franquener, son of the pre- 
ceding,' and the most celebrated of his family, was born at 
Roan in Normandy, Aug. 8, 1653, add received an edu- 
cation suitable to the talents which his father discovered 
in him. He first studied under the celebrated Tanaquil 
Faber, who made him his favourite scholar, but endeavour- 
ed to dissuade him from engaging in the ministry. At se- 
venteen years of age, after he had made the Greek and 
Latin authors familiar to him, and learned the English, 
Italian, and Spanish languages, he went to Geneva, where 
he passed through a course of philosophy under Mr. Chouet. 
He began his divinity studies there under Mestrezat, Tur- 
retin, and Tronchin, and finished them at Sedan under the 
professors Jurieu and Le Blanc de Beaulieu, But disliking 
Mr. Jurieu's less tolerant sentiments, he applied himself 
more particularly to the latter, who was a divine of a mo- 
derate and pacific temper. He returned afterwards to Roan; 
and the learned Mr. Le Moine having been called to the 
professorship of divinity at Leyden, Mr. Basnage succeeded 
him, as pastor of the church of Roan in 1676, though he 
was then but twenty three years of age, and here studied 
ecclesiastical history and the fathers, and went on with the 
collections which he had begun at Geneva and Sedan. In 
1684 he married Susanna du Moulin, daughter of Cyrus 
du Moulin, first cousin of Charles du Moulin, the Papinian 
of France, and grand-daughter of the famous Peter du 


Moulin. The exercise of the protestant religion being 
suppressed at Roan in 1685, and Mr. Basnage being no 
longer allowed to perform the functions of his ministry, he 
desired leave of the king to retire into Holland, and ob~ 
tained it for himself, his wife, and a nurse ; but upon con- 
dition, that the nurse should return into France at the end 
of two years. He settled at Rotterdam, where he was a 
minister pensionary till 1691, when he was made pastor of 
the Walloon church of that city. The works which he 
wrote, raised him a great reputation over all Europfe; and 
he kept a correspondence with a great many learned men 
both in the United Provinces, and in foreign countries: 
His studies employed the greater part of his time, and his 
only relaxation was a select society of men of learning, 
who met once a week at each other's houses. The prin- 
cipal members of this little society were Messrs. Paatz, 
Basnage, De Beauval, his brother, Bayle, Lufneu, and 
Leers. Their contests were sometimes sharp, but friendly, 
and there was that candid interchange of sentiment from 
which Basnage confessed that he had derived great advan- 
tage. He had frequent disputes with Mr. Jurieu, his bro- 
ther-in-law, particularly on the subject of the revolt of the 
Cevennois, which Jurieu approved and Basnage condemn^- 
ed. The author of his life mentions a conference which 
they had upon that subject, in 1703, in which Jurieu was 
obliged by the reasons of his antagonist to condemn the 
cruelties of the Camisars, and he only urged in their jus- 
tification, that they had been used with rigour, and had 
lost patience. In 1709 pensionary Heinsius, who had a 
great regard for him, procured him to be chosen one of the 
pastors of the Walloon church at the Hague. He was then 
employed to manage a secret negotiation with mareschal 
D'Uxeiles, plenipotentiary of France at the congress of 
Utrecht ; and he executed it with so much success, that he 
was afterwards entrusted with several important com mis* 
sions. Cardinal de Bouillon, dean of the Sacred College, 
who was then in Holland, imparted to him all his concerns 
with the States. The abb6 Du Bois, who was afterwards 
cardinal and first minister of France, having arrived at the 
Hague in 1716, with the character of ambassador plenipo- 
tentiary, to negotiate a defensive alliance between France, 
England, and the States General, was ordered by the duke 
of Orleans, regent of France, to apply to Mr. Basnage for 
his advice, the consequence of which was, that they acted 


in concert, and the alliance was concluded Jan. 14, 171?. 
As a reward for this service, he obtained the restitution of 
his estate in France. He corresponded with several princes, 
noblemen, and statesmen, both catholic and protestant, 
and with a great many learned men in France, Italy, Ger* 
many, and England, upon subjects of a political or literary 
nature. The catholics appear to have confided as much in 
his opinion as the protestants, of which we have a remark- 
able instance in a French archbishop. This prelate, per- 
plexed'to know what step to take respecting the bull Uni* 
genitus, the rigours of which put an end to the last hopes of 
reconciliation between the catholic and protestant churchesy 
consulted Basnage, and requested to know how he would 
himself act, if in his place. Basnage replied, that it did 
not perhaps become him to give advice in a case of so much 
difficulty: but suggested that the archbishop ought to 
examine himself whether he acknowledged the pope's au- 
thority, or not : that in the first case he was obliged to ad- 
mit the constitution ; that in the second case he might re- 
ject it ; but he should consider, that if he argued conse- 
quentially, this would carry him farther than he would go. 
Basnage was a man of great sincerity and candour, and 
had a politeness seldom to be met with among learned men. 
He was affable and easy in his behaviour, and always ready 
to use his interest in favour of the unfortunate. He an- 
swered every person who consulted him with the utmost 
affability and kindness. He was a good friend, a man of 
great probity, and though he confuted errors with, zeal and 
spirit, yet he treated the persons themselves with peculiar 
moderation. His constitution, which before had been very 
firm, began to decline m 1722; and after a lingering ill- 
ness he died with exemplary piety, Dec. 22, 1723, in the 
seventy-first year of his age. He left only one daughter, 
who was married to Mr. de la Sarraz, privy counsellor to 
the king of Poland. 

The favourite studies of his life, and much of his cha- 
racter, may be ascertained from his works, which were 
very numerous: 1. " Examen des Methodes," &c. Co* 
logne, 1684, 12mo; or an examination of the methods 
proposed by the assembly of the clergy of France in 1682. 
Simon answered some remarks in this work on his " Cri- 
tical History." 2. " Consideration sur l'etat de ceux qui 
sont tombed." This consists of letters sent to the church 
of Ro^n, respecting some falling- off among its members, 

B A S N A G E. 113 

Rotterdam, 1686, 12mo. 3. cf Reponse a M. PEveque 
deMeauxsursa lettre pastorale," Cologne, 1686, 12mo; 
all the preceding without his name. 4. " Divi Chrysos- 
tomi Epistola ad Csesarium Monachum, &c." To this 
epistle are added three dissertations on the heresy of 
Apollinaris, on the works attributed to Athanasius, and 
an answer to father Simon. It was printed at Rotterdam, 
1687, 8vo, and reprinted there 1694, under the title of 
t% Dissertationes Historico-Thieologicae." 5. " La Com- 
munion Sainte," a treatise on worthily communicating, 
Rotterdam, 1688, 8vo, reprinted at least ten times,, and 
even adopted as. a pious and useful work, by some of the 
popish clergy. 6. " Histoire de la Religion des Eglises 
Reform£es, &c." containing an account of the succession 
of the reformed churches, the perpetuity of their faith, 
especially since the eighth century, the establishment of 
the reformation, the continuation of the same doctrines 
from the reformation to the present time, with an history 
of the origin and progress of the chief errors of the Roman 
churcb 9 in answer to the bishop of Meaux's " History of 
the variations of the Protestant churches." This was first 
published at Rotterdam, 2 vols. 12mo, reprinted by the 
author in his church history iu 1699, .but enlarged and 
published separately in 1721, 5 vols. 8vo, and after the 
author's death, in 1725, 2 vols. 4to; the best and most 
complete edition. 7. " Trait6 de la conscience/' Amst. 
1696, 2 vols. 8?o; Lyons, 3 vols. 12mo. This is partly 
an answer to Bayle's philosophical commentary. 8. " Let- 
tres Pastorales," intended to animate the protestants on 
the renewal of persecution, 1698, 4to. 9. "Histoire de 
l'Eglise depuis Jesus Christ jus<ju*& present," Rotterdam, 
2 vols. fol. 10. "Trait£ des prejugez," in answer to the 
pastoral charges of the French prelates de Noailles,, Col- 
bert, Bossuet, and Nesmond, 1701, 3 vols. 8vo. 11. " De- 
fense du Trait€ des prejugez, &c." Delft, 1703, 8vo. 
12. " Dissertation historique sur 1' usage de la Benediction 
nuptiale," inserted in the History of the Works of the 
Learned, for 1703, an attack upon some of the popish mar~ 
riage ceremonies. 13. " Dissertation sur la man i ere dont 
le Canon de l'Ecriture Sainte s'est formed &c." intended 
as an apology for what he had said in his Church History 
against Mr. Richardson's " Defence of the Canon of the 
New Testament." 14, "Histoire de 1'ancien et du^nou*. 
veau Testament/' Amst. fol. 1 705, with cuts by de Hooge, 
Vol. IV. I . 

11* B A SNAGE 

often reprinted, and in various forms. 1 5. u Histoire de* 
Juifs," Rotterdam, 1706, 5 vols. 12 mo, Hague, 17l6 y 
15 vols. 12mo, translated into English by Taylor, 1706^ 
fol. and an abridgment of the English by Crull* 170&, 
2 vols. 8vo. It appears that Dupin had reprinted this work 
at Paris, without consulting the author, and with altera- 
tions adapted to the sentiments of the church of Rome. 
This occasioned Basnage to publish a sixth, or supplemen- 
tary volume, under the title of, 16. u L'Histoire des Juifs 
reclamee et retablie par son veritable auteur, &e."" Rott. 
1711, 12 mo. 17. " Entretieris sur la Religion,'* Rotter- 
dam, f 1709, I2mo, and frequently reprinted, and in 17 IS 
enlarged to two vols. 12mo, but without his name. 
1 8. " Sermons sur divers- sujets, &c." Rott. 2 vols. 8 vo, 
on which Niceron makes a curious remark, that there is 
more morality in them than js generally in those of the 
Protestants. 19. <fr Prospectus novae editionis Canisii, 
Dacherii, &c." He had undertake^ an improved edition 
of Canisius's " Lectiones antique,'' but his booksellers not 
being able to support the expence, transferred it to the 
Wetsteins, who published this great collection under the 
title of " Thesaurus Monumentorum Eccl. et Hist. &,c". 
Antwerp, 1725, 7 vols. fol. 20. "Preface sur la duree 
de la persecution/' prefixed to Claude's >" Complaints of. 
the Protestants." 21. " Antiquitez Judaiques, ou- Re- 
marques critiques sur la Republique des Hebreux," Amst. 
1713, 2 vols. 8vo, intended as critical remarks on Cunaeu* 
" De Republica Hebraeorum." 22. " Reflexions desin- 
terressees sur la Constitution du pape Clement XL qui'con- 
damne le nouveau Testament du P. Quesnel," Amst. 1714, 
8vo. 23. " L'unit6, la visibility &c. de 1'EglUe," Amst. 
1715, 8vo. 24. u Avis sqr la tenue d'un Concile National 
en France, &c." 1715, 8vo, without his name. 25. "L'etat 
present de l'Eglise Gallicane," chiefly on the conduct of 
pope Clement XL Amst. 171.9, 12mo. 26. « Instruction* 
pastorales aux Beformez de France," concerning obedi- 
ence due to the king, 1720, 12roo. This was written at 
the desire of the regent duke of Orleans, yet it was at- 
tempted to be- answered *by Catelan, a French bishop. 
The controversy, however, was* carried on between him 
and Basnage with great liberality. 27. " Annates, des 
Provinces Unles," vol. L Hague, fol. 1719. Thfe volume 
contains the history of the united provinces from 1646 to 
1667. The. second, published in 1726, proceeds as far 

B A S N A G E. 115 

as the peace of Nimeguen in 1678. This valuable work 
was undertaken at the request of the counsellor deputies 
of Holland and West Friesland, who furnished the author 
with materials from their archives. .28. " Nouveaux Ser- s 
mons,'* 1720, 8vo. 29. " Dissertation historique sur les 
Duels et les ordres de Chevalerie," This dissertation on 
duels is said to be a very curious work. Besides these, 
M. Basnage was am occasional contributor to the literary, 
journals, and left many manuscripts. His style, in the 
greater part of his writings, is inferior to his matter, a re- 
mark which belongs generally to voluminous writers. * 

BASNAGE (Henry), de Beacjval, brother to the pre- 
ceding; was born at Roan, in 1659, and, like his father, 
became an advocate of the parliament of Normandy. Oil 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, he took refuge in 
Holland, where he published a very liberal and sensible 
work, entitled, " Trait6 de la Tolerance," 1684, 12nrto. 
When Bayle discontinued his " Republic of Letters," Bas- 
nage commenced a similar literary journal, entitled " His- 
toire des ouvrages des Savans," in Sept. 1687, and con- 
cluded it in June- 1709, in all 24 vols. 12mo, written with 
great impartiality, and containing many valuable analyses 
and extracts from books. He also published an improved 
edition of Furetiere's dictionary, 3 vols. fol. The " Dic- 
tionnaire (Jniversel," printed at Trevoux, in 1704, 3 vols, 
fol. is an exact copy of the preceding, but without the least 
notice of either Furetiere or Basnage. Our author died at 
the Hague, in. 1710. 9 x 


BASSANTIN (James), a Scotch astronomer in the six- 
teenth century, whose writings have deservedly transmitted 
his memory to posterity, was the son of the laird of Bas- 
santin in the • Merse, and born some time in the reign of 
king James IV: He was sent while young to the univer- 
sity of Glasgow ; where, instead of applying himself to 
words, he studied things ; and, while other young men of 
his age were perfecting themselves in style, he arrived at 
a surprising knowledge, for that time, in almost all branched 
of the mathematics. -In order to improve himself in this 
science, and to gratify his passion for seeing other coun- 
tries, he travelled, soon after he quitted the college of 

1 Gen. Diet.— Memoirs of Literature, vol. IX. XII. and XIII,— Niceron,-* 
Fabric. Bib!. Gr*c. * Diet, Hist.— Gen. Diet. 



Glasgow, through the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, 
and Germany, fixing himself at last . in France, where he 
taught the mathematics with applause, in the university 
of Paris. He fell in there with the common notions of the 
times, and was either credulous enough to entertain a good 
opinion of judicial astrology, or bad so much address as to 
make the credulity of others useful to him, by supporting 
an erroneous system, then in too great credit for him to 
demolish, if he had been disposed, as the humour of be- 
lieving such kind of predictions never ran so strong as at 
this time, nor any where stronger than in. that country^ 
At last;, having a desire to see his relations, and spend his 
remaining days in his own country, he resolved to quit 
France, where he had acquired a high reputation, and 
some fortune, and returned home in the year 1562. It 
was doubtless to our author that sir James Melvil alludes 
in his Memoirs, when he says that his brother, sir Robert, 
while he was using his endeavours to reconcile the two 
queens, Elizabeth and Mary, met with one Bassaptin, a 
man learned in the high sciences, who told him " that alt 
bis travel would be in vain ; for, said he, they will never 
meet together: and next, there will never be anything 
but dissembling and secret hatred, for a while; and at 
length, captivity and utter wreck to our queen from Eng- 
land." He added, " that the kingdom of England at 
length shall fall,, of right, to the crown of Scotland; but 
it shall cost many bloody battles ; and the Spaniards shall 
be helpers, and take a part to themselves for their labour/' 
A prediction in which Bassantin partly guessed right, which 
it is likely he was enabled to do from a judicious considera- 
tion of probable circumstances and appearances. 

It does, not at all appear in what manner he spent the 
remainder of his life after he came back to Scotland ; but 
it is certain he did not survive long, since his decease h&p* 
pened, as those who were well acquainted with him attest, 
in 1568. As to his learning, we are told by those who 
admired it most, it lay not in languages, of which, except 
his mother-tongue, he knew none thoroughly, though h« ' 
apoke and taught in French, but in a very incorrect man- 
ner, and wrote much worse. He had very clear notions in 
most parts of his writings, and was far from being a con-* 
temptible astronomer, though the commendations bestowed 
on him by some authors very far surpass his deserts. Hq 
was too much tinctured with the superstition of the times, 

B A S S A N T I N. 117 

not to intermix a vast deal of false, and even ridiculous 
matter in bis writings, on the virtuous aspects, and influ- 
ences of the planets ; yet in other respects he shews much 
good sense and industry, which render bis works worth 
reading, and ought to secure both them and his memory 
from oblivion. As to his religion, he is reported to have 
been a zealous Protestant ; and, with regard to his po- 
litical principles, he is said to have adhered to the famous 
earl of Murray, then struggling for that power which he 
afterwards obtained. The works published by our author 
were : X. " Astronomia, Jacobi Bassantini Scoti, opus ab- 
solutissimum," &c. in which the observations of the most 
expert mathematicians on the heavens are digested into 
order and method, Latin and French, Geneva, 1599, fol. 
%. " Paraphrase de l'Astrolabe, avec une amplification de 
P usage de Tastrolabe," Lyons, 1555; and again at Paris, 
1617, 8vo. 3. " Super mathematica genethliaca ;" i e. of 
the calculation of nativities. 4. " Arithmetica." 5. M Mu- 
sica secundum Platonem." 6. " De Mathesi in genere." 
The very titles of his works, joined to the age in which 
he flourished, sufficiently justify his right to a place in this 
work ; and, though he might have foibles, yet, without 
doubt his practical skill was great, and the pains he took 
contributed not a little to bring in that accuracy and cor- 
rectness in observations, which have effectually exploded 
those superstitions to which, with other great men, he was 
too much addicted. l 

BASSET (Fulk), bishop of London in the reign of 
king Henry III. was brother of Gilbert Basset, one of 
the barons, who died by a fall from his horse, leaving 
behind him one only son, an infant, by whose death 
soon after, the inheritance devolved to Fulk. In 1225,, 
be was made provost of the collegiate church of St. John 
of Beverly, and in 1230, dean of York. In December 
1241, he was elected by the chapter of London, bishop of 
that see, in the room of Roger Niger, both in regard of 
his family and his great virtues, and notwithstanding the 
king's recommendation of Peter de Egueblanche,. bishop 
of Hereford. The see of Canterbury being vacant at the 
time of this prelate's election, he was not consecrated till 
the 9th of October, 1244, at which tune the solemnity 

> Biog. BriU~Mackeii?je'g Scotch writers, toL. Ill, p. SL^ujtton^RUth, 

118 BASSET. 

was performed at London in the church of the Holy Trinity. 
In the year 1250, bishop Basset began to have a warm 
dispute with archbishop Boniface, concerning the right of 
metropolitical visitation.. The see of Canterbury had from 
the beginning an undoubted authority over all the churches 
of that province, received appeals, censured offenders, and 
occasionally exercised a jurisdiction over the bishops and 
canons of the cathedral churches. But hitherto solemn 
metropolitical visitations at stated times were not in use. 
Boniface was the first who introduced them, and loaded 
the bishops and chapters with a prodigious expetice, under 
the name of procurations. On the 12th of May, 1250, 
be visited the bishop of London, and, being intolerably in* 
solent, as well as avaricious^ treated the good prelate with 
the grossest indignities, and most opprobrious language. 
Designing to visit the chapter of St. Paul's, and the priory 
of St. Bartholomew, he was opposed by the canons of both 
places, alleging that they had a learned and diligent bishop, 
who was their proper visitor, and that they neither ought, 
nor would submit to any other visitatorial power. The 
archbishop on hearing this, excommunicated the canons, 
and involved the bishop, as favouring their obstinacy, in 
the same sentence. Both sides appealed to Rome, where 
the archbishop, supported by money and the royal favour, 
pleaded his cause in person ; and, notwithstanding the 
English clergy, by their proctors, offered the pope four 
thousand marks to be exempted from the archiepiscopal 
visitation, be obtained a confirmation of his visitatorial 
power^ with this restriction only, that he should be mo- 
derate in his demand of procurations. ' ( 

But Basset succeeded better in opposing. Rustand, the 
pope's legate. The king and the pope had agreed to ex- 
tort a large sum of money from the English clergy, and 
to share the plunder.. For this purpose Rustand sum- 
moned a council at London in October 1255, in which he 
produced a commission from the pope to demand a certain 
sum of them ; but the bishop of London rising up, said : 
?' Before I will submit to such great servitude, injury, and 
intolerable oppression of the church, I will lose my head." 
The rest of the prelates, encouraged by his firmness, una- 
nimously decreed, that the. pope's demand should, not be 
complied with, nor any regard paid to Rustand's authority 
or censures. The legate carried his complaints to the 
king, who, sending for the bishop of London, reviled him 

Basset. 119 

and threatened him with the severest papal censures. To 
which Fulk replied, " The king and the pope, though 
they cannot justly, yet, as being stronger than roe, 
may force my bishopric from me ; they may take away 
the mitre, but the helmet will remain :" and this steadi- 
ness, and the decree of the council, totally disconcerted 
the scheme. #■ 

In 1256, this prelate began to build the church of St. 
Faith, near St. Paul's, on the spot which king John had 
formerly given to the bishops and chapter of London for 
a market. In the latter part of his life he is said to have 
inclined to the side of the barons. But we have only the 
authority of Matthew Paris for this, while bishop Godwin 
informs us that our other historians^ who acknowledge Basset 
to have been a good man, and a wise, pious, and vigilant 
pastor, censure him for not joining the barons, but re- 
maining faithful to bis prince, He died of the plague in 
1259, having sat near fifteen years from the time of his 
consecration, and was buried May 25, in St. Paul's church. 
Bishop Basset founded two chantries in his cathedral church, 
near the altar of the blessed virgin, for himself and his 
father and mother. He also bequeathed to his church a 
golden apple, two rich chests for relics, some ecclesi- 
astical vestments, and several books relatipg to church 
matters.* • ' 

BASSET (Peter), esq. a gentleman of a good family, 
and a writer in the fifteenth century, was chamberlain, or 
gentleman of the privy chamber, to king Henry V. on 
whom he was a constant attendant and an eye-witness of 
most of his glorious actions both at home and abroad ; all 
which he partipularly described. Beginning at his ten^ 
detest years, he gave a full and exact account of Henry's 
several expeditions into France; his glorious victories, 
large conquests, and illustrious triumphs in that kingdom ; 
his advantageous and honourable peace with Charles VI. 
his marriage with the princess Catherine, his coronation at 
Paris ; and, finally, his death, and the coronation of king 
Henry VI. his son and successor. These several remark- 
able events Peter Basset comprized in one volume, which 
he entitled "The Actes of king Henry V." This book 
was never printed; and was said to be extant in manu- 
script in the college of heralds, and perhaps in some Other 

* Biog. Brit. 

120 BASSET, 

places ; but upon the closest examination it appears that 
he is originally quoted only by Edward Hall, in his Chro- 
nicle, and perhaps by Bale. What has been quoted out 
of his writings, either by Mr. Thomas Goodwin in his 
" History of the reign of Henry the Fifth," or by other 
historians within that period, is visibly borrowed from Hall. 
Dr. Nicolson mentions Basset only upon the authority of 
Pits, who had taken his account from Bale. 

In one particular he .differs from the rest of king Henry 
the Fifth's historians : for whereas Monstrelet says that 
that prince died of a St. Anthony's fire; others, of a fever 
and dysentery ; or of the disease of St. Fiacre, which is a 
flux accompanied with the haemorrhoids; Basset, who 
was with him at the time of his decease, affirms that he 
died of a pleurisy. Basset flourished about the year 1430, 
under the reign of Henry VI. l 

BASSEVlLLE (N. I. Hugonbe), a Frenchman, who 
was, unfortunately for him, sent to Rome as ambassador. 
At the commencement of the revolution, he was editor of 
the journal called the " Mercure," with Mallet- Dupan, 
and afterwards of the " Journal d'etat et du citoyen," be- 
gun by Carra. Having made diplomatic affairs his ^par- 
ticular study, he was sent to Home, in 1792, as envoy 
extraordinary, but was so unpopular as to be insulted in 
that city whenever he made his appearance. At length, on 
Jan. 13, 1793, the populace, irritated at his wearing the 
French cockade, pelted him with stones until he reached 
the house of the banker, Monette, where he received a 
wound from one of the mob, which proved fatal in about 
twenty-four hours. Not content with this murder, the in- 
surgents set fire to the French academy des eleves in 
Rome, and insulted many of the students. It is said that 
this insurrection was occasioned by the substitution of a 
new coat of arms, probably in the taste of the French re- 
volutionists. Basseville was a member of several academies, 
agd wrote : 1. "Elemens de Mythologie," 8vo. 2. " Pre- 
cis historique sur la vie du Genevois Lefort, principal 
ministre de Pierre -le- Grand, gi>nd amiral de Russie," 
1786. 3. " Memoires historiques et politiques sur la Re- 
volution de France,'* 1790, 2 vols. 8vo. 9 


BASSI (Laura Maria Catherina), the wife of Dr. 
Joseph Verati, a very ingenious lady, was born in 1 7 12, 

1 Biog. Brit * Diet. Historique. 

B A S S I. 121 

and died at Bologna, of which she was a native, in 1778. 
Such* were her acknowledged talents and learning, that,* 
in 1732, she was honoured with a Doctor's degree, after 
having disputed publicly in Latin, and her reputation 
became afterwards completely established by a course of 
lectures on experimental philosophy, which she delivered 
from 1745 to the time of her death. Madame de Bocage, 
in her " Letters on Italy,*' informs us that she attended 
one of those lectures, in which Madame Bassi developed 
the phenomena of irritability, with precision and depth. 
The greater part of the literati of Europe, to whom she 
Was well known] bore testimony to her learning, particu- 
larly in the Greek, Latin, French, and Italian ; nor was 
she less distinguished for her numerous exertions of charity 
to the poor and the orphan. We do not find that she pub- 
lished anything, but was the theme of much poetical praise.- 
A collection of these tributes of applause appeared in 1732, 
with her portrait, and an inscription, " L. M. C. Bassi, 
Phil. Doct Coll. Academ. Institut. Scientiar. Societ. JEtat. 
Ann. xx." and with the following allusion to Petrarch's 

" Laura, vale, ingenio quae et carmine nota Petrarchae. 
Laura haec eloquio, et mente Petrarcha sibi." * 


BASSIUS (Henry), a surgeon and anatomist of con- 
siderable reputation, was born at Bremen in 1690, whence, 
in 1713, he went to Halle, and studied medicine under 
the ablest professors. In 1715 he removed to Strasburgh, 
and afterwards to Basle, where he confined his researches 
entirely to anatomy and surgery. In 1718 he took his 
doctor's degree at Halle, and some time after was ap- 
pointed professor extraordinary of anatomy and surgery, 
which office he held until his death, in 1754. He pub- 
lished: 1. " Disputatio de Fistula ani feliciter curanda," 
Halle, 1718. This, was his inaugural thesis, and Hallet 
thought it so excellent a performance that he inserted it 
among his " Theses," and Macquart translated it inty 
French, Paris, 1759, 12mo. In this treatise he discovery 
a considerable degree of conformity between the practice; 
of the ancients and moderns in the cure of the fi^tulsu 
2. " Grundlicher Beritcht oon bandagen," Leipsic, 1720, 
and 1723, 8vo, and translated into Dutch. 3. ". Obser- 

i Diet. Hiatorique.— Republic of Letters, vol. XH. p. 318. 

122 ' B A S S I U S. 

vationes anatomico-chirurgico-medicae," ftalle, 17ii, Svo. 
In this there are many judicious reflections and cases, ac- 
companied by figures descriptive of some instruments of 
his invention. 4. " Tractatus de morbis venereis," Leip-* 
sic, 1764, 8vo, a posthumous work. Bassius published 
also in German, " Notes on the Surgery of Nuck," Halle, 
1728, 8VO. 1 

BASSOL (John), a native of Scotland in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, applied in youth to the study 
of polite literature and philosophy, after which he studied 
divinity at Oxford, under Duns Scotus, with whom he 
went to Paris, in 1304. After continuing his studies for 
some time at that university, he entered into the order of 
the Minorites, in 1313. Being sent by the general of the 
order to Rheims, he studied medicine, and taught there 
for seven or eight years, with much credit, upon " the 
Master of the Sentences." In 1322 he was sent to Mech- 
lin, in Brahant, where he spent the remainder of his days 
in teaching theology, and died in that city in the year 
1347. We have of his, " Commentaria seu Lecturae in 
quatuor Libros Sententiarum," Paris, 1517, fol. a work 
which was in such high* reputation in his day as to procure 
him from his brethren the schoolmen, the title of " Doctor 
Ordinatissimus," in allusion to his method and perspi- 
cuity. In the same volume are " Miscellanea Philosophica 
et Medica." 8 

BASSOMPIERRE (Francois de), colonel-general of 
the Swiss guards, and marshal de France in 1622, was 
born in Lorraine of a family of distinction, April 22, 1579. 
He served in the war of the Savoy in 1600, and in 1603 
went into Hungary, where he was solicited to serve under 
the emperor, but he preferred the service of France. In 
1617 he cotnmanded the ordnance at the siege of Chateau- 
Porcien, and a short time after was wounded at the siege 
of Rhetel. He served afterwards, as marshal of the camp, 
at the battle of Pont-de-Ce, the sieges of St. John d'An- 
geli, of Montpellier, &c. In 1622, when made a marshal 
of France, he was colonel of the Swiss, and at the same 
time sent as ambassador extraordinary to Spain. In 1625 
he served in the same capacity in Swisserland, and in 1626 
in England. He was also at the siege of Rochelle, and, 
as on all other occasions, was distinguished for skill and 

l Diet. Hist.-— Haller, Bibl. An at.. 

t Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, to!. 1«— Cave, vol, II.— Dupia. 


bravery, but the cardinal de Richelieu, who bad to com- 
plain of his caustic tongue, and who dreaded all those by 
whom he thought he might one day be eclipsed, caused 
him to be imprisoned in the Bastilld in 1631. Bassompierre 
had foreseen the ascendancy which the capture of Rochelle, 
the bulwark of the Protestants, would give to that minister ; 
and therefore was heard to say on that occasion : ".You 
will see that we shall be fools enough to take Rochelle.'* 
He passed the time of his confinement in reading and 
writing. One day as he was busily turning over the leaves- 
of the Bible, Malleville asked him what he was looking for ? 
" A passage that I cannot find," returned the marechal, "a 
way to get out of prison." Here also he composed his 
" Memoirs," printed at Cologne in 1665, 3 vols. Like the 
generality of this sort of books, it contains some curious 
anecdotes, and a great many trifles. They begin at 1598, 
and terminate in 1631. His detention lasted twelve years, 
and it was not till after the death of Richelieu that he re- 
gained his liberty. There is also by him a " Relation of 
his emhassies," much esteemed, 1665 and 1668, 2 vols. 
J2mo ;> likewise " Remarks on the history of Louis XIII." 
by Duplets, in 12mo, a work somewhat too satirical, but 
curious. Bassompierre lived till the 1 2th of October 1*546, 
when he was found dead in his bed. He was a great dealer 
in bons mots, which were not always delicate. On his 
coming out of the Bastille, as be was become extremely cor- 
pulent, fqr want of exercise, the queen asked him, "Quand 
il .accoucheroit ?" —."Quand j'aurais trouv6 une sage 
femme," answered he.; which- will not bear a translation, 
as- the wit* turns' on the double meaning .of sage fenime, 
.which signifies either a midwife, or a sensible woman, 
Louis X11I. asked, him his age, almost at tile same time: 
he made himself no mpre than fifty. The king seeming 
surprised : " Sir," answered Bassompierre, I subtract ten 

• years passed in the Bastille, because I did not employ 
them in your service " Although he b*d been employed 

* in embassies, negociation was not his principal talent ; but 
he possessed other qualities that qualified him for an am- 
bassador. He was a very handsome man, had great pre- 
sence of mind, was affable, lively, and agreeable, very po- 
lite and generous. After his liberation from the Bastille, 
the duchess of Aiguillon, niece of the cardinal de Riche- 
lieu, offered him five hundred thousand livres to dispose of 
as he should think proper : " Madam/ 9 said Bassompierre, 


as he thanked her, '< your uncle has done me too much 
harm, to allow me to receive so much good of you." He 
spoke all the languages of Europe with the same facility as 
his own. Play and women were his two predominant pas- 
sions. Being secretly informed that he was to be arrested, 
be rose before day, and burnt upwards of six thousand 
letters, which he had received from ladies of the city and 
the court. l 

BAST A (George), an able military commander, origi- 
nally of Epirus, was born at Rocca near Tarentum. The 
duke of Parma, under whom he served, was highly satis- 
fied with the success of all the affairs he entrusted him 
with. In 1596 he threw provisions into Fere, besieged by 
Henry IV. an enterprise which was executed with a secre- 
cy and celerity that did him great honour, and the empe- 
ror afterwards engaged him in his service. He signalized 
himself in Hungary and in Transylvania, where he con* 
quered and reduced the rebels. He died about 1607, 
leaving two works which have preserved his memory^ 
1. " Maestro di campo generate," Venice^ 1606. 2. u Go* 
verno della Cavalleria leggiera," Francfort, 1612. Naude, 
in his treatise on Military Study, recommends these trea- 
tises, as having acquired and deserving universal approba- 
tion. • 

BASTARD (Thomas), a clergyman and poet, was bora 
at Blandiord in Dorsetshire, and educated at Winchester- 
school, from whence he removed to New college, Oxford, 
where he was chosen perpetual fellow in 1588, and two 
years after took the degree of B. A. but indulging too 
much his passion for satire, he was expelled the college for 
a libel Not long after, he was made chaplain to Thomas* 
earl of Suffolk, lord treasurer of England, through whose 
interest he became vicar of Bere Regis, and rector of Ai- 
mer in his native county, having some time before taken 
the degree of M. A. He was a person of great natural 
Endowments, a celebrated poet, and in his latter jrears an 
excellent preacher. His conversation was witty and face- 
tious, which made bis company be courted by all ingenious 
men. He was thrice married, as appears from one of his 
epigrams. Towards the latter end ot his life, being disor- 
dered in his senses, and brought into debt, h$ was con- 
fined in the prison of All- Hallows parish in Dorchester, 

\ Mortri^-Z)icL Hitt. t Gen. Dict,«wiMca?eiv 


where dying iti a very obscure and mean condition, he was 
buried in the church-yard belonging to that parish, April 
the 19th, 1618. 

His poetical performances are, 1. " Chrestoleros ; seven 
bookes of Epigrames," London, 1598, 12mo, of which au 
account may be seen in the €!ensura Literaria, vol. IV. 
2. " Magna Britannia," a Latin poem in three books, de- 
dicated to king James I. London, 1605, 4to. Besides 
which, there is in the king's library, " Jacobo regi I. car- 
men gratulatoriiun," Under this head we may mention 
his libels, two of which Mr. Wood met with in his collec- 
tion of libels or lampoons, written by several Oxford stu- 
dents in the reign of queen Elizabeth. One of them is 
entitled " An admonition to the city of Oxford," or his li- 
bel entitled " Mar-prelate's Bastardini ;" wherein he re-' 
fleets upon all persons of note in Oxford, who were sus- 
pected of criminal conversation with other men's wives, or 
with common strumpets. The other, made after his expul- 
sion, and in which he disclaims the former, begins thus : 
" Jenkin, why man I why Jenkin? fie for shame," &c. But 
neither of these were printed. He also published " Five 
Sermons," Lond. 1615, 4to ; and in the same year a collec- 
tion of " Twelve Sermons," 4to. Warton speaks of him 
as an elegant classical scholar, and better qualified for that 
specie* of occasional pointed Latin epigram, established by 
his fellow collegian, John Owen, than for any sort of Eng- 
lish versification. ' 

BASTIDE (John Francis de la), a very industrious 
French writer, was born at Marseilles, July 15, 1724, and 
after studying in his own country, came to Paris, where he 
engaged in a great variety of literary enterprises. He was 
editor of the " Bibliotheque universelie des Romans," Pa- 
ris, 1775 — 1789, 112 vols. 12 mo, and the " Choix des 
ancieos Mercures," 1757— -1764, in 108 vols. 12 mo. He 
also published, 1. " L'etre pensant," a kind of romance, 
Paris, 1755, 12mo; 2* " Les choses comme ont doit tes 
voir," ibid. 1758, Bvo, in which he endeavours partly to 
excuse, and partly to reforn^ what is wrong in morals and 
manners. 3. " Le Nouveau Spectateur," 2 vols. 8vo, an 
attempt at a periodical essay in the manner of the Specta- 
tor, but without the materials which a free country fur* 

* Biog. Brit.— Ath. O*. vol. II.— Cens. Lit. vols. II. and IV.— Phillips's The- 
atrun, edit. 1800, p. £69.«*RUson's Bib). Poetica. — Warton's Hist, of Poetry, 
tvl. IV. p. 10, 71. 

Iff BAS-TID'E?- 

Irishes. 4. " Aventures de Victoire Pohty','* Amsterdam 
and Paris, 1758, 2. vols. 12mo. 6, *t Confessions d' on Fat,** 
Paris, 1749, 12mo. 6. " Le Depit et le Voyage/' a poem 
with notes, and "Lettres V&nitiennes," Paris, 1771, 8vo. 

7. V Le Monde comme il est," iWd. . 1760, 4 vol*. 12mo. 

8. ," Le Tombeau Philosftphique," Amsterdam, »175l, 
12mq. 9. " Les Tetes Eolles," Paris, 1753, 12mo. 10. 
" Varietes. Litteraires, Galantes,.&c» -ibitt. 1774, 8 vo.. 1 1. 
" Le Tribunal de V Amour," ibid.; 1730^ 12mo. 12. *< La 
TrentainedeCythere," Paris, 1753, l£mo. In the opinion 
of his countrymen,, there are few of these works' which rise 
above mediocrity, although the author generally pleases by 
his sprightly manner. The Diet. Hist, to which we are 
chiefly indebted for this article, does not mention the time 
of his death. There was another la Ifatstide,' called the el* 
der, who published, in 1773, two volumes of a history of 
French literature, but "how far connected with the author 
we know not. * * • • 

BASTON (Robert), a poet of some note in ihe four- 
teenth century, and author of several works, was born in 
Yorkshire, not far from Nottingham. In his youth he be- 
came a Carmelite monk, and afterwards prior of the convent 
of that order at Scarborough. Bale says that he was like- 
wise poet laureat and public orator at Oxford, which Wood 
thinks doubtful. Edward I. (not Edward II. as Mr. Warton 
says) carried him with him in his expedition to Scotland in 
1304, to be an eye-witness and celebrate his conquest of 
Scotland in verse. Holinshed mentions this circumstance 
as a singular proof of Edward's presumption and confi- 
dence in his undertaking against Scotland, but it appears 
that a poet was a stated officer hi the royal retinue when* 
the king went to war. On this occasion Baston was pecu- 
liarly unfortunate, being taken prisoner; and compelled by 
the Scots to write a pauegyric oft Robert Bruce, as the 
price of his ransom. This was the, hibre provoking, as hie- 
had just before written on the siege of Stirling castle in, 
honour of his master, which performance is extant in For- 
dun's Scoti-chronicon. His works, : according to Bate atid 
Pits, were written under these titles : 1. M De Strivilniensi 
obsidione ;" of the Siege of Stirling^ a poem in one book.- 
2. " De altero Scotorum Bello," in one book. & " De 
Scotiae Guerris variis," in one book. 4. " De variis mundi 

* Diet. Hist. 

B A S tO N. 12* 

Statibus," in one book. 5. " De Sacerdotum luxuriis,'* 
in one book. . 6. " Contra Artistas," in one book. 7. " De 
Divite et Lazaro." - 8. " Epistolae ad diversos," in one 
book. 9. ." Sermones Synodales," in one book. 10. A 
Book of Poems; and, 11. A volume of tragedies and co- 
medies in English, the existence of which is doubtful. His 
other poems are in monkish Latin hexameters.* He' died 
about 1310, and was buried at Nottingham. l 

BASTWICK (Dr. John), an English physician of the 
last century, has acquired some celebrity, more from the 
punishment he suffered for writing, than for the merit of 
wljat he has written. He was born at Writtle in Essex, 
1593, and studied at Emanuel college, Cambridge, .but 
leaving the university without a degree, he travelled for 
nine years, and was made doctor of physic at Pa,dua. He 
printed at Leyden, 1624, a small piece entitled " Elenchus 
Religionis Papistic®, in quo probatur neque Apostolicam, 
neque Catholicam, imo neque Romanam esse," 24mo. 
Afterwards, in England, he "published M Fiagellum Pohtifi- 
cis et Episcoporum latialium;" and though he declared, in 
the preface, that he intended nothing against such bishops 
as acknowledged their authority from kings and emperors ; 
yet our English prelates imagining that some things in his 
book were levelled at them, he was cited before the high 
commission court, fined 1000/. and sentenced to be excom- 
municated, to be debarred the practice of physic, to have 
his book burnt, to pay cofcts of suit, and to remain in prison 
till he made a recantation. Accordingly he was confined 
two years in the Gate-house, where he wrote " Apologe- 
ticus ad Proesules Anglicanos," &c. and a book called 
u The New Litany," in which he taxed the bishops witK 
an inclination to popery, and exclaimed against the severity 
and injustice of the high-commission's proceedings against 
him. For this he was sentenced to pay a fine of 5000/. to 
stand in the pillory in the Palace Yard, Westminster, and 
there lose his ears, and to suffer perpetual imprisonment in 
a remote part of the kingdom. The same senjj#nce was, 
the same yeatr, 1637, passed and executed u^on Prynne 
and Burton. Bastwick was conveyed to Lauriceston castle 
in Cornwall, and thence removed to St IVJdry's castle in the 
Isle of Scilly, where his nearest relations were- not permit- 
ted to visit him. The house of commons, • however, • in 

1 Biog. Brit— Winstanley and Jaoob. — Wanton's Hist «f Poetry, vol. I. p. 
232.— -Bait and Pits,— Leland.— Saxii Onomastieon. 

* — 

J23 B A S T W I C K. 

1640, ordered him, as well as the others, to be brought 
hack to London; and they were attended all the way thi- 
ther by vast multitudes of people, with loud acclamations 
of joy. The several proceedings against them were voted 
illegal, unjust, and against the liberty of the subject ; their 
sentence reversed ; their fine remitted ; and a reparation 
of 5000/. each ordered out of the estates of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, the high-commissioners, and other lords, 
who had voted against them in the star-chamber. 

Bastwick was alive in 1648, but when he died is uncer* 
tain. He appears to have been one of those turbulent lovers 
of popularity, who lose their fame by endeavouring to carry 
the principles of liberty into practice. He evidently quar- 
relled with the leaders of some of the parties which arose 
out of the convulsions of the times, and was suffered to de- 
part in obscurity. This is evident from the titles of the 
pamphlets he published, besides those above-mentioned, 
which were, 1. " Independency not God's Ordinance ;'* 
to which H. Burton wrote an answer under % this title : 
" Vindiciae Veritatis ; truth vindicated against calumny* 
In a brief answer to Dr. Bastwick' s two late books, entitled 
* Independency not God's Ordinance,*" Loud. 1645, 4to. 
2. " The utter routing of the whole army of all the Inde- 
pendents and Sectaries, with the total overthrow of their 
monarchy." 3. " Defence of Himself against Lilburn." l 

BATE (George), an eminent physician, was born at 
Maid's Morton near Buckingham, 1608. At fourteen 
years of age he became one of the clerks of New college, 
in Oxford 5 from whence he was removed to Queen's col- 
lege, and afterwards to St. Edmund's hall. When he had 
taken the degrees of bachelor and M. A. he entered on the 
study of physic ; and having taken a bachelor's degree in 
that faculty in 1629, he obtained a licence, and for some 
years practised in and about Oxford, chiefly amongst the 
Puritans, who at that time considered him as one of their 
party. In 1637 he took his degree of doctor in physic*, 
and bec^pae so eminent in his profession, that when king 
Charles kept his court at Oxford, he was his principal phy- 
sician. When the king's affairs declined, Dr. Bate re- 
moved ta London, where he accommodated himself so well 
to the times, that he became physician to the Charter- 
house, fellow of the college of physicians, and afterwards 

i Bibs. Brit. 

BATE. 129 

principal physician to Oliver Cromwell, whom, he id. said to 
have highly flattered. Upon the restoration he got into 
favour with the royal party, was made principal physician 
to the king, and fellow of the royal society ; and this, we 
are told, was owing to a report raised on very slender 
foundation, and asserted only by his friends, that he gave 
the protector a dose which hastened his death. He died 
at his house in Hatton-garden, April 19, 1668, and not 
1669, as in the Biog. Brit.; and was buried at Kingston- 

His principal work is an account of the rebellion, with a 
narrative of the regal and parliamentary privileges, printed 
under the title of *' Elenchus Motuum nuperorum in An- 
glia, simul ac Juris Regis et Parliamentarii brevis narratio,'* 
Paris, 1649, and Frankfort, 1650, 4to. Before it went to 
the press, it was communicated to Dr. Peter Heylyn, who 
made several observations on it, greatly tending to the ho- 
nour of the king and the church. The first part of the 
Elenchus -was translated into English by an unknown hand, 
and printed at London in 1652, in 8vo. The second part, 
in which the author had the assistance of some papers com- 
municated to him by the lord-chancellor Hyde, afterwards 
earl of Clarendon, was printed in Latin at London in 1661, 
at Amsterdam the year following in 8vo, and reprinted with 
the first part at London in 1663, in 8vo. With such assist- 
ance this may be supposed an impartial work ; but he has 
been accusedof leaning too. much to the Puritans, among 
whom he appears to have lived much in the early part of 
his life. In 1676, a third part was added to the " Elen- 
chus," also in Latin, by Dr. Thomas Skinner, a physician, 
but is inferior to the former* In 1685, the whole was 
translated by A. Lovel, M. A. of Cambridge. The only 
answer to Dr. Bate's work, entitled " Elenchus Elenchi, 7 * 
was written by Robert Pugh, an officer in the king's army, 
and printed at Paris in 1664, 8vo, to which Bate replied; 
but we do riot find that his reply was published. Dr. Bate 
wrote likewise, 1. " The Royal Apology; or, the declara- 
tion of the Commons in parliament, Feb. 11, 1647," 1648, 
4to. 2. * De Rachitide, sive morbo puerili, qui vulgo the 
Rickets dicitur," Lond. 1650, 8vo. Mr. Wood tells us, the 
doctor was assisted in this work by Francis Glisson and Aha- 
suerus Regemorter, doctors of physic, and fellows of the 
college of physicians, and that it was afterwards translated 
into English by Philip Armin, and printed at London, 
Vol. IV. K 

130 BATE. 

1651, 8vo ; and about the same time translated by Nicolas 
Culpepper, who styles himself * student in physic and as- 
trology.' 3.« After Dr. Bate's death came out a dispensato- 
ry in' Latin, entitled Cf Pharmacopceia Bateana; in qua 
octoginta circiter pharmaca pleraque omnia e praxiGeorgii 
Batei regi Carolo 2do proto-medici excerpta," Lond. 1688 
and 1691. It was published by Mr. James Shipton, apo- 
thecary, and translated into English by Dr. William Sal- 
mon, under the title of " Bate's Dispensatory," and was 
long a very popular work. — -There was another George 
Bate, who wrote the " Lives of the Regicides," London, 
1661, Svo. 1 

BATE, in Latin BATUS (John), prior of the monas- 
tery of Carmelites at York in the fifteenth century, was 
born in Northumberland, and educated at York in the 
study of the liberal arts, in which he was much encouraged 
by the favour of some persons his patrons, who were at the 
expence of sending him to Oxford, to finish his stndies in 
that university. Bate abundantly answered the hopes con- 
ceived of him, and became an eminent philosopher and 
divine, and particularly remarkable for his skill in the 
Greek tongue. He took the degree of D. D. at Oxford, 
and afterwards distinguished himself as an author. The 
Carmelites of York were so sensible of his merit, that, upon 
a vacancy, they offered him the government of their house, 
which he accepted, and discharged that office with gredt 
prudence and success. He died the 26th of January 1429, 
in the beginning of the reign of ^Henry VI, Bale, who 
cannot refuse him the character of a learned man, asserts 
that he adulterated the word of God with false doctrines, to 
support the blasphemies of antichrist, and defiled his own 
writings with the filth of Paganism. These writings, as 
enumerated by Leland, Bale, and Pits, consist of the fol- x 
lowing treatises, 1. " On the construction of the Parts of 
Speech." 2. " On Porphyry's Universalia." 3. " On 
Aristotle's Predicaments." 4. " On Poretanus's Six Prin- 
ciples." 5. " Questions concerning the Soul." 6. " Of 
the Assumption of the Virgin." 7. " An introduction to 
the Sentences." 8. i( The praise of Divinity." 9. " A 
compendium of Logic." 10. " An address to the clergy 
of Oxford." 11. " Synodical conferences." 12. " De- 
terminations on several questions." 13. "A course of 

i Bio;. Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Peck's Desiderata, vol. II. 

BATE. 131 

Sermons for the whole year." 14» "A preface to the 
Bible." 1 

BATE (Jcuus), an English divine of the Hutchinsonian 
principles, was a younger son of the Rev. Richard Bate, 
vicar of Chilham and rector of Warehorn, who died in 
1736. He was born about 1711, and matriculated at St. 
John's college,* Cambridge, where he too"k his degrees, of 
B. A. 1730, and M. A. 1742. He was an intimate friend 
of the celebrated Hutchinson, as we learn from Mr. Spear- 
man's life of that remarkable author), by whose recommen- 
dation he obtained from Charles duke of Somerset a pre* 
sentation to the living of Sutton in Sussex, near his seat at 
Petworth. Mr. Bate attended Hutchinson in his last ill- 
ness (1737), and was by him in a most striking manner re- 
commended to the protection of an intimate friend, " with 
a strict charge not to suffer his labours to become useless 
by neglect.'* It having been reported that Hutchinson had 
recanted the publication of his writings to Dr. Mead a 
little before his death ; that circumstance was flatly contra- 
dicted by a letter from Mr. Bate, dated Arundel, January 
20, 1759. He died at Arundel, April 7, 1771. His evan- 
gelical principles of religion shone with a steady lustre, not 
only in his writings, but in his life. Disinterested, and dis- 
daining the mean arts of ambition, he was contented with 
the small preferment he had in the church. As a Christian 
and a friend, he was humble and pious, tender, affectionate, 
and faithful ; as a writer, warm, strenuous, and undaunted, 
in asserting the truth. 

His publications were, 1. a The Examiner examined, 
&c. (against Calcott) with some observations upon the He- 
brew Grammar," 1739. 2. " An essay towards explaining 
the third chapter of Genesis, in answer to Mr. Warburton,'* 
1741, 8vo. Warburton, in his " Divine Legation," 1740, 
preface, accuses " one Julius Bate," in conjunction with 
€€ one Romaine," of betraying private conversation, and 
writing fictitious letters. 3. " The philosophical principles 
of Moses asserted and defended against the misrepresenta- 
tions of Mr. David Jennings," 1744, 8vo. 4. " Remarks 
upon Mr. Warburton's remarks, shewing that the ancients 
knew there was a future state, and that the Jews were not' 
Under an equal Providence," 1745, 8vo. 5. " The faith 
of Ate ancient Jews in the law of Moses and the evidence 

* Tanner.— Biog. Brit, 
E 2 



132 fr A T E. 

of the types, vindicated in a letter to Dr. Stebbiug,*' 1747; 
fcvo. 6. " Proposals for printing Hutchinson's works,** 
J748. 7. " A defence of Mr. Hutchinson's plan," 1748. 
8. " An Hebrew Gramiriar, formed on the usage of words 
by the inspired writers," 1750, 8vo. 9. " The use and 
intent of Prophecy, and history of the Fall cleared," 
1750, 8vo, occasioned by Middle ton's examination of 
Sherlock. 10. "A defence of Mr. Hutchinson's tenets 
against Bering ton," 1751. 11. "The scripture meaning 
of Elohim and Berith," 1751. 12. " Micah v. 2. and 
Matthew ii. 6. reconciled, with some remarks on Dr. 
Hunt's Latin writings." 1 3. " The blessing of Judah by 
Jacob considered; and the era of Daniel's weeks as- 
certained, in two dissertations," 1753, 8vo. 14. ".An 
Inquiry into the original Similitudes, &c. in the Old and 
New Testament," &c. po date, but about 1754. 15. 
u The integrity of the Hebrew text, and many passages of 
Scripture vindicated from the objections and misconstrue* 
tions of Mr. Kennicott," 1755, 8vo. 16. "A reply to Dr. 
Sharp's review and defence of his dissertations on the 
tfcripture meaning of Berith. With an appendix in answer 
to the doctor's discourse on Cherubim, part I." 1755, and 
a second part in 1756, 8vo. 17. ", Remarks upon Dr. Ben- 
son's sermon on the gospel method of Justification," 1758, 
8vo. 18. " Critica Hebrsea, or a Hebrew- English Diction 
nary without points," 1767, 4to, his greatest effort in favour 
of Hutchinsonian divinity, philosophy, and criticism. Af- 
ter his death was published, " A new and literal transla- 
tion from the original Hebrew of the pentateuch of Moses, 
and of the historical books' of the Old Testament, to the end, 
of the second book of Kings, with notes critical and expla-, 
Batory," 1773, 4to. 1 

BATE (James), elder brother of the preceding, was 
born at Bocton Malherb in Kent in 1703, and after being 
educated at the king's school at Canterbury, was admitted 
a pensioner of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, under 
the tuition of Mr. Denne, July 4, 1720. He proceeded 
A. B. in 1723, and was pre-elected fellow soon after; but 
an offer being made him, in the mean time, of a fellowship 
in St. John's college, by the bishop of Ely, he chose rathejr 
to accept of that than to wait for a vacancy in the other. 
He commenced A. M. in 1727, became moderator of the 
university in 1730, one of their taxors the year following, 

* NichoU'i Bowyer, vol, III. 3ro. 

BATE. m 

fttid after distinguishing himself for his skill in the Hebrew 
language, was recommended to the right honourable Hora- 
tio Walpole, whom he attended as chaplain in his embassy 
to Paris. After his return home he became possessed of 
the rectory of St Paul's, Deptford, June 23, 1731. He 
died in 1775, He published, 1. " An address to his pa- 
rishioners on the Rebellion in 1745." 2. " Infidelity 
scourged, or Christianity vindicated against Chubb, &c.'* 
1746, 8vo. 3. €( An essay towards a rationale of the lite- 
ral doctrine of Original Sin, &c." occasioned by some of 
Dr. Middleton's writings, 1752, 8vo. 4. a A second edi- 
tion of the Rationale, &c." 1766> in the preface to which 
he laments that u it was his hard fate, in his younger 
years, to serve one of our ambassadors as his chaplain at a 
foreign court," He published also a few occasional ser- 

mons. 1 

BATECUMBE, or BADECOMBE (William), an emi- 
nent mathematician, is supposed by Pits to have flourished 
about 1420. He studied at Oxford, where he applied 
hiitfself to natural philosophy in general, but chiefly to the 
mathematics, in which be made a very great proficiency, 
as is evident by his writings in that science, which intro-' 
duced him to the acquaintance and intimacy of the great- 
est men of his time. It is not known when he died. He 
: wrote, 1. " De Sphaeree toncavae fabrica et usu ;" which 
Bale saw in the library of Dr. Robert Record e, a learned 
physician. 2. " De Sphaera solida." 3. " De operatione 
Astrolabii." 4. " Conclusiones Sophiae." * 

BATEMAN (William), bishop of Norwich in the four- 
teenth century, and founder of Trinity hall in Cambridge, 
was born at Norwich, the son of a citizen of good repute in 
that place. He was, from his tenderest years, of a docile 
and ingenuous disposition, and having made good pro- 
ficiency in learning, he was sent to the university of Cam- 
bridge. There he particularly studied the civil law, in 
which he took the degree of doctor before he was thirty 
years of age, a thing then uncommon. On the 8th of De- 
cember 1 328, he was collated to the archdeaconry of Nor- 
wich* Soon after this, he went and studied at Rome, for 
his further improvement ; and so distinguished himself by 
his knowledge and exemplary behaviour, that he was pro- 
moted by the pope to the place of auditor of his palace* 

i Nichols's Bowyer, vol. III. 8fo.— Ma»terVs Hist, of C. C. C' C. 
' B»?. Briti— Tanner Bib', 

134 B A T E M A N. 

He was likewise advanced by him to the deanery of Lin-, 
coin, and twice sent by him as his nuncio, to endeavour to 
procure a peace between Edward III. king of England, 
and the king of France. Upon the death of Anthony de 
Beck, bishop of Norwich, the pope conferred that bishopric 
upon Bateman, on the 23d of January 1343, after which 
be returned into his native country, and lived in a generous 
and hospitable manner. Of pope Clement VI. he obtained 
for himself and successors, the first fruits of all vacant liv- 
ings within his diocese; which occasioned frequent dis- 
putes between himself and his clergy. In 1347, he found- 
ed Trinity-hall in Cambridge, for the study of the civil and 
canon laws, by purchasing certain tenements from the 
monks of Ely, for which he gave some rectories in ex- 
change, and Converted the premises into a hall, dedicated 
to the holy Trinity. He endowed it with the rectories of 
Briston, Kymberley, Brimmingham, Woodalling, Cowl- 
ing, and Stalling, in the diocese of Norwich : aftd de- 
signed that it should consist of a master, twenty fellows, 
and three scholars; to study the canon and civil law, with 
an allowance for one divine. But being prevented by 
"death, he left provision only for a master, three fellows,, 
and two scholars. However, by the munificence of sub- 
sequent benefactors, it now maintains a master, -twelve 
fellows, and fourteen scholars. Bishop Bateman, from bis 
abilities and address, was often employed by the king and 
parliament in affairs of the highest importance ; and par- 
ticularly was at the head of several embassies, on purpose 
to determine the differences between the crowns of Eng- 
land and France. In 1354, he was, by order of parliament, 
dispatched to the court of Rome, with Henry duke of Lan- 
caster, and others, to treat (in the pope's presence) of a 
peace, then in agitation between the two crowns above 
mentioned. This journey proved fatal to him ; for he died 
at Avignon, where the pope then resided, on the 6th of 
January 1354-5, and was buried with great solemnity, in 
the cathedral church of that city. With regard to his per- 
son, we are told that he was of an agreeable countenance ; 
and tall, handsome, and well made. He was, likewise, a 
man of strict justice and piety, punctual in the discharge 
of his duty, and of a friendly and compassionate disposi- 
tion. But he was a stout defender of his rights, and would 
not suffer himself to be injured, or imposed upon, by any 
one, of which we have the following instance upon record, 

B AT E M A N. 135 

which perhaps does not more display his resolution than the 
abject state into which the king and his nobles were re- 
duced by the usurped powers of the church of Rome : 
Robert lord Morley having killed some deer in his parks, 
and misused his servants, he made him do public penance 
for the same, by walking uncovered and barefoot, with a 
wax taper of six pounds in his hands, through the city of 
Norwich to the cathedral, and then asking his pardon* 
And all this was done notwithstanding an express order of 
the king to the contrary, and though his majesty had seized 
the bishop's revenues for his obstinacy. But the king 
was soon after reconciled to him. It remains to be men- 
tioned that bishop Bateman was executor to Edmund Gon- 
ville, the founder of the college so called, which gave rise 
to the report by Godwin and others that he had founded 
that college or hall, which is evidently a mistake. ' 

BATES (William), an eminent nonconformist divine of 
the seventeenth century, was born in November 1625, 
and after a suitable school education, was sent to Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted of Emanuel college, from 
which he removed to King's, in 1644. He commenced 
bachelor of arts in 1647, and applying himself to the study 
of divinity, became a distinguished preacher among the 
Presbyterians. He was afterwards appointed vicar of 
St. Dunstan's in the West, London ; and joined with seve- 
ral other divines in preaching a morning exercise at Crip- 
plegate church. At this exercise Dr. Tillotson preached, 
in September 1661, the first sermon which was ever 
printed by him. Upon the restoration of Charles II. 
Mr. Bates was made one of his majesty's chaplains ; and, 
in the November following, was admitted to the degree of 
doctor in divinity in the university of Cambridge, by royal 
mandate. The king's letter to this purpose was dated on 
the 9th of that month. About the same time, he was 
offered the deanery of Lichfield and Coventry, which he 
refused * and it is said that he might afterwards have been 
raised to #ny bishopric in the kingdom, if he would have 
conformed to the established church. Dr. Bates was one 
of the commissioners at the Savoy conference in 1660, for 
reviewing the public liturgy^ and was concerned in drawing 

* Biog. Brit. — Peck's Desiderata, vol. if. and Memoirs of Cromwell, Collec- 
tions, p, 1.— VV ha r ton's Anglia Sacra. 

136 BATE S. 

tip the exceptions against the Common Prayer. He was, 
likewise, chosen on the part of the Presbyterian ministers, 
together with Dr. Jacomb and Mr. Baxter, to manage the 
dispute with Dr. Pearson, afterwards bishop of Chester, 
Dr. Gunning, afterwards bishop of Ely, and Dr. Sparrow, 
afterwards bishop of Ely. In 1665, be took the oath re- 
quired of the nonconformists by the act commonly called 
the Five Mile Act, and which had passed in the parliament 
held that year at Oxford, on account of the plague being 
in London*. When, about January 1667-8, a treaty- 
was proposed by sic .Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper of 
the great seal, and countenanced by the lord chief baron 
Hale, for a comprehension of such of the dissenters as 
could be brought into the communion of the church, and 
for a toleration of the rest, Dr. Bates was one of the divines 
who, on the Presbyterian side, were engaged in drawing 
up a scheme of the alterations and concessions desired by 
that party. He was concerned, likewise, in another fruit- 
less attempt of the same kind, which was made in 1674. 
His good character recommended him to the esteem and 
acquaintance of lord keeper Bridgman, lord* chancellor 
Finch, and his son, the earl of Nottingham. Dr. Tillot- 
soi> had such an opinion of his learning and temper, that it 
became the ground of a friendship between them, which 
continued to the death of that excellent prelate, and Dr. 
Bates, with great liberality, used his interest with the arch* 
bishop, in procuring a pardon for Nathaniel lord Crewe, 
bishop of Durham, who, for his conduct in the ecclesias- 
tical commission, had been excepted out. of the act of in* 

* When ibe parliament tat at Ox- place which pent burgesses to parlia- 

ford, during the plague in London, merit. The ministers finding the pres- 

they passed an act to oblige the non- sure of the act very great, studied how 

conformists to take an oath, " That to take the oath lawfully. Dr. Bates 

it was not lawful, upon any pretence consulted the lord keeper Bridgman, 

whatsoever, to take arms against the who promised to be present at the next 

king; and that they abhorred the sessions, and to declare from the bench, 

treacherous position of taking arms by that by "endeavour to change tho 

his authority against his person, or government in church, was meant 

against those that are commissioned • only unlawful endeavour." This sa- 

by him, in pursuance of such commis- ti*fied Dr. Bates, who upon this took 

sion j and that they would not at any the oath with several others. He wrote 

time endeavour any alteration in the a letter hereupon to Mr. Baxter ; but 

government of church and state." the latter tells us, that all the argu- 

Those who refused to take this oath menu contained therein seemed to him 

were to be restrained from coming not sufficient to enervate the objection* 

(except upon the road) within five miles against taking the oath, 

of any ity or .corporation, or any 

BATES. 137 


demnity, which passed in 1690. When the dissenters pre* 
sented their address to king William and queen Mary, on 
their accession to the throne, the two speeches to their 
majesties were delivered by Dr. Bates, who was much re- 
spected by that monarch ; and queen Mary often enter- 
tained herself in her closet with his writings. His resi* 
dence, during the latter part of his life, was at Hackney, 
where he preached to a respectable society of Protestant 
dissenters, in an ancient irregular edifice in Mare-street, 
which was pulled down in 1773. He was also one of the 
Tuesday lecturers at Salter's hall. He died at Hackney, 
July 14, 1699, in the 74th year of his age. After his death, 
his works, which had been separately printed, were col- 
lected into one volume fol. besides which a posthumous 
piece of his appeared in 8vo, containing some " Sermons 
on the everlasting rest of the Saints. 1 ' He wrote, likewise, 
in conjunction with Mr. Howe, a prefatory epistle to Mr. 
Chaffy' s treatise of the Sabbath, on its being reprinted; 
and another before lord Stair's vindication of the Divine 
Attributes. Dr. Bates is universally understood to have 
been the politest writer among the nonconformists of the 
seventeenth century. It is reported, that when his library 
came to be disposed of, it was found to contain a great 
'number of romances ; but, adds his biographer, it should 
be remembered that the romances of that period, though 
absurd in several respects, bed a tendency to invigorate 
the imagination, and abounded in heroic sentiments of ho- 
nour and virtue. Dr. Bates's works, however esteemed 
about a century ago, are not among those which have been 
of late years revived among the dissenters \xy republication. 
Besides those included in the folio edition, he was the 
editor of a valuable collection of lives of eminent persons, 
princes, and men of rank, churchmen, and men of learning, 
amounting to thirty-two, all in. Latin, under the title of 
" Vitas selectoruoi aliquot virorum qui doctrini, dignitate, 
aut pietyte inclaruere," Lond. 4to, 1681. Six of them are 
anonymous, and the rest are taken from very scarce tracts. 
The life of B. Gilpin by Carleton, written in English, was 
translated into Latin by Dr. Bates ; and another written in 
French, translated by another person, at his request. Dr. 
Bates's name is not in the title page, but it is at the end of 
the dedication to the celebrated lord Russel, and the work 
is generally quoted by the title of " Batesii Vitse select©/' 

138 BATE S. 

It is now, although scarce, much less valued than such 3 
collection deserves. l 

BATHE (Henry de), a learned knight, and eminent 
justiciary of the thirteenth century, was a younger brother 
of an ancient family of that name, and born, most probably, 
at the ancient seat of the family, called Bathe house, in the 
county of Devon. Being a younger brother, he was brought 
up to the profession of the law, in the knowledge of which 
be so distinguished himself, that he was advanced by king 
Henry III. in 1238, to be one of the justices of the com- 
mon pleas ; and in 1240, was constituted one of the jus- 
tices itinerant (as they were then called), for the county of 
Hertford ; and in 1 248 he was appointed the same for Essex 
and Surrey; in 1249 for Kent, Berks, Southampton, and 
Middlesex; and in 1250 for Lincolnshire; at which time 
he bad allowed him out of the exchequer, by a peculiar 
favour, an hundred pounds a year for his sustentation in 
the discharge of his office. But the year following he lost 
the king's favour, owing to the following crimes being laid 
to his charge, viz. That he had not exercised his office up- 
rightly, but to his own private gain, having perverted jus«» 
tice through bribes, in a suit betwixt him and one Everard 
Trumpington; and this charge was chiefly supported 
against him by one Philip de Arcis, knt. who also added 
treason to that of infidelity in his office. The accused was 
attached in the king's court ; but one Mansel, who was 
now become a great favourite at court, offered bail for his 
appearance : king Henry refused this, the case, as he al- 
ledged, not being bailable, but one of high-treason. Fulk 
Basset, however, then bishop of London, and a great many 
of De Bathe's friends interceding, the king at last gave orders 
that he should be bailed, twenty -four knights becoming 
sureties for his appearing and standing to the judgment of 
the court But De Bathe seems to have been conscious of 
his own demerits, or the prejudices of his judges against 
him ; for he was no sooner set at liberty, than he wrote to 
all his relations either by blood or marriage, desiring that 
they would apply to the king in his favour, at first by fair 
speeches and presents, and if these did not prevail, they 
should appear in a more warlike manner, which they una-» 

1 Biog. Brit.— Life prefixed to bis works.— Palmer's Nonconformists' Me- 
morial, vol. 1. 

BATHE. *39 

nimously promised to do, upon the encouragement given 
them by a bold knight, one Nicholas de Sancjford. But the 
king, confiding in his own power and the interest of De 
Bathe's accusers, appeared inexorable, and rejected all 
presents from the friends of the accused. De Bathe, con- 
vinced that, if Henry persisted in his resolution, he him- 
self must perish, had recourse to the bishop of London, 
and other special friends, and with a great posse of these 
went to Richard earl of Cornwall (afterwards king of the 
Romans), whom by prayer and promises he won over to his 
interest. The king remaining inflexible, about the end of 
February, De Bathe was obliged to appear to answer what 
should be laid to his charge. This he accordingly did, but 
strongly defended by a great retinue of sinned knights, 
gentlemen, and others, viz. his own and his wife's friends 
and relations, among whom was the family of the Bassets 
and the Sandfords. The assembly was now divided be- 
tween those who depended upon the king for their prefer-, 
ments, and those who (though a great majority) were so 
exasperated at the measures of the court, that they were 
resolved not to find De Bathe guilty. It was not long be- 
fore the king perceived this, and proclaimed that whoso- 
ever had any action or complaint against Henry de Bathe, 
should come in and should be heard. A new charge was 
now brought against De Bathe : he was impeached (not 
only on the former articles, but particularly) for alienating 
the affections of the barons from his majesty, and creating 
such a ferment all over the kingdom, that a general sedi- 
tion was on the point of breaking out; and Bathe's brother- 
justiciary declared to the assembly, that he knew the ac- 
cused to have dismissed without any censure, for the sake 
of lucre, a convicted criminal. Many other complaints 
were urged against him, but they seem to have been disre- 
garded by all, except the king and his party, who was so 
much exasperated to see De Bathe likely to be acquitted, 
that he mounted his throne, and with his own mouth made 
proclamation, That whosoever should kill Henry de Bathe, 
should have the royal pardon for him and his heirs ; after 
which speech he went out of the room in a great passion. 
Many of the royal party, upon this savage intimation, were 
for dispatching De Bathe in court : but his friend Mansel, 
one of the king's counsel, and Fulk Basset, bishop of Lon- 
don, interposed so effectually, that he was saved ; and 
afterwards/ by the powerful mediation of his friends 

140 BATHE. 

(among whom was the earl of Cornwall, k the king's brother, 
and the bishop of London), and the application of a sum of 
money, viz. 2,000 marks to the king, he obtained not only 
a pardon, but all his former places and favour with the king, 
who re-established him in the same seat of judicature as 
he was in before, and rather advanced him higher ; for he 
was made chief-justice of the king's bench, in which 
honourable post he continued till the time of his death, as 
Dugdale informs us : for in 1260, we find that he was one 
of the justices itinerant for the counties of Huntingdon, 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, which was the ypar be- 
fore he died. Browne Willis in hisCathedrals (vol, ii. p.410.) 
mentions that he was buried in Christ church, Oxford, but 
the editor of Wood's colleges and balls, asks how any one 
can conceive the effigy of a man in armour to have been 
intended for a justiciary of England? This, however, is 
not decisive against the effigies on this tomb being intended 
for Henry de Bathe, because from the king's threat above, 
which might be executed by any assassin, it is very pro- 
bable that he might have been obliged to wear armdur f . 
even after the king was reconciled to him.* 
. BATHE (William), an Irish Je^feit, was born in Dublin 
ip 1564. It is said that he was of a sullen, saturnine tem- 
per, and disturbed in his mind, because his family was re* 
duced from its ancient splendour. His parents, who were 
Protestants, having a greater regard to learning than reli- 
gion, placed him under the tuition of an eminent popish 
school -master, who fitted him for that station of life which 
he afterwards embraced. He then removed to Oxford, 
where he studied several years with indefatigable industry ; 
but the inquisitive Anthony Wood could not discover in 
what college or hall he sojourned, or whether he took any 
university degree* The same writer alledges, that grow- 
ing weary of the heresy professed in England (as he usually 
called the Protestant faith), he quitted the nation and his. 
religion together, and in 1596 was initiated among the 
Jesuits, being then between thirty and forty years of age ; 
though one of his own order says he was then but twenty- 
live, which certainly is erroneous. Having spent some 
time among the Jesuits in Flanders, he travelled, into Italy, 
and completed his studies at Padua *, from whence he 
passed into Spain, being appointed to govern -the Irish 


* Bio$. Brit.— -Prince's Worthies of Ocron, . 


seminary at Salamanca. He is said to have had a most 
ardent zeal for making converts) and was much esteemed 
among the people of his persuasion. for his extraordinary 
virtues and good qualities) though he was of a temper not 
very sociable* At length, taking a journey to Madrid to 
transact some business of his order, he died on the 17th of 
June 1614) and was buried in the Jesuits' convent of that 
city, bearing among his brethren a reputation for learning; 
particularly on account of a work which he published to 
facilitate the acquirement of any language, entitled " Ja- 
nua Linguarum, seu modus maxim e accommodates, quo 
patent aditus ad omnes linguas intelligendas," Salatrianca r 
1611. Besides one or two tracts on confessions and 
penance, he wrote, when a youth at Oxford, " An intro* 
auction to the art of Music," London, 1584, 4to. In this 
work, which is dedicated to his uncle Gerald Fitzgerald 
earl of Kildare, the author displays a good opinion of his 
own performance, but thought proper, some years after its 
first publication, to write it over again in such a manner, 
as scarcely to retain a single paragraph of the former edi- 
tion. This latter edition was printed by Thomas Este, 
without a date, with the title of "A briefe introduction to 
the skill of Song ; concerning the practice ; set forth by 
William Bathe, gent." From sir John Hawkins's account 
of both these productions, and his extracts from them, it 
does not appear that they have any grefct merit The 
style, in particular, is very perplexed and disagreeable. ' 

BATHEL1ER (James le) sieur d'Aviron, advocate of 
the presidial court of Evreux, was celebrated in the six- < 
teenth century for his knowledge of law. Henry III. king 
of France, having, in 1586, appointed commissioners to 
investigate and adjust some disputes respecting certain 
parts of the Norman law, the report they gave in, and the 
proceedings which followed, suggested to le Bathelier that 
able work on the Norman law, by which principally he is 
now known. Groulard, first president of the parliament of 
Normandy, to whom the manuscript was submitted, was 
so delighted with it, that he caused the whole to be printed, 
but without the name of the author, and when some insi- 
nuated that this might be interpreted to his disadvantage, 
as au attempt to pass for the author, Groulard answered, 

» Bioy. Brit— Ath, Ox. vol. I.— Dodd's Church History, vol, II. where be 
if called Bat*s. ^ 


that the book was so excellent, it must always appear the 
work of James le Bathelier, and never could be mistaken 
under any other name. These " Commentaries on the Nor* 
man law" were reprinted with those of Berault and Gode* 
froi, at Rouen, 1684, 2 vols. fol. We have no account of 
the time of Bathelier' s death. ' 

BATHURST (Allen)/ earl, an English nobleman of 
distinguished abilities, was son of sir Benjamin Bathurst of 
Pauler's Perry, Northamptonshire, and born in St* James's 
square, Westminster, Nov. 16, 1684. His mother wai 
Frances, daughter of sir Allen Apsley, in Sussex,: knt. 
After a grammatical education, he was entered, at the age 
of fifteen, in Trinity college, Oxford ; of which his uncle, 
dean Bathurst, was president. In 1705, when just of age, 
he was chosen for Cirencester in Gloucestershire, which 
borough he represented for two parliaments. He acted, 
in the great, opposition to the duke of Marlborough and the 
Whigs, under Mr. Harley and Mr. St. John ; and, in Dec* 
1711, at that memorable period, in which the administra- 
tion, to obtain a majority in the upper house, introduced 
twelve new lords in one day, was made a peer. On the 
accession of George I. when his political friends were in 
disgrace, and some of them exposed to persecution, he con- 
tinued firm in his attachment to them : he united, particu- 
larly, in the protests against the acts of the attainder against 
lord Bolingbroke and the duke of Ormond. We have no 
speech of his recorded, till on Feb. 21, 1718 ; from which 
period, for the space of twenty-five years, we find 
that he took an active and distinguished part in every im- 
portant matter which came before the upper house ; and 
that he was one of the most eminent opposers of the mea- 
sures of the court, and particularly of sir Robert Wal- 
pole's administration. For an account of these, however,. 
we refer to history, and especially to the history and pro* 
ceedings of the house of lords. 

The principal circumstances of his private life are as 
follow : In 1704, he married Catherine, daughter of sir 
Peter Apsley, son and heir of sir Allen aforesaid ; by whom: 
he had four sons and five daughters. In 1742, he was 
made one of the privy council. In 1757, upon a. change 
in the ministry, he was constituted treasurer to the present 
king, then prince of Wales, and continued in that office 

*MoierL— Diet Hist, where the life if twice repeated, roL II, p. 89, and 303. 

B A t H U R S T. US 

till the death of George II. At his majesty's accession, in 
1760, he was constituted privy counsellor ; but, on account 
of his age, declined all employments : he had, however, 
a pension of 2000/. per annum. " I have attended parlia- 
ment," says he to Swift, " many years j and have never 
found that I could do any good ; I have, therefore, deter- 
mined to look to my own affairs a little :" and it has been 
said, we believe justly, that no person of rank ever knew 
better how to unite otium cum dignitate. To uncommon 
abilities he added many virtues, integrity, humanity, ge- 
nerosity : and to these virtues, good breeding, politeness, 
and elegance. His wit, taste, and learning connected him 
with all persons eminent in this way, with Pope, Swift, 
Addison, &c. ; and from the few letters of his which are 
published among Swift's, his correspondence must have 
been a real pleasure to those by whom it was enjoyed. He 
preserved, to the close of his life, his natural cheerfulness 
and vivacity : he delighted in rural amusements, and en- 
joyed with philosophic calmness the shade of the lofty trees 
himself had planted. Till within a month of his death, he 
constantly rode out on horseback two hours in the morn- 
ing, and drank his bottle of wine after dinner. He used 
jocosely to declare, that he never could think of adopting 
Dr. Cadogan's regimen, as Dr. Cheyne had assured him 
fifty years before, that he would not live seven years longer, 
unless he abridged himself of his wine. 

In 1772, he was advanced to the dignity of earl Bathurst. 
He lived to see his eldest surviving son, the second earl 
Bathurst (who died in 1794) several years chancellor of 
England, and promoted to the peerage by the title of baron 
Apsley. He died, after a few days illness, at his seat near 
Cirencester, Sept. 16, 1775, in his ninety- first year. l 

BATHURST (Ralph), a distinguished wit, and Latin 
poet, was descended of an ancient family, and was born at 
Howthorpe, a small hamlet in Northamptonshire, in the pa- 
I rish of Thedingworth, near Market-Harborough in Leices- 

tershire, in 1620. He received the first part of his edu- 
cation at the free-school in Coventry, where his father 
seems to have resided in the latter part of his life. His 
mother was Elizabeth Villiers, daughter and coheir of Ed- 
ward Villiers, esq. of the same place. They had issue 
thirteen sons, and four daughters. Six of the sons lost 

> Biof. Brit. 

14* B A T H U R S T. 

their lives in the service of king Charles L during the gtand 
rebellion : the rest, besides one who died young, were 
Ralph (of whom we now treat), Villiers, Edward, Moses, 
Henry, and Benjamin, father of the late earl Bathurst, the 
subject of the preceding article. At Coventry school our 
author made so quick a progress in the classics, that at the 
age of fourteen he was sent to Oxford, and entered Octo- 
ber 10, 1634, in Gloucester hall, now Worcester college; 
but was removed in a few days to Trinity college, and pro- 
bably placed under the immediate tuition of his grand- 
father Dr. Kettel, then president, in whose lodging he 
resided (still known by the name of Kettel-hall), and at 
whose table he had his diet, for two years. He was elected 
scholar of the house, June 5, 1 637, and having taken the 
degree of A. B. January 27th following, he was appointed 
fellow June 4, 1640. He commenced A. M. April 17, 164 l„ 
and on March 2, 1644, conformably to the statutes of his 
college, he was ordained priest by Robert Skinner, bishop 
of Oxford, and read some theological lectures in the col- 
lege hall in 1649. These, which he called " Diatribuj 
theological, philosophies, et philologies," are said to dis- 
cover a spirit of theological research, and an extensive 
knowledge of the writings of the most learned divines. He 
likewise kept bis exercise for the degree of B. D. but did 
not take it. The confusion of the times promising little 
Support or encouragement to the ministerial function, like 
his friend, the famous Dr. Willis, he applied himself to 
the study of physic, and accumulated the degrees in that 
faculty, June 21, 1654. Before this time he had suffi- 
ciently recommended himself in his new profession, and 
had not been long engaged in it, when he was employed 
a? physician to the sick and wounded of the navy, which 
office be executed with equal diligence and dexterity, to 
the full satisfaction of the sea-commanders, and the com* 
missioners of the admiralty. We find him soon after set- 
tled at Oxford, and practising physic in concert with his 
friend Dr. Willis, with whom he regularly attended Abing- 
don market every Monday. He likewise cultivated every 
branch of philosophical knowledge : he attended the lec- 
tures of Peter Sthad, a chymist and rosicrucian, who had 
been invited to Oxford by Mr. R. Boyle, and was after- 
wards operator to the royal society about 1662. About the 
same time he had also a share in the foundation of that so- 
ciety ; and when it was established, he was elected fellow, 


and admitted August 19, 1663. While this society was at 
Gresham college in London, a branch of it was continued 
at Oxford, and the original society books of this Oxford 
department are still preserved there in the Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, where their assemblies were held. Their latter Ox- 
ford meetings were subject to regulations made among 
themselves ; according to which Dr. Bathurst was elected 
president April 23, 1688, having been before nominated 
one of the members for drawing up articles, February 
29, 1 683-4. Nor was he less admired as a classical scholar ; 
at the university acts, in the collections of Oxford verses, 
and on every public occasion, when the ingenious were 
invited to a rival display of their abilities, he appears to 
have been one of the principal and most popular perform- 
ers. Upon the publication of (lobbes's treatise of " Hu- 
man Nature," &c. 1650, Bathurst prefixed a recommen- 
datory copy of Latin iambics, written with so much 
strength of thought, and elegance of expression, that they 
fully established his character as a Latin poet ; and recom- 
mended him to the notice of the duke of Devonshire, by 
whose interest he afterwards obtained the deanery q£ Wells* 
He had thought fit, by a temporary compliance, to retain 
his fellowship at Oxford, under the conditions of the par- 
liamentary visitation in 1648, and after the death of Crom* 
well, procured a majority of the fellows of his college, in 
1659, to elect Dr. Seth Ward president, who was abso- 
lutely disqualified for it by the college-statutes. After 
the Restoration, he re-assumed tho character of a clergy- 
man, and returned to his theological studies, but with little 
hope or ambition of succeeding in a study, which he had 
so long neglected : however, he was made king's chaplain 
in 1663. He was chosen president of his college Septem- 
ber 10, 1664, and the same year he was married, Decem- 
ber 31, to Mary, the widow of Dr. John Palmer, warden 
of All Souls college, a woman of admirable accomplish- 
ments. June 28, 1670, he was installed dean of Wells, 
procured, as before mentioned, by the interest of the duke 
of Devonshire. In April 1691, he was nominated by king 
William and queen Mary, through the interest of lord 
Somers, to the bishopric of Bristol, with licence to keep 
his deanery and headship in commendam ; but he declined 
the acceptance of it, lest it should too much detach him from 
bis college, and interrupt the completion of those improve- 
ments in its buildings, which he had already begun, and 
Vol. IV. L 


an account of which may be seen in the History of Oxford. 
Had Dr. Bathurst exerted his activity and interest alone 
for the service of his society, he might have fairly claimed 
the title of an ample benefactor ; but his private liberality 
concurred with his public collections. He expended near 
3000/. of his own money upon it, and purchased for the 
use of the fellows, the perpetual advowson of the rectory 
of Addington upon Otmere, near Oxford, with the sum of 
400/. in 1 700. Nor was he less serviceable by his judicious 
discipline and example, his vigilance as a governor, and 
his eminence as a scholar, which contributed to raise the 
reputation of the college to an extraordinary height, and 
filled it with students of the first rank and family. He is 
said to have constantly frequented early prayers in the 
chapel, then at five in the morning, till his eighty- second 
year, and he punctually attended the public exercises of 
the college, inspected the private studies, relieved the 
wants, and rewarded the merit of his scholars. In the 
mean time he was a man of the world, and his lodgings 
were perpetually crowded with visitants of the first dis- 
tinction. . October 3, 1673, he was appointed vice-chan- 
cellor of the university, and continued for the two follow- 
ing years, the duke of Ormond being chancellor. During 
the execution of this office, he reformed many pernicious 
abuses, introduced several necessary regulations, defended 
the privileges of the university with becoming spirit, and 
to the care of the magistrate added the generosity of the 
benefactor. He established the present practice of obliging 
the bachelors of arts to stipulate for their determination : 
he endeavoured, at the command of the king, to introduce 
a more graceful manner of delivering the public sermons at 
St. Mary's, to which church he was also a benefactor, and 
introduced several other improvements in the academical 
ceconomy. As Dr. Bathurst was intimately acquainted with 
the most eminent literary characters of his age, few re- 
markable productions in literature were undertaken or pub- 
lished without his encouragement and advice. Among 
many others, Dr. Sprat, Dr. South, Dr. Busby, Dr. Alles- 
tree, Creech the translator, sir George Ent, a celebrated 
physician and defender of the Harveyan system, were of 
his common acquaintance. Such were his friends ; but he 
had likewise his enemies, who have hinted that he was un- 
settled in his religious principles. This insinuation most 
probably arose from his iambics prefixed to Hobbes's book* 

B A T H U R S T, 147 

which are a mere sport of genius, written without the least 
connection with Hobbes, and contain no defence or illus- 
tration of his pernicious doctrine, which, however, did not 
appear at that time to be so pernicious. And the sincere and 
lasting intimacies he maintained with Skinner, Fell, South, 
Allestree, Aldrich, and several others, are alone an unan- 
swerable refutation of this unfavourable imputation. He 
died in his eighty-fourth year, June 14, 1704. He had 
been blind for some time ; and his death was occasioned by 
a fracture of his thigh, while he was walking in the garden, 
which, on the failure of his eyes, became his favourite and 
only amusement. Under this malady he languished for 
several days in acute agonies. It is said that at first, and 
for some time, he refused to submit to the operations of 
the surgeon, declaring in his tortures, that there was no 
marrow in the bones of an old man. He had lost his me- 
mory a year or two before his death, of which Mr. Warton 
has given an instance which we could have wished he had 
suppressed. He was interred on the south side of the anti- 
chapel of Trinity collegfe without the least appearance 
of pomp and extravagance, according to his own ap- 
pointment. He left legacies in his will to his friends, 
servants, and the college, to the amount of near 1000/. 
As to his character, it is observed that his temperance in 
eating and drinking, particularly the latter, was singular 
and exemplary. Amidst his love of the polite arts, he had 
a strong aversion to music, and discountenanced and de- 
spised the study of all external accomplishments, as incom- 
patible with the academical character. His behaviour in 
general was inoffensive and obliging. The cast of his con- 
versation was rather satirical, but mixed with mirth and 
pleasantry. He was remarkably fond of young company, 
and indefatigable in his encouragement of a rising genius. 
John Philips was one of his chief favourites, whose " Splen- ' 
did Shilling" was a piece of solemn ridicule suited to his 
taste. Among his harmless whims, he delighted to sur- 
prize the scholars, when walking in the grove at unseason- 
able hours; on which occasions he frequently carried a 
whip in his hand, an instrument of academical correction, 
then not entirely laid aside. But this he practised, on ac- 
count of the pleasure he took in giving so odd an alarm, 
rather than from any principle of reproving, or intention 
of applying an illiberal punishment. In Latin poetry, Ovid 
was his favourite classic. One of his pupils having asked 

L 3 


him what book among all others he chose to recommend ? 
he answered, " Ovid's Metamorphoses." The pupil, in 
consequence of this advice, having carefully perused the 
Metamorphoses, desired to be informed what other proper 
book it would be necessary to read after Ovid, and Dr. 
Bathurst advised him to read " Ovid's Metamorphoses" a 
second time. He had so mean an opinion of his perform- 
ances in divinity, that in his will he enjoins his executors 
entirely to suppress all his papers relating to that subject, 
and not to permit them to be perused by any, excepting 
a very few such friends as were likely to read them with 
candour. We are told, however, that on Sunday, March 
20, 1680, he preached before the house of commons at St. 
Mary's, the university church, and gave much satisfaction. 
His manner was nearly that of Dr. South, but with more 
elegance and felicity of allusion. His Life, written by 
Mr. Thomas Warton, is perhaps one of the most correct 
of that author's performances, and contains Dr. Bathurst's 
miscellaneous works, which, though they have great merit 
in their particular way, and may be read with much plea- 
sure, are not written in such a taste as entitles them to 
imitation. This is acknowledged by Mr. Warton. " His 
Latin orations," says that ingenious Biographer, " are won- 
derful specimens of wit and antithesis, which were the de- 
light of his age. They want upon the whole the purity 
and simplicity of Tully's eloquence, but even exceed the 
sententious smartness of Seneca, and the surprising turns 
of Pliny. They are perpetually spirited, and discover an 
uncommon quickness of thought. His manner is concise 
and abrupt, but yet perspicuous and easy. His allusions 
are delicate, and his observations sensible and animated. 
His sentiments of congratulation or indignation are equally 
forcible : his compliments are most elegantly turned, and 
his satire is most ingeniously severe. These compositions 
are extremely agreeable to read, but in the present im- 
provement of classical taste, not so proper to be, imitated* 
They are moreover entertaining, as a picture of the times, 
and a history of the state of .academical literature. This 
smartness does not desert our author even on philosophical 
subjects." Among Dr. Bathurst's Oratiunculae, his ad- 
dress to the convocation, about forming the barbers of Ox- 
ford into a company, is a most admirable specimen of his 
humour, and of that facetious invention, with which few 
vice-chancellors would have ventured to enforce and en* 

B A T H U R S T. 149 

liven such a subject. We doubt, indeed, whether a pa- 
rallel to this exquisite piece of humour can be found. With 
regard to the doctor's Latin poetry, though his hexameters 
have an admirable facility, an harmonious versification, 
much terseness and happiness of expression, and a certain 
original air, they will be thought, nevertheless, too pointed 
and ingenious by the lovers of Virgil's simple beauties. 
The two poems which he hath left in iambics make it to 
be wished that he had written more in that measure. " That 
pregnant brevity," says Mr. Warton, " which constitutes 
the dignity and energy of the iambic, seems to have been 
his talent." Dr. Bathurst's English poetry has that rough- 
ness of versification which was, in a great degree, the fault 
of the times. * 

BATMAN, or BATEMAN (Stephen), ranked among 
the old English poets of the sixteenth century, was a native 
of Somersetshire; and born at Bruton, in that county, 
where he was educated. He afterwards went to Cambridge, 
and studied philosophy and divinity, and when in orders 
acquired the character of a learned and pious preacher. It 
is in his favour that he was long domestic chaplain to arch- 
bishop Parker, whom he assisted in the collecting of books 
and MSS. and informs us himself that within the space of 
four years, he had added six thousand seven hundred books 
to the archbishop's library. This information we have in 
his " Doom." Speaking of the archbishop, under the year 
1575, the year he died, he adds, " with whom books re- 
mained (although the most part, according to the time, su- 
perstitious and fabulous, yet) some worthy the view and 
safe- keeping, gathered within four years, of divinity, astro- 
nomy, history, physic, and others of sundry arts and sciences 
(as I can truly avouch, having his grace's commission, 
whereunto his hand is yet to be seen) six thousand seven 
hundred books, by my own travel, whereof choice being 
taken, he most graciously bestowed many on Corpus Christi 
college in Cambridge, &c." In 1574, he was rector of 
Merstham in Surrey, and afterwards, being then D. D. chap- 
lain to Henry lord Hunsdon, to whom he dedicated his 
translation of " Bartholomseus de proprietatibus rerum," 
Lond. 1582, fol. The other work above-mentioned is en- 
titled " The Doom, warning all men to judgment : wherein 
are contained for the most part all the strange prodigies 

i Life by Warton.— -Bio*. Brit.— Wood'f Ath. vol II.— Hut. of Oiford, rol. If. 

150 BATMAN. 

happened in the world, with divers secret figures of reve- 
lation, gathered in the manner of a general chronicle out 
of approved authors, by Stephen Batman, professor in di- 
vinity," London, 1531, 4to. It appears to be a transla- 
tion of Lycosthenes " De prodigiis et ostentis," with ad- 
ditions from the English chronicles. He published also 
" A christall glass of Christian reformation, wherein the 
godly may behold the coloured abuses used in this our pre- 
sent time," London, 1569,4to, with some pieces of poetry 
interspersed. Mr. Ritson mentions another of his publica- 
tions in the same year, but without place or printer's name, 
called " The travayled Pilgrime, bringing newes from all 
partes of the worlde, such like scarce harde of before," 
4to. This Mr. Ritson describes as an allegorico-theolo- 
gical romance of the life of man, imitated from the French 
or Spanish, in verse of fourteen syllables. His other works, 
enumerated by Tanner, are, " Joyfull news out of Helvetia 
from Theophrastus Paracelsus, declaring the ruinate fall of 
the Papal Dignitie ; also a treatise against Usury," Lond. 
1575, 8vo. " A preface before John Rogers, displaying 
of the family of Love," 1 579, 8vo. " Of the arrival of the 
three Graces into England, lamenting the abuses of this 
present age," London, 4to, no date. u Golden book of 
the leaden gods," Lond. 1577, 4to, mentioned by Mr. 
Warton as one of the first of those descriptions of the hea- 
then gods, called a Pantheon. <* Notes to Leland's Asser- 
tio Arthuri, translated by Rich. Robinson," Lond. no date. 
Batman died in 1587. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to add 
that his works are now rarely to be met with, particularly 
the " Doom," which had a great many wooden cuts of 
monsters, prodigies, &c. His " Christall glass" and the 
u Golden book" are in the British Museum. * 

BATMANSON (John), a Roman catholic divine of the 
sixteenth century, was at first a monk, and afterwards 
prior of the Carthusian monastery or Charter-house, in the 
suburbs of London. For some time he studied divinity at 
Oxford ; but it does not appear that he took any degree in 
that faculty. He was intimately acquainted with, And a 
great favourite of, Edward Lee, archbishop of York ; at 
whose request he wrote against Erasmus and Luther. He 
died on the 16th of November 1531, and was buried in the 

1 Tanner Bibl. principally from Holinihed.-— Rition'i Bibl. £oe(.~ Herbert's 
Edit, of Ames. 


chapel belonging to the Charter-house. Pits gives him 
the character of a man of quick and discerning genius; of 
great piety and learning, and fervent zeal; much con- 
versant in the study of the scriptures ; and that led an an- 
gelical life among men. Bale, on the contrary, represents 
him as a proud, forward, and arrogant person ; born for 
disputing and wrangling ; and adds, that Erasmus, in one 
of his letters to Richard bishop of Winchester, styles him 
an ignorant fellow, encouraged by Lee, and vain-glorious 
even to madness, but Bale allows that he was a very clear 
sophist, or writer. " John Batmanson," Mr. Warton ob- 
serves, " controverted Erasmus's Commentary on the New 
Testament with a degree of spirit and erudition, which was 
unhappily misapplied, but would have done honour to the 
cause of his antagonist, in respect to the learning displayed." 
Dodd says that he revised the two works against Erasmus 
and Luther, and corrected several unguarded expressions. 
Others say that he retracted both, the titles of which were, 
1. " Animadversiones in Anuotationes Erasmi in Novum 
Testamentum." 2. " A Treatise against some of M. Lu- 
ther's writings." The rest of his works were, 3. " Com- 
mentaria in Proverbia Salomonis." 4. " — in Cantica Can* 
ticorum." 5. " De unica Magdalena, contra Fabrum Sta- 
pulensem." 6. " Institutions Noviciorum." 7. " De con- 
temptu Mundi." 8. " De Christo duodenni ;" A Homily 
on Luke ii. 42. 9, "On the words Missus est," &c. None 
of his biographers give the dates of these publications, and 
some of them, we suspect, were never printed. l 

BATON I (Pompeo), one of the greatest painters of the 
last century, was born Feb. 5, 1708, at Lucca. His father, 
a goldsmith, devoted him to that art, to which he had but 
little inclination. It afforded him, however, occasion to 
exercise himself in drawing, and to exhibit his excellent 
talent for painting, and the first specimen of his skill which 
attracted notice was a golden cup of exquisite workman- 
ship, which he executed so satisfactorily, that his capacity 
was thought to be far superior to the trade of a goldsmith : 
and, at the instance of his godfather Alexander Quinigi, 
several patriotic noblemen agreed to send him to the Ro- 
man academy of painting, at their common expence. We 
are told that until he had reached his seventh year, he was 

1 Bioff. Brit.— Tanner— Ath. Ox. vol. L-*Wartoa's Hist, of Poetry, vol U, 
4M.— Dodd's Ch. History, vol. h 

152 BATON I. 

dull and deformed, and had not the power to turn his 
head on either side without moving his whole body, and 
that throughout life his appearance was such as bespoke no 
extraordinary genius. When his friends took charge of 
his education as an artist, father Diversi, of the order of 
Philippines, and the abb6 Fatinelli, envoy at Rome from the 
republic of Lucca, to whom he was recommended, took him 
to Sebastian Concha and Augustine Masucci, who were at 
that time the most renowned masters of the Roman school, 
that he might make choice of one of them for his tutor and 
guide. But the antiques, and Raphael's works, from the 
very first, made so strong an impression on his mind, 
that he chose rather to avoid the modern manner, and form 
himself entirely on the old. The sensibility with which 
nature had endowed him, made him feel that there could 
be but one true manner in the practice of the art, and that 
t none of the modern, which depart so far from the antique, 
could be the right. Accordingly, rejecting the advice of 
his masters, he devoted himself to the study of the antiques 
and the works of Raphael d'Urbino. How diligent he was 
in this practice is seen in the heads still in being, which he 
copied from the Dispute on the Sacrament, a copy of the 
school of Athens, painted in oil and not quite finished, and 
the various commissions he received from foreigners for 
drawings of the best originals. 

He soon became sensible of the method by which Ra- 
phael and the antients arose to that high degree of perfec- 
tion. To catch nature in the fact in all her movements, 
was their grand maxim, and this maxim Batoni followed. 
Hence all his figures have the attitude and motion the na- 
ture of the case requires. In his paintings we find no trace 
of the artificial composition of figures which then univer- 
sally prevailed ; he does not concentrate the light on some 
one object to the detriment of the rest, a way introduced 
by Maratti ; no example could seduce him to deviate from 
the path of nature. In the hands of his heirs is still a con-* 
siderable number of drawings, where he has delineated the 
various motions of men, and especially of children, the 
whole of the human figure, and the different folds of dra- 
pery, exactly after nature. These sketches he afterwards 
made use of in his paintings, and finished them not only 
by the liveliest colouring, but also with the finest forms, 
which he had imprinted on his mind by the study of the 
antique. By these performances he. acquired considerable 

B A T O N L 15$ 

fame, but it having been suggested that he was inferior in 
the art of colouring, he endeavoured to study that branch 
with his usual enthusiasm and ambition, and having ob- 
tained an order from the marquis Gabrielli di Gubbio to 
execute a new altar-piece for the chapel of his illustrious 
family in the church of St. Gregory at Rome, Batoni 
eagerly embraced this favourable opportunity for convincing 
the public of his skill in colouring ; and he succeeded so 
well, that the connoisseurs of Rome extolled his colouring 
as much as they had done his drawing. 

As the excellency of Batoni was now decidedly con- 
fessed, he had frequent and advantageous orders. The 
learned prelate, and afterwards cardinal, Furietti, who had 
the direction of building the church of St. Celsus, gave him 
the picture of the high altar to execute, which Mengs held 
to be the purest and most ingenious of all his performances. 

In the immaculate conception, which has been more than 
a thousand times a subject for painters, Batoni succeeded' 
so well for the church of the Philippines at Chiari near 
Brescia, as to excite the attention and admiration of all 
good judges. His next piece was the story of Simon 
the magician for the church of St Peter at Rome ; and 
among his other most admired pictures we may notice the 
two great altar-pieces which he executed for the city of 
Brescia, whereof one represents St. Johannes Nepomucenus 
with Mary ; and the other the offering of the latter ; two 
others for the city of Lucca, one of St. Catherine of Siena, 
and the other of St. Bartholomew ; another for Messina, 
of the apostle James ; and for Parma, John preaching in 
the wilderness; as also the many scriptural pieces, and 
especially those which are so much admired in the sum- 
mer-house in the papal gardens of Monte Cavallo ; the 
chaste Susanna, in the possession of his heirs ; the Hagar, 
in the collection of an English gentleman ; the Prodigal 
son, in that of the cardinal duke of York ; to which may 
be added, a multitude of pictures of the Virgin, of the holy 
family, and saints of both sexes, which he executed for 
private persons. He likewise acquired great fame by his 
Choice of Hercules, which he painted at first in the natural 
size, and afterwards smaller, for the Florentine Marches© 
Ginosi, as a companion to the Infant Hercules strangling 
the serpents. Not less animated and expressive is another 
picture of the same kind, in which, at the request of an 
English gentleman, he has depicted Bacchus and Ariadne* 

154 B A T O.N f. 

Another poetical fiction, which he has superiorly e*» 
pressed, is in a painting that is still with his heirs. His 
intention was to delineate the cares and solicitudes of a 
bloopiing beauty. She lies sleeping on a magnificent 
couch : but her sleep is not so profound as to break off all 
correspondence between the mind and the senses ; it is 
soft and benign, as usual when a pleasing dream employs 
the imagination. The effigies of Peace and War was one of 
his finest performances, and which he executed towards 
the latter end of his life. Mars, in complete armour, is 
rushing to the combat, sword in hand ; an exceedingly 
beautiful virgin, who casts on him a look of sweetness and 
intreaty, at the same time presenting him with a branch of 
palm, places herself directly in his way. 

The vivacity of his exuberant fancy was not in the least 
enervated in those years when the hand no longer so im- 
plicitly obeys the mind. He painted for prince Yusupof, 
a Cupid returned from the chace; His game consists of 
hearts shot through with arrows. He lays them in the lap 
of the sitting Venus, and extends both his arms to embrace' 
her. She testifies her "pleasure by gentle caresses. Such 
fine ideas, which are always justly drawn, and expressed 
in the liveliest colouring, excited in every traveller, and 
in numbers of royal and princely personages, an earnest 
desire of having something of his doing. Commissions of 
this nature were innumerable. Among others the empress 
of Russia purchased of him a piece on a large scale, the 
subject Thetis receiving back Achilles from the centaur 
Chiron ; and another of equal magnitude, the Continence 
of Scipio. He executed two pictures, representing some 
parts of the story of Diana, for the king of Poland, and an- 
other for the king of Prussia, with the family of Darius 
prostrating themselves in the presence of Alexauder. Be- 
sides a wonderful delicacy of composition, this picture ia 
rendered particularly striking by the expression of the 
divers passions in the faces of the captives, exactly suited 
to their various ages and conditions, and gradually declin- 
ing from the liveliest feelings of anguish in the mother and 
wife of Darius, to the indifference and laughter of the 
slaves and children. 

As Batoni was accustomed to contemplate nature in all 
her changes and motions, he had acquired a wonderful 
facility in tracing out even the most imperceptible features 
of the human face, which betray the frame of mind and the 

BATONI. 155 

character of the man. The portraits he drew during the 
long course of his life are not to be numbered : he had 
drawn not only the popes Benedict XIV. Clement XIII. 
and Pius VI. but almost all the great personages who visited 
Rome in his time, at their own particular request. When 
the emperor Joseph II. was at Rome in 1770, and was un- 
expectedly met by his brother the grand duke of Tuscany 
in that city, he was desirous that this meeting should be 
eternized on canvas by the ablest painter that could be 
found in Rome, and the emperor pitched upon Batoni for 
this purpose. The picture, when finished, so highly satis- 
fied him, that he not only amply rewarded the master, but 
likewise presented him with a golden chain, to which was 
suspended a medal with his portrait, and a snuff-box of 
gold. The late empress, mother of the two monarchs, 
augmented these presents by giving him a series of large 
golden medals, on which their principal achievements were 
struck, and a ring richly set with brilliants ; and honoured 
him with a letter, in which she demanded that the like- 
ness of her sons, which terminated at the knees, should be 
completed. Batoni finished the work accordingly, as is 
seen with universal admiration in the large copper-plates 
designed by himself, and engraved by Andrea Rossi. As 
an additional honour, Batoni, with all his male issue, were 
raised by the emperor to the rank of nobility, and he re- 
ceived from the empress a fresh commission, to paint her 
deceased husband, the emperor Francis, after a portrait 
executed at Vienna. He also here fully answered the expec- 
tation of her majesty, and, besides a suitable recompense, 
he received likewise the portrait of the emperor Francis, 
set round with large brilliants. 

Batoni 9 s habitation was not only the chief residence of 
the Genius of painting at Rome, but her sister Music dwelt 
there in equal state. His amiable daughter Rufina, who 
was at too early an age snatched away .by death, was one 
of the completes t judges of vocal music in all Italy; and 
no person of quality came to Rome, who was not equally 
desirous of seeing the paintings of Batoni, and of hearing 
his daughters sing. Among these were also the grand duke 
of Russia and his duchess. He here saw an unfinished 
portrait of a nobleman belonging to his suite, which pleased 
him so much, that he gave him orders to paint his own. 
But, as the departure of the illustrious travellers was so very 
near, he set his hand to the work on the spot. In the few 


156 B A T O N I. 

moments that were delightfully employed by the imperial 
guest in hearing the songs of the painter's daughter, the 
artist himself was busy in sketching his picture with so 
striking a likeness, that the grand duchess too spared so 
much time from her urgent affairs hi the last days of her 
stay, as to have her picture drawn. 

It was an easy matter to him, even when an old man of 
70, to work on great undertakings for several hours, with- 
out feeling any remarkable fatigue ; he even employed the 
few moments of his leisure in executing some paintings of 
singular merit, such as the holy family for the grand duke 
of Russia, the marriage of St. Catharina, the Peace and 
War, of which mention has been made above. Batoni had 
for some time complained of the decay of his vigour and 
his sight, both of which he had preserved to an extraor- 
dinary degree, though far advanced beyond his 70th year, 
when in the autumn of 1786, he was .touched with a slight 
stroke of the palsy ; from which he did not so thoroughly 
recover, as not to feel ever after a great debility both of 
mind and body. On the 4th of February of the following 
year, 1787, death put the finishing hand to his work, by a 
much severer stroke, when he had arrived at the age of 79 
years and one day. 

He was much devoted to religion, was liberal towards 
the poor, friendly to his pupils, and such an enemy to pomp 
and ostentation, that he very seldom wore the ensigns of the 
order of knighthood, with which he had been invested by the 
pope ; and always went very modestly habited. He never 
concerned himself about any thing but his art, aud enjoyed 
an amiable contented ness and ease, which he would suffer 
nothing in the world to disturb. He carried this disposi- 
tion so far, that he avoided the meetings of the academy of 
St. Luke, though it would have been their greatest pleasure 
to have followed any hints he. might have thought proper 
to give them. Simplicity and sincerity formed the basis 
of his moral character. Kvery one seemed to be convinced 
of this immediately on seeing him ; and rarely did any per- 
son feel himself affronted when he told him disagreeable 
truths; as also no man construed it into a mark of his 
vanity, when he spoke of his own performances with self- 
satisfaction, so much was he respected on account of his 

The Roman school will always revere him as the restorer 
of its pristine fame. For he was the first in his time to 

B A T O N I. 137 

throw off the burdensome bonds of certain rules which had 
been always considered as the fundamental maxims of the 
art; though they served no other purpose than to check 
the progress of men of talents. His example has banished 
the prejudice of mannering from the Roman school. All 
now draw from the pure sources of nature, all are emulous 
to excel in the way pointed out to them by Raphael and 
the ancient Greeks for attaining to perfection. No servile 
imitation is now recommended. That every practitioner 
must choose for himself what he finds most striking and 
beautiful in the vast unlimited scenes of nature, is become 
a prime maxim in the art of painting, and it is highly pro- 
bable that the return of the flourishing days of the Caracci 
is not far off. 

This high character of Batoni, which we have considerably 
abridged from the last edition of this dictionary, was taken 
from Boni's Eloge in a German Journal, and although we 
have endeavoured to keep down the enthusiasm of our 
predecessor, yet perhaps even now the article is dispro- 
portioned to the merit of the object, and to our scale of 
lives. It is therefore necessary to subjoin Mr. Fuseli's 
opinion, which seems moderated by taste and judgment. 
Mr. Fuseli says, that Batoni " was not a very learned artist, 
nor did he supply his want of knowledge by deep reflec- 
tion. His works do not bear the appearance of an atten- 
tive study of the antique, or of the works of Raphael and 
the other great masters of Italy: but nature seemed to have 
destined him for a painter, and he followed h^r impulse. 
He was not wanting either in his delineation of character, 
in accuracy, or in pleasing representation ; and if he had 
not a grand conception, he at least knew how to describe 
well what he had conceived. He would have been, in any 
age, reckoned a very estimable painter ; at the time in 
which he lived, he certainly shone conspicuously. His 
name is known throughout Europe, and his works are every 
where in estimation. Mengs, who was a more learned 
man, was his rival ; but, less favoured by nature, if he 
enjoyed a higher reputation, he owed it less perhaps to 
any real superiority, than to the commendations of Win- 
kelman." * 

BATSCH (Augustus John George Charles), a learned 
contributor to the science of Botany, was born at Jena! 

1 Eloge by Boiii.— Pilkington't Diet 

153 B A T S C H. 

Oct. 28, 1761, and acquired considerable reputation by 
his first work, " Elenchus Fungorum," Halle, 1783, re- 
printed 1786, 8vo. In 1792 he was appointed professor 
of philosophy at Jena, where he founded the society for 
the advancement of natural history, of which he was 
president from 1793, and contributed very largely to the 
objects of the society, particularly its botanical researches, 
in the course of which he introduced many important dis- 
coveries and improvements. Among his other published 
works, which are all in German, are: 1. "An introduc- 
tion to the knowledge and history of Vegetables," two 
parts, with plates, Halle, 1787, 8vo. 2. "Essays on Bo- 
tany and vegetable Physiology," two parts, Jena, 1792, 
8vo. 3. " Botany for ladies and amateurs," Weimar, 
1795, 1798, 1805, 8vo. 4. " An introductory essay to 
the knowledge of Animals and Minerals," twa parts, Jena, 
1789, 8vo. This author died Sept. 29, 1802. * 

BATTAGLINI (Mark} was born at Rimini, March 25, 
1645, of a noble family, and studied at Cesena, under the 
most celebrated professors, and such was his proficiency, 
that he was honoured with a doctor's degree at the age of 
sixteen. He next went to Rome, where Gaspar de Car- 
pegna, then auditor of the Rota, wished him to accept an 
office in that tribunal, and employed him in some nego- 
ciations, but the air of Rome proving unfavourable to his 
health, he removed to Ancona, where for five years he 
filled the office of civil lieutenant of that city. He was 
afterwards governor of various towns, the last of which was 
Fabriano. In 1690, pope Alexander VIII. appointed him 
bishop of Nocera, and in 1703 Clement XL commissioned 
him to visit several dioceses. After being employed in 
this for two years, the pope made him assistant prelate, 
and gave him the abbey of St. Benedict of Gualdo. In 
1716 he was translated to the see of Cesena, which he en- 
joyed but a short time, dying at St. Mauro, Sept. 19, 17 17. 
He wrote in Italian, 1. "II Legista Filosofo," Rome, 
1680, 4to. 2. " Istoria universale di tutti i Concili Ge- 
nerali," Venice, 1689, 2 vols. fol. This we suspect is the 
second, and much improved edition. 3. " Annali del 
Sacerdozio," 4 vols. fol. Venice, 1701, 1704, 1709, 1711. 
He wrote, also, some devotional tracts. * 

1 Diet Hist, * Moreri.— Niceron, toI. XIX. 

B A T T E L Y. €59 

BATTELY (Dr. John), an English antiquary, was 
born at St. Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk, in 1647. He was 
some time fellow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and chap- 
lain to archbishop Sancroft, afterwards, by his grace's fa* 
vour, rector of Adisham, in Kent, prebendary of Canter- 
bury, and archdeacon of the diocese, and died Oct. 10, 
1708. Dr. Thomas Terry, canon of Christ-church, Ox- 
ford, published Dr.. Battely' s " Antiquitates Rutupins," 
in 1711, 8vo, a work composed in elegant Latin, in the 
form of a dialogue between the author and his two learned 
friends and brother chaplains, Dr. Henry Maurice, and 
Mr. Henry Wharton. The subject is the antient state of 
the Isle of Thanet A second edition of the original was 
published in 1745, 4to, with the author's "Antiquitates 
St. Edmondburgi," an unfinished history of his native 
place, and its ancient monastery, down to the year 1272. 
This was published by his nephew, Oliver Battely, with 
an appendix also, and list of abbots, continued by sir 
James Burrough, late master of Caius college, Cambridge. 
The doctor's papers are said, in the preface, to remain in 
the hands of his heirs, ready to be communicated to any 
who will undertake the work. In 1774, Mr. John Dun- 
combe published a translation of the " Antiquitates Ru- 
tupinae," under the title of " The Antiquities of Rich- 
borough and Reculver, abridged from the Latin of Mr. 
Archdeacon Battely," Lond. 1774, 12mo. His brother 
Nicholas Battely, A. M. was editor of the improved edition 
of" Somner's Antiquities of Canterbury," and wrote some 
papers and accounts of Eastbridge hospital, in Canterbury, 
which are printed in Strype's life of Whitgift. * 

BATTEUX (Charles), professor of philosophy in the 
college royal, member of the French academy and that of 
inscriptions; honorary canon of Rheims, was born in that 
diocese in 1713. He died at Paris the 14th of July 1780. 
Grief at finding that the elementary books for the use of 
the military school, the composition of which had been 
entrusted to him by the government, did not succeed, ac- 
celerated, it is said, his death. This estimable scholar 
was of a grave deportment, of a firm character without 
moroseness ; his conversation was solid and instructive, 
the attainments of a-inan grown grey in the study of Greek 

* Duncombe's preface to his Abridgement— Gough's Topography, vol. I.— 
Archaeologia, voU I. xxvi,— NicoUou's English Historical Library. 

160 BAT T E U X. 


and Roman authors. We have by him, I. u Cours de 
belles-lettres," 1760, 5 vols. 12mo; to which are added 
the " Beaux-arts r£duits k un m£me principe," and his 
tract " de la construction oratoire," which has been sepa- 
rately published. These books, more elaborate, more 
methodical, more precise than the " Traite* d'Etudes" of 
Rollin, are written with less elegance and purity. The 
style is strongly tinctured with a metaphysical air, a stiff 
and dry precision reigns through the whole, but a little 
tempered by choice examples, with which the author has 
embellished his lessons. He is likewise censurable, that 
when he discusses certain pieces of the most eminent 
French writers, for instance, the fables of Fontaine, the 
rage for throwing himself into an estacy on all occasions, 
makes him find beauties, where critics of a severer taste 
have perceived defects. 2. " Translation of the works of 
Horace into French," 2 vols. 12mo; in general faithful, 
but deficient in warmth and grace. 3. « The morality of 
Epicurus," extracted from his writings, 1758, in 12 mo; 
a book well compiled, and containing a great stock of 
erudition, without any ostentatious display of it. 4. " The 
four poetics, of Aristotle, of Horace, of Vida, and of 
Boileau," with translations and remarks, 1771, 2 vols. 8vo > 
a work that evinces the good taste of an excellent scholar, 
with sometimes the amenity of an academic. 5. " History 
of primary causes," 1769, 8vo. The author here unfolds 
some principles of the ancient philosopy. 6. " Element 
de Literature, extraits du Cours des Belles Lettres," 2 vols. 
12mo. 7. His " Cours 61ementaire," for the use of the 
military school, 45 vols. 12mo, a book hastily composed, 
in which he has copied himself, and copied others. He 
was admitted of the- academy of inscriptions in 1759, and 
of the academie Fran£oise in 1761, and was a frequent 
contributor to the memoirs of both societies. He was still 
more estimable by his personal qualities than by his lite- 
rary talents. He supported by his bounty a numerous but 
impoverished family. * 

BATT1E (William), an English physician of consider- 
able eminence, was born at Medbury, in Devonshire, 1 704, 
the son of Edward Battie, and grandson of William Battie, 
D. D. He received his education at Eton, where his mo- 
ther resided after her husband's death, in order to assist 

» Diet. Hist— Saxii Onamafticon, toK VIIL 

BATTIE. 161 

her sod, on the spot, with that advice, and those accom- 
modations, which would have been more useless and ex- 
pensive, had she lived at a greater distance. In 1722 he 
was sent to King's college, Cambridge, and on a vacaticy 
of the Craven scholarship, he succeeded to it by a com- 
bination of singular circumstances. The candidates being 
reduced to six, the provost, Dr. Snape, examined them 
3II together, that they might, as he said, be witnesses to 
the successful candidate. The three candidates from 
King's were examined in Greek authors, and the provost 
dismissed them with this pleasing compliment, that not 
being yet determined in his choice, he must trouble them 
to come again. The other electors were so divided, as, 
after a year and a day, to let the scholarship lapse to the 
donor's family, when lord Craven gave it to Battle. Pro- 
bably the remembrance continued with him, and induced 
him to make a similar foundation in the university, with a 
stipend of 20/. a year, and the same conditions for the be- 
nefit of others, which is called Dr. Battie's foundation. 
He nominated to it himself, while living, and it is now 
filled up by the electors to the Craveu scholarships. To 
Battie this scholarship was of much importance, and, as 
appears by a letter he wrote in 1725, when he got it, he 
was enabled to live comfortably. In 1726, he took his 
bachelor's, and in 1730, his master's degree. 

His intention now was to study the law, and. in order to 
procure the means, he applied to two old bachelors, his 
cousins*, both wealthy citizens, whose names were Coleman, 
soliciting the loan of a small allowance, that he might be 
qualified to reside at one of the inns of court, but they de- 
clined interfering with his concerns. This disappointment 
diverted his attention to physic, and he first commenced 
practitioner at Cambridge, where, in 1729, be printed 
'.' Isocratis Orationes septem et epistolae. Codicibus MSS. 
nonnullis, et impressis melioris notae exemplaribus collatis : 
varias lectiones subjecit, yersionem novam, notasque, ex 
Hieronymo Wolfiopotissimum desumptas, adjecit Gul. Bat- 
tie, Col. Reg. Cantab. Socius," 8vo, with a promise in the 
preface, that the remainder of the work should be given ra- 
tidiort vestitu. This word vestitu being construed by Dr. Mo- 
rell into an allusion to Battie's residence in Taylors-\nn 9 he 
wrote some ludicrous verses, which were inserted at the time 
in the Grub-street Journal. On this edition of Isocrates, 
however, Battie regularly employed himself for a certain 

Vol. IV. M 

162 B A T T I E. 

time every day. In 1737 he took his degree of M. D. and 
probably about this period, the Coletnans retiring from 
business, settled at Brent Ely Hall, in the county of Suf- 
folk", near enough to admit of Dr. Battle's accepting a ge- 
neral invitation to their house, of which he was encouraged 
to make use whenever the nature of his business allowed 
him the leisure. This he did with no small inconvenience 
to himself, without the least prospect of advantage, not to 
mention the wide disproportion between their political 
principles, the Colemans being genuine city Tories, and 
the doctor a staunch Whig ; though both parties afterwards 
reversed their opinions ; yet Dr. Battie was one whom no 
consideration of advantage in the most trying exigencies of 
life could ever prevail on to swerve from what he conscien- 
tiously believed to be truth. 

A fair opening for a physician happening at Uxbridge, 
induced Dr. Battie to settle in that town. At his first 
coming there, Dr. Godolphin, provost of Eton, sent his 
coach and four for him, as his patient ; but the doctor sit- 
ting to write a prescription, the provost, raising himself 
up, said, " You heed not trouble yourself to write ; I only 
sent for you to give you credit in the neighbourhood." 
His medical skill here being attended with success, he was 
quickly enabled to accumulate 500/. with which in his 
pocket, he again paid a visit to his relations in Suffolk, 
requesting their advice how to dispose of bis wealth to the 
best advantage; and they were so pleased with his industry 
and discretion, that from that hour they behaved towards 
him with the firmest friendship. He then removed to Lon- 
don, where the established emoluments of his practice 
produced him 1000/. a year. In 1738 or 1739, he ful- 
filled by marriage a long attachment he had preserved for 
a daughter of Barnham Goode, the under-master of Eton 
school of the year 1691, against whom, at all times, the 
Colemans expressed the niost inveterate political antipathy. 
They, however, behaved to the wife with the utmost ci- . 
vility, and when they died, they left Dr. Battie 30,000/. 

In 1746 he published an Harveian oration, and in 1749, 
being then F.R. S. published his complete edition of 
Isocrates, 2 vols. 8vo, a work of which the learned and 
critical Harles does not speak in the highest terms of com- 
mendation, and seems to insinuate that the editor was de- 
ficient in judgment and talents. In the dispute which the 
college of physicians had with Dr. Schomberg, about the 
year 1750, Dr. Battie was one of the censors, and took a 

B A T T I E. 163 

very active part against that gentleman, in consequence o£ 
which he was thus severely, but not altogether unjustly 
ridiculed, in a poem called " The Battiad," said to be 
written by Moses Mendez, Paul Whitehead, and Dni 
Schomberg, and since reprinted in Dilly's " Repository," 
1776. . The lines are these : 

** First Battus came, deep read in worldly art, 

Whose tongue ne'er knew the secrets of his heart : 

In mischief mighty, though but mean of size, 

And, like the tempter, ever in disguise. \ 

See him, with aspect grave, and gentle tread, 

By slow degrees approach the sickly bed. , 

Then at his club behold him alter d soon, 

The solemn doctor turns a low buffoon : 

And he, who lately in a learned freak 

Foach'd every lexicon, and published Greek, 

Still madly emulous of vulgar praise, 

From Punch's forehead wrings the dirty bays." 

, These last lines allude to a fact ; and by successfully 
mimicking that low character, Dr. Battie is said to have 
once saved a young patient's life. He was sent for to a 
gentleman who was alive iu 1782, but at that time only 
fourteen or fifteen years old, who was in extreme misery 
from a swelling in his throat; when the doctor understood 
what the complaint was, he opened the curtains, turned his 
wig, and acted Punch with so much humour and success, 
that the young man, thrown almost into convulsions from 
laughing, was so agitated, as to occasion the tumour to 
break, and a complete cure was the immediate conse* 

In 1751, he published " De principiis animalibus exer* 
citationes in Coll. Reg. M edicorum," in three parts ; which 
were followed the year after, by a fourth. These were 
his Lumleian lectures, delivered at the college of physi- 
cians. In 1757, being then physician to Sfc Luke's hos- 
pital, and master of a private mad-house near Wood's close, 
in the road to Islington, he published in 4to, " A treatise 
on Madness ;" in which, having thrown out some censures 
on the medicinal practice formerly used in Bethlem 
hospital, he was replied to, and severely animadverted 
on, by Dr. John Monro, whose father had been lightly 
apoken of in the forementioned treatise. Monro having 
humorously enough taken Horace's O major tandem parcas 
insane minan\ for the motto of his Remarks on Battle's 
Treatise, the wits gave him the name of major BaUie, in* 

M 2 

164 BAtTTIE. 

Stead of doctor. In 1762 he published " Aphorismi de 
cognoscendis et curandis morbis nonnullis ad principia 
animalia accommodati." Feb. 1763, he was examined 
before a committee of the house of commons on the state 
of the private mad-houses in this kingdom, and received 
in their printed report a testimony very honourable to bis 

In April 1764, he resigned the office of physician to 
St. Luke's hospital. In 1767, when disputes ran very high 
between the college of physicians and the licentiates, 
t)r. Battie wrote several letters in the public papers, in 
vindication of the college. In 1776, he was seized with a 
paralytic stroke, which proved fatal, June 13, in his 7 2d 
year. The night he expired, conversing with his servant, a 
lad who attended on him as a nurse, he said to him, " Young 
man, you have heard, no doubt, how great are the terrors 
of death. This night will probably afford you some ex- 
perience ; but may you learn, and may you profit by the 
example, that a conscientious endeavour to perform his 
duty through life, will ever close a Christian's eyes with 
comfort and tranquillity." He soon after departed, with- 
out a struggle or a groan, and was buried by his own di- 
rection, at Kingston-upon-Thames, " as near as possible 
to his wife, without any monument or memorial whatever." 
He left three daughters, Anne, Catherine, and Philadelphia, 
of whom the eldest was married to sir George Young (a gal* 
lant English admiral who died in 1810.) This lady sold her 
father's house and estate at Marlow, called Court garden, 
to Mr. Davenport, an eminent surgeon of London. The 
second was married to Jonathan Rashleigh, esq. and the 
third to John, afterwards sir John Call, bart. in the hon. 
East India company's service. Dr. Battie gave by his will 
100/. to St Luke's hospital ; 100/. to the corporation for 
the relief of widows and children of clergymen, and twenty 
.guineas to earl Camden, as a token of regard for his many 
public and private virtues. His books and papers, whe- 
ther published or not, he gave to his daughter Anne. 
Among these was a tract on the meaning of 1 Cor. xv. 22, 
, and some others which were printed before his death, but 
not published, nor have we seen a copy. 

Dr. Battie, it may already be surmised, was of that class 
called humourists, and he had also a turn fo» speculations 
a little out of the way of his profession. His house at 
Marlow was built under his own direction, but he for- 

B ATT IE. m 

got the stair-case, and all the offices below were coif* 
stantly under water. A favourite scheme of his, for 
having the barges drawn up the river by horses instead of 
men, rendered him unpopular among the bargemen, and 
at oue . time he narrowly escaped being thrown over the 
bridge by them, but he pacified them by acting Punch. 
In this scheme he is said to have lost 1 500/. and for fear 
of future insults, he always carried pocket-pistols about 
him. He affected in the country to be his own day-la- 
bourer, and to dress like one, and was, oh one Occasion, 
refused admittance to a gentleman's house, where he was 
intimate, the servants not knowing him in this disguise, 
but he forced himself in by main force. Upon the whole, 
however, he was a man of learning, benevolence, and 
drill, i -  • 


BATTISH1LL (Jonathan), an English musician and 
composer, was born in London, 1738. Discovering at a 
very early age an uncommon genius for music, and having 
an excellent voice, he was, in 1 747, placed in the choir 
of St. Paul's, under the tuition of Mr. Savage, then master 
of the young gentlemen of that cathedral. He was soon 
qualified to sing at sight, and before he had been in the 
choir two years, his performances discovered uncommon 
taste and judgment. On his voice changing at the usual 
period of life, he became an articled pupil of Mr. Savage 
and at the expiration of his engagement, came forth one 
of the -first extempore performers in this country. He had 
now just arrived at manhood, and having a pleasing, though 
not powerful voice, a tasteful and masterly style of exe» 
tuition on the harpsichord, a fund of entertaining informa- 
tion acquired by extensive reading, a pleasing manner, 
and a gay and lively disposition, he possessed, in an emi- 
nent degree, the power of rendering himself agreeable in 
every company ; and his society and instruction were 
courted by persons of the highest ranks. Every encourage* 
roent was offered to excite his future efforts* and promote 
his professional success 5 and no prospects could be fairer 
or more flattering than those which he had now before him* 

Of these advantages, however, he does not appear to 
have availed himself in the fullest extent. After leaving 

I Nichols's Life of Bowyer, 8?o.— Harwood's Alumni Etoneuses. 


Mr. Savage, we' find him composing songs for Sidler's 
Wells, and afterwards performing on the harpsichord at 
Covent-garden theatre, where he married Miss Davies, 
a singer, but did not permit her any more to appear ill 
public. Soon after this marriage, he obtained the place of 
organist to the churches of St Clement, East-cheap, and 
of Christ-church, Newgate-street, and about this time 
published a series of songs, highly creditable to his talents, 
and his reputation was yet more promoted by composing 
part of the opera of Alcmena, in conjunction with Mr. 
Michael Arne. But these and similar compositions did 
not divert his mind from cathedral music, in which style 
he composed some excellent anthems, since republished 
in Mr. Page's Harmonia Sacra. He also, at the express 
desire of the Rev. Charles Wesley, father of the present 
Messrs. Charles and Samuel Wesley, set to music a col- 
lection of hymns, written by that gentleman, the melodies 
of which are peculiarly elegant, yet chaste and appropriate. 
In the catch and giee style, he also gave convincing proofs 
of the diversity of his taste and genius, and in 1770 ob- 
tained the gold medal given by the noblemen's catch-club, 
for his well-known glee " Underneath this, myrtle shade." 
With such talents, and the approbation which fqllqwed tfee 
exertion of them, he appears to {iave relaxed into indif- 
ference, and in his latter years seldom came forward as a 
composer. Except two excellent collections of three 
and four part songis, and a few airs composed for a col- 
lection published by Harrison of Paternoster-row, nothing 
appeared, from his peu for the last thirty years of his life* 
tHis-time was spent in his library, where he had accumu- 
lated a very large collection of valuable books, or in at* 
tending bis pupils, or in what was, perhaps, as frequent 
and less wise, in convivial parties. He was blest with an 
uncommonly strong constitution : but the excesses in which 
he too frequently indulged, together with his insuperable 
grief for the loss of his friend colonel Morris, lately killed 
in Flanders, visibly preyed upon his health ; and he ber 
came so ill during his last autumn, as to be confined to his 
chamber. He was advised to try sea-bathing, and the air 
of Margate, but tlnese rendered- him no ^ervipe. He re* 
turned from that place rather wotse than when he left tpwn ; 
and, agreeably to the advice of bis physician*, took apart* 
tnents at Islington, where his general debility still con- 
tinued to increase, and where he expired on Thursday, the k 

B A T T I S H I L L. 167 

10th of December, 1801, aged sixty-three years, and was 
interred, according to his dying wish, in the vaults of St. 
Paul's cathedral. Some of the manuscript compositions he 
left have since been published by Mr. Page. l 
: BATY (Richard), rector of the parish of Kirkandrews 
upon Esk, in Cumberland, was born in the parish of Ar- 
thuret, and received his academical education in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, where he was admitted to the degree 
of A. M. in 1725. He afterwards became curate of Kirk- 
andrews; and in this situation, his exemplary conduct, 
and faithful discharge of the ministerial duties, recom* 
mended him so effectually to lord viscount Preston, that 
on a vacancy, he presented him to the rectory in 1732. 
As there was no parsonage-house, nor glebe- appropriated 
to the living, on its separation from Arthuret, he built the 
house contiguous to the old tower at Kirkandrews, with 
barns, stables, &c. entirely at his own expence, having 
first obtained a lease of the situation and farm there during 
his incumbency. The parish is divided by the river Esk ; 
and as there is no bridge on this part of it, he established 
a ferry for the use of those* coming to church. He likewise 
promoted the building of the school-house near Meadhope 
(endowed by lady Widrington and her sister), and for the 
information of those of maturer years, he printed, at New- 
castle, 1750, a " Sermon on the Sacrament;" with prayers 
for the use of persons in private, and of families, which he 
distributed liberally apaong them. With the same views he 
published, in 1751, a small volume entitled "Seasonable 
advice to a careless world," in essays, &c. and lastly, in 
1756, " The young Clergyman's Companion in visiting the 
Sick ;" all these without his name. He was also skilful, 
and much consulted, as an oculist, but his advice and ap- 
plications were always gratuitous. His temper and man- 
ners were mild and conciliating, his company much in re- 
quest, and his house presented a scene of hospitality to 
the utmost of his abilities. He died in 175 8-. * 

BAUDART (William), a protestant divine, was born 
at Deinse in Flanders, in 1565, whence his parents being 
obliged to fly on account of their religion, he was brought 
first to Cologne, and afterwards to Embden, where he stu- 

1 From aa account communicated by Dr. Busby to the Monthly Maga- 
zine, 1802. 
' Hutchinson's Hist of Cumberland, toI. II. p. 681, 

168 . B A U D A R T, 

died with great assiduity and success the learned languages 
of the East and West. When admitted into holy orders, 
the church of Sueek in Friesland, and that of Zutphen, 
invited him to become their pastor. The famous Synod of 
Dort, held in 1618 and 1619, appointed him, withBoger- 
xnan and Bucerus, to make a new translation of the Old 
Testament into Dutch. Bucerus died, and Baudart, after 
employing six years on the work, with his remaining col- 
league, died also at Zutphen in 1640. He was a man of 
uncommon industry, and so fond of literary employment 
that he chose for his motto " Labor mihi quies." Besides 
this translation of the Bible, he published a supplement to 
Van Meteren's history, containing affairs ecclesiastical an<^ 
political from 1602 to J 624. This was published in Dutch, 
at Zutphen 1624, 2 vols. fol. His popish critics object 
to him that his orthodoxy has interfered rather too much 
with his impartiality. He also published *' Polemographia 
Auriaco-Belgica," a collection of two hundred and ninety-* 
nine engravings, with some illustrative Latin verses under 
each, 1621, 4to. ; a similar collection of two hundred and 
ejghty«-five prints, representing the sieges, battles, &c; 
belong to the Belgic history, from 1559 to 1612, in oblong 
4to ; and a collection of memorable apophthegms. This, 
if the same with what Foppen calls " Les Guerres de Nas* 
sau," was published in 1616. * 

BAUDELOT (Charles C^sar) de Dairval, an emi* 
pent French antiquary, was born at Paris, Nov. 29, 1648. 
|Ie studied partly at Beauvais, under his uncle Halle, an 
eminent doctor of the Sorbonne, and director of that schqol, 
9.nd afterwards at Paris under Danet, author of the dic- 
tionaries which bear his name. His inclination was for 
medicine as a profession, but family reasons decided in 
favour of the law, in which he became an advocate of par? 
liament, pud p, distinguished pleader. Happening to be 
obliged \o go to Dijon about a cause in which his mother 
was concerned, he amused his leisure hours in visiting thfe 
libraries and museums with which Dijon at that time 
abounded. He pleaded that cause, however, so ably, that 
the marquis de la Meilieraye was induced to intrust him 
with another of great importance which had brought him 
to Dijon, and our young advocate, now metamorphosed 
into an antiquary, laid out the fee he received from hifi( 

J Diet. Hist.-r-Foppen Bibl. Belg .— Sa*ii Onomasticon. 


noble client, in the purchase of a cabinet of books, medals, 
&c. then on sale at Dijon. With this he returned to Paris, 
but no more to the bar, his whole attention being absorbed 
in researches on the remains of antiquity. The notions 
he had formed on this subject appeared soon in his prin* 
cipal work on the utility of travelling, and the advantaged 
which the learned derive from the study of antiquities. It 
wasentitled " De Futility des Voyages,'' 2 vols. 16.86, 12mo, 
often reprinted, and the edition of Rouen in 1727 is said 
to be the best, although, according to Niceron, not the 
most correct. The reputation of this, work brought hinq( 
acquainted with the most eminent antiquaries of England, 
Holland, and Germany, and, when he least expected such 
an honour, he was admitted an associate of the academy 
of the Ricovrati of Padua, and was generally consulted on 
all subjects of antiquity which happened to be the object 
of public curiosity. In 1698 he printed a dissertation oil 
Ptolomy Auletes, whose head he discovered on an ancient 
amethyst hitherto undescribed, in the cabinet of the duchess 
of Orleans, who rewarded him by the appointment of keeper 
of her cabinet of medals. In 1700, he wrote a letter to 
Mr. Lister of the royal society of London, describing art 
enormous stone found in the body of a horse. He after- 
wards published separately, or in the literary journals, 
various memoirs on antique medals, and in 1705 he was 
chosen a member of the academy of inscriptions and belles 
lettres. This honour inspirited his labours, and he became 
$ frequent contributor to the memoirs of the academy. 
His last piece is entitled " Dissertation sur le guerre des 
Atheniens contre les peuples de 1'isle Atlantique." His 
health now began to decline, although for some time it was 
not discovered that his disorder was a drppsy of the chest, 
which proved fatal June 27, 1722. His characteris repre- 
sented by all his biographers as being truly amiable. He 
bequeathed to the academy, what he valued most,, his books, 
medals, bronzes, and antique marbles. Two of the latter 
of great value, which were brought from Constantinople 
by M. Nointal, and are supposed to be more than two thou- 
sand years old, contain the names of the Athenian captains 
and soldiers who were killed, in one year, in different ex- 
peditions. These afterwards became the property of 3VT. 
Thevenot, the king's librarian, who placed them at his 
country-house at Issy. Thevenot's heirs, who. bad little 
taste for antiquities, were about to have sold them to a 


stone-cutter for common purposes, when Baudelot beard of 
the transaction, and immediately went in pursuit of th« 
treasure. Having purchased them, he had them placed in 
a carriage of which he never lost sight until they were de- 
posited in a house which he then occupied in the faubourg 
of St Marceau, and when he removed to that of St, Ger- 
main, he conveyed them thither with the same care, and 
placed them in a small court. Here, however, they were 
not quite safe. A considerable part of the house happened 
to be occupied by a young lady who had no taste for antU 
quities, and soon discovered that these marbles were aq 
incumbrance. In order to make Baudelot remove them, 
she pretended to hire the dustmen to take them, away. 
Baudelot, returning home at night, was told of this project, 
and although it was then late, would not go to sleep until • 
be bad seen them deposited in his apartment. They ar§ 
now in the museum of antiquities in the Louvre. 1 

BAUDERON (Bjuce), a French physician, born af 
Parey in the Charolais, practised at Macon for several 
years, where he died in 1623, aged eighty-one. He if 
best known by a Pharmacopoeia, published under the title 
of " Paraphrase sur la Pharmacop£e," which was long a 
very popular work. It was first printed at Lyons in 1588, 
and reprinted in 1596, 1603, and? 1628, 8vo, and trans- 
lated into Latin, under the title of " Pharmacopoeia e Gal- 
Jico in Latinum versa a Philemone Holland©," with addi-» 
tions, Loud. 1639, fol. and Hague, 1640, 4 to, and often 
reprinted in this form* He. published also "Praxis Me- 
dica in duos tractatus distincta," Paris, 1620, 4to. Haller 
calls this " Praxis de febribus." * 

BAUDIER (Michael), of Languedoc, historiographer 
of France under Louis XIIjL was one of the most fertile . 
and heavy writers of his time, but we have no particulars 
of his life. He left behind him many works composed 
without either method or taste, but which Abound in par- 
ticulars not to be found elsewhere. 1 . " Histoire generate 
de la Religion des TifTcs, avec la Vie de leur prophgte Ma- 
homet, et des iv premiers califes ;" also, " Le Livre et la 
The*ologie de Mahomet," 1636, 8vo, a work translated 
from the. Arabic, copied by those who wrote after him, 
though they have not vouchsafed to cite him. 2. " His* 

l Chaufepie.— Moreri. — Diet, Hist — .^axii Onomasticon. 
 DicU Hist.— Manget and Haller.— CeiJ. Diet. 

BAUD1ER. 171 

toire du Cardinal d'Amboise," Paris, 1651, in Svo. Sir* 
moad, of the Academie Fran^oise, one of the numerous 
flatterers of the cardinal de Richelieu, formed the design 
of elevating that minister at the expence of all those who 
had gone before him. He began by attacking d'Amboise, 
and failed not to sink him below Richelieu. Baudier, by 
no means a courtier, avenged his memory, and eclipsed 
the work of his detractor. 3. " Histoire du Marechal de 
Toiras," 1644, fol. 1666, 2 vols. 12mo; a curious per- 
formance which throws considerable light on the reign of 
Louis XIII. 4. " The Lives of the Abb£ Suger, and of 
Cardinal Ximenes, &c." The facts that Baudier relates in, 
these different works are almost always absorbed by his re- 
flections, which have neither the merit of precision nor 
that of novelty to recommend them. Moreri informs us 
that he wrote a history of Margaret of Anjou, queen of 
Henry VI. of England, that the manuscript was in the 
library of the abbey of St. Germain des Pres, at Paris, 
among the collection of M. de Coislin, bishop of Metz ; 
and that this history was translated and published in Eng- 
lish, without any acknowledgment by the translator, or any 
notice of the original author. 1 

BAUD! US (Dominic), professor of history in the uni- 
versity of Leyden, was born at Lisle, April 8, 1561. He 
began bis studies at Aix laChapelle, whether his parents, 
who were Protestants, had retired during the tyranny of 
the duke of Alva. He w6nt afterwards to Leyden and 
Geneva, where he studied divinity : after residing hem 
some time, he returned to Ghent, and again to Leyden, 
where he applied to the civil law, and was admitted doctov 
of law, June 1585. Soon after, he accompanied the am- 
bassadors from the states to England, and during his resi- 
dence here became acquainted with several persons of dis- 
tinction, particularly the famous sir Philip Sidney. 

He was admitted advocate at the Hague, the 5th of Ja~ 
nuary 1 587 ; but being soon tired of the bar, went to France, 
where he remained ten years, and was much esteemed* 
acquiring both friends and patrons. Achilles de Harlai, 
first president of the parliament of Paris, got him to be ad* 
mitted advocate of the parliament of Paris in K5$2. In 
1602, he went to England with Christopher de Harlai, the 
president's son, who was sent ambassador thither by Henry 

i Moreri.— DioL Hiit. 

H2 baud i us: 

the Great; and the same year, having been named pro- 
fessor of eloquence at Ley den, he settled in that univer- 
sity. He read lectures on history after the death of Mo- 
rula, and was permitted also to do the same on the civil 
law. In 1611, the states conferred upon him the office of 
historiographer- in conjunction with Meursius ; and in con* 
sequence thereof he wrote u The history of the Truce." 
Baudius is an elegant prose-writer, as appears from his 
" Letters," many of which were published after his death. 
He was also an excellent Latin poet : the first edition of 
his poems was printed in 1587 ; they consist of verses of 
all the different measures : he published separately a book 
of iambics in 1591, dedicated to cardinal Bourbon. Some 
of his poems he dedicated to the king of England; others 
to the prince of Wales, in the edition of 1607, and went 
over to England to present them, where great respect was 
paid to him by several persons of rank and learning. 

Baudius was a strenuous advocate for a truce betwixt the 
States and Spain : two orations he published on this sub- 
ject, though without his name, had almost brought htm 
into serious trouble, as prince Maurice was made to be* 
lieve he was affronted in them, and the author was said to 
have been bribed by the French ambassador to write upon 
the truce. : In consequence of these suspicions he wrote to 
the prince and his secretary, in order to vindicate himself^ 
and laments his unhappy fate in being exposed to the ma- 
lice of so many slanderers, who put wrong' interpretations 
on his words : " It is evident (says he) that through the 
malignity of mankind, nothing can be expressed so cau- 
tiously by men of any character and reputation, . but it may 
be distorted into some obnoxious sense. For what can be 
more absurd than the conduct of those men, who have re- 
ported that I have been bribed by the ambassador Jeannin* 
to give him empty words in return for his generosity to 
me ? as if I, an obscure doctor, was an assistant to a man 
of the greatest experience in business." Some verses, 
which he wrote in praise of the marquis of Spinola, oc- 
casioned him also a good deal of trouble : the marquis 
came to Holland before any thing was concluded either 
of the peace or truce; and though Baudius had printed 
the poem, yet he kept the copies of it, till it might be 
' seen more evidently upon what account this minister came* 
and gave them only to his most intimate friends. It being 


known however that the poem was printed, he was very 
near being banished for it. 

Baudius was a man of considerable learning, and wrote 
in Latin with great purity and elegance. But he was con- 
ceited and ambitious beyond all just claims, and disgraced 
his latter years by intemperance, and vagrant amours, al- 
though a married man. This exposed him to ridicule, and 
injured his reputation in the republic of letters. He died 
at Leyden, August 22, 1613. 

His works are: 1. " Oratio in Plinii Panegyrtcum ; ,f 
Leyden, 1603, 4to, 2. " Poemata," ibid. 1607, 8vo. often 
reprinted ; but less admired than his letters. 3. " Oratio 
?d Studiosos. Leydenses, ob c&dem commilitonis, tumuU 
tuantes," ibid. 1609, 8vo, a very elegant address. 4. 
" Monumentuoi consecratum Honori et Memoriae Britan* 
niarum principis^ Henrici Frederici," ibid. 1612, 4to. 5, 
" De Induciis Belli Belgici," ibid. 1613, 4to; 1617, Hvo. 
6. " Epistolae," ibid. 1615, 24mo, and often reprinted; 
certainly the most entertaining of his works, and a very 
faithful picture of his character. This work, to be found 
in every library, every catalogue, and almost every stall, 
has the addition of the whole of his orations, a treatise on 
Usury and a short life and portrait prefixed. l 

BAUDOT de Juilli (Nicholas), born at Vendome in 
1678, was the son of a collector of excise, settled at Sarlat, 
where he became sub-delegate of the intendant. The 
functions of this office and the charms of literature filled 
up the. course of his long life, which terminated in 1759, 
at the age of 81. We have several historical works by him, 
written with method and ingenuity. 1. "L'Histoire de 
Catherine de France, reine d'Angieterre," which he pub- 
lished in 1696. Though the whole of this be true in re-, 
gard to the principal events, the author afterwards allowed, 
what may indeed be easily discovered, that it is very much 
tinctured with romance* 2. " Germaine de Foix," an 
historical novel, 1701. 3. " L'histoire secrette du Con- 
ngtable de Bourbon," 1706. 4. " La Relation historique 
et galante de l'invasion de PEspagne par les Maures," 
1722, 4 vols, in 12mo. These three works are nearly of 
the same 3pecies with the first; but there are others by 
him of more regular and authentic composition, as, "l'His-* 

1 Geo. Diet.— Freheyri Theatrum. — Foppcn Bibl. Belg. — " Must. Holland, 
et Westfrisiae ordinam Alma Academia Leidensis," 1614, 4to. p. 209.— JJlount't 
Centura.-— Saxii Onomasticon* 

174 r BAUDOT. 

toire de la conqu£te d'Angleterre par Guillapme due de 
Normandie;" 1701, in 1 2 mo; " L'Histoire de Philippe 
Auguste," 1702, 2 vols. 12mo ; and that of " Charles VII." 
1697, 2 vols. 12mo* Its principal merit lies in the method 
and style, as the author consulted nothing but printed 4 
books. We have likewise by him, u L'Histoire de* hom- 
ines illustres," extracted from Brantome ; u L'Histoire de 
la vie et du regne de Charles VI." 1755, in 9 vols. 12mo» 
" L'Histoire du regne de Louis XL" 1756, 6 vols. I2mo. 
" L'Histoiredes revolutions de Naples/' 1757, 4 vols. 12mo. 
These three last works appeared under the name of Mad. 
de Lussan, who, as will be noticed in her article, shared 
the profits with him. His general style is easy, perhaps* 
approaching to negligence, and in the hurry of so much 
compilation, we cannot wonder that there are inaccuracies 
in facts, or at least, in dates. * 

BAUDOUIN (Benedict), a divine of Amiens, the place 
of his birth, acquired the notice of the learned by his dis- 
sertation " De la chaussure des Anciens," published in 
1615, under the title of *' Calceus antiquus et mysticus," 
8vo. This work was the occasion of the false notion that 
he was the son of a shoemaker, and had followed the trade 
himself, to which he intended to do honour by this publi- 
cation. Such is the brief notice of this author in the last 
edition of this Dictionary. It is necessary, however, to add 
that he was esteemed a man of learning in his day, was 
principal of the college of Troyes ; and on his return to 
Amiens, accepted the charge of master of the Hotel-Dieu, 
and died here Nov. 1632. Whether he was the son of a 
shoemaker, and bred to that business himself, seems doubt- 
ful. The Diet. Hist, asserts it on the authority of Daire 
ki his " Hist. Litt. de la ville d' Amiens," p. 161. The 
continuator of Moreri contradicts it, on the authority of 
La Morliere in his " Antiquitgs de la ville d f Amiens," and 
informs us that the " Calceus antiquus" was a work com- 
piled by the author as an exercise on a curious question in 
ancient manners and dress. From la Morliere, we learn 
also that Baudouin translated Seneca's tragedies into French 
verse, which translation was published at Troyes in 1629.* 
BAUDOUIN (Francis), in Latin Bauhhnus, a famous 
civilian, was born at Arras the first of January, 1580. He 
studied for six years in the university of Louvain, after 

1 Diet. Hist— Moreri. » Ibid, 


which he was some time at the court of Charles V; with 
the marquis de Bergue, and then he went to France, 
where he gained the friendship of the most learned men, 
and among others of Charles du Moulin, at whose house 
he lodged* The curiosity of knowing the most famous 
ministers induced him to travel into Germany ; where he 
became acquainted with Calvin at Geneva, Bucer at Stras- 
burgh, and other* of the reformed clergy. On his return 
to Paris he was invited to a professorship of civil law at 
Bourges, which office he filled for seven years with repu- 
tation enough to alarm the jealousy of his colleague Dua- 
renus, and then went to Tubing, where he likewise intended 
to have taught civil law ; but hearing that Du Moulin de- 
signed to return to that university, he remained at Stras- 
burgh, and gave lectures for about a year. Thence he 
went to Heidelberg, and was professor of civil law and 
history near five years, until he was sent for by Anthony 
of Bourbon, king of N&varre, who made him preceptor to 
bis natural son. About this time an idea was entertained 
of reconciling the Romish and Protestant churches, and 
Baudouin was recommended to the king of Navarre, as 
likely to promote such an attempt, which however did not 
succeed, and only served to involve Baudouin in disputes 
with the reformers, who saw at once the impracticability 
of the scheme, without injuring the reformation already 
successfully begun. Baudouin carried his pupil to Trent, 
but on the king of Navarre's death, returned to France 
with him, and found his estate and library pillaged. 
- At this time, his old friend the niarquis de Bergue, and 
several other lords of the low-countries, engaged Maxi- 
milian de Bergue, archbishop of Cambray, to procure Bau- 
douin the professorship of civil law, intending to make use 
of his advice in affairs of state and religion ; for they knew 
that he was of opinion, that the laws against sectaries ought 
to be moderated. In consequence of this we find him 
next, .professor of civil law in the university of Doway. 
He was very civilly received by the duke of Alva, who 
was then preparing his cruel proceedings for St. Bartholo? 
mew day ; but, as he was afraid of being chosen one of the 
Judges of those persons, whom they designed to put to 
death, he desired leave of absence under pretence of fetch- 
ing his wife and his library thither ; and having obtained, 
it, he returned to Paris, where he read public lectures upon 
several passages of the Pandects with the applause of a 

176 B A U D O V 1 • M, 

large audience* He accepted the professorship of eivil 
law, which was offered him by the university of Bezangon; 
but understanding upon his going thither that the empe- 
ror had prohibited that university from erecting this pro- 
fessorship, he refused to read any lectures* though he was 
solicited to it. He then returned to Paris, and agreeably 
to the advice of Philip de Hurault, which was to teach 
civil law in the university of Angers* he went thither, 
where he continued his lectures for four years, till the duke 
of Anjou, who was proclaimed king of Poland, sent for 
him to Paris at the time when the embassy from Poland 
was received there. He was designed for the professor- 
ship of civil law in the university of Cracow; and it is 
thought he would have attended the new kiug into that 
country, if death had not prevented him. He died in the 
college of Arras, at Paris, Oct. 24, 1573* Baudouin ap- 
pears to have been of unsettled principles in religion. Af- 
fecting to be displeased with some things in popery, Cal- 
vinism, and Lutheran ism, he allowed his mind to dwell on 
the hopes of forming a new sect out of them all. He was, 
however, a man of extensive learning and commanding 
eloquence, and often employed in political negociacions* 
in the conduct of which he gave much satisfaction, yet it 
is supposed that he did not die rich, and it is certain that 
he never had any great preferments. 

His principal works, written in a pure style, are* 1* 
" Leges de re Rustica, et Novella Constitutio prima," &c. 
Louvain, 1542, 4to; Basil, 1543. 2. " Prolegomena sea 
prefata de jure civili," Paris, 1545, 4to. 3. " Commen- 
tarii in libros quatuor instituti juris civilis," Paris, 1546, 
folio; reprinted 1582, 1584. 4. " Juris Civilis Cateche- 
sis," Basil, 1557, 8vo. 5. " Disputationes dpsa de jure 
civili* cum Papiniani vita," Heidelberg, 1561, 8vo. 6. 
" Note ad libros I. et II. Digestorjim," Basil, 1557, 8vo, 
with many other works on different parts of civil law. 7. 
V De Institutione Historic Universee," Paris, 1551, 4to. 
8. " Historia Carthaginensis collationis," relative to the 
ancient controversy between the Catholics and the Dona- 
tists, ibid. 1566, 8vo. 9. An edition of " Optatus de 
schismate Donatistarum," &c. ib. 1569, 8vo. 10. "De Le- 
gatione Polonica, oratio," ib. 1573, 4 to. 11. " Apologia 
triplex ad versus Joannem Calvinum ac Theodorum Bezam," 
1562, 1564, 8vo, &C. 1 

1 <3en. Diet. — Moreri.— Dupra.«~Foppen BibL Bdff.*— Sax. in Baldainixi.— * 
Niceron, vol. XXVIII. 

B'AUDOU IN. 177 

BAUDOUIN (John), a member of the French acade- 
my, was a native of Pradelle in Vivarais, where he was 
born in 1590. In his youth he was a considerable travel- 
ler, but afterwards settled for the rest of his life at Paris, 
where he was reader to queen Margaret. He made trans- 
lations from Tacitus, Suetonius, Lucian, Sallust, Dion Cas- 
sius; Tasso, and many other established writers, but which 
contributed little to his fame. When hard pressed by his 
employers, he contented himself with retouching former 
translations, without looking into the originals. He also 
wrote a " History of Malta," 1659, 2 vols, folio, and some 
novels and romances, in general beneath mediocrity. His 
only work not of this character, is his collection of (€ Em- 
blems," with moral explanations, Paris, 1638, 8vo. 3 vols, a 
beautiful book, with engravings by Briot. His " Iconolo- 
gie" is also in request- with collectors. It was printed at 
Paris, 1636, folio, and 1643, 4to. Baudouin died at Paris 
in 1650, according to Moreri, or 1656, as in the Diet. 
Hist 1 '• 

BAUDRAND (Michael Anthony), a celebrated French 
geographer, was born at Paris the 28th of July, 1633. His 
father, Stephen Baudrand, was first deputy of the procura- 
tor-general of the court of aids, treasurer of France for 
Montauban, and master of the requests of his royal high- 
ness Gaston of France, and his mother's name was Frances 
Caule. He began his studies in the year 1640. His in- 
clination for geography was first noticed when he studied 
at the Jesuits college of Clermont under father Briet, who 
was famous for his geography, which was then printing, the 
proof sheets of which were corrected by our author^ After 
he had finished his course of philosophy at the college of 
Lisieufc under Mr. Desperier, cardinal Antonio Barberini 
took him as his secretary at Rome, and he was present with 
Jbis eminence at the conclave, in which pope Alexander 
VII. was elected; and afterwards at that in which Clement 
IX. was chosen pope. Upon his return to France, he ap- 
plied himself to the revisal of Ferrarius's Geographical Dic- 
tionary, which he enlarged by one half, and published at 
Paris, 1671, fol. In the same year he attended the mar- 
quis of Dangeau, who was employed by the king in the 
management of his affairs in Germany, and also went to 
England with the duchess of York, who was afterwards 

i Diet. Hist— Moreri. 

Vofc- TV. • N . 


ljueen of England. His travels were of great advantage to him 
in furnishing him with a variety of observations in geography. 
He returned to France in 1677, and composed his geogra- 
phical dictionary in Latin. In 1691 he attended the cardinal 
of Camus, who was bishop of Grenoble, to Rome, and wenti 
with him into the conclave on the 27th of March, where he 
continued three months'and a half, till the election of pope 
Innocent XII. on July 12th, the same year. Upon his re- 
turn to Paris he applied himself to the completing of his 
French geographical dictionary, but he was prevented from 
publishing it by his death, which happened at Paris the 
29th of May 1700. He had been prior of Rouvres and 
Neuf-Marche\ He left all his books and papers to the Be- 
nedictine monks of the abbey of St. Germain des Prez. 

His geographical dictionary was entitled " Geographia 
ordine literarum disposita," Paris, 1682, 2 vols. fol. That 
in French appeared in 1705, folio, but neither of them ob- 
tained much credit. The best edition, if we may so term 
it, is the " Dictionaire Geographique Universelle," taken 
from Baudrand's workj by Maty, and published at Amster- 
dam in 1701, 4to, with a most valuable and copious index 
of the Latin names translated into the modern. 

Baudrand's other works are, 1. " Descriptio Fluminum 
Galliae, qua Francia est, opera Papyrii Massoni, cum notis 
M. Baudrand," Paris, 1685, in 12mo. He employed af- 
terwards two years in composing a work, which is not yet 
published, entitled, 2. " Geographia Christiana, sive notitia 
Archiepiscopatuum, et Episcopatuum totius orbis, quibus k 
Pontifice Romano providetur juxta praesentem ipsorum 
statum." He bad given a sketch of this design at the end 
' of his Latin dictionary. 3. " La Francia," 1662, in folio, 
and likewise in two tables in folio, 1694. This is a map of 
France, which he made for the Italians. 4. ** Le Princi- 
paute* de Catalogue et le Comte de Roussillon, suivant les 
nouvelles Observations ;" a map in two sheets, Paris, 
1693. l 

BAUHIN (John), the first of a family of men of learning 
and fame, was born at Amiens, Aug. 24, 1511, and educated 
in the profession of medicine and surgery. In his eighteenth 
year he began practice as a surgeon, and acquired such re- 
putation as to be frequently consulted by persons of the 
first rank ; and queen Catherine of Navarre bestowed oi* 
him the title of her physician. His connections with the 

1 Qen« Diet— Moreri.— Saxii Onomasticoa. 

B A U H I N. X79 

•" new heretics," as Moreri calls the Protestants, induced 
hitn to adopt their opinions. In 1532 he went to England, 
we are not told why, and practised there for three years, 
after which he returned to Paris, and married ; but having 
avowed his principles with boldness, and afforded assist- 
ance and protection to those of the reformed religion, he 
was thrown into prison in the reign of Francis I. and con- 
demned to be burnt; but queen Margaret, who was sister 
to that prince* obtained his pardon and release, and ap- 
pointed him her physician and surgeon in ordinary. Some 
time after, not thinking himself secure, even under her 
protection, he went to Antwerp and practised medicine, 
but even here the dread of the Spanish inquisition obliged 
him to retire to Germany* and at length he obtained an 
asylum at Basil, and for some time was Corrector of the 
Froben press. He then resumed his profession, and was 
made assessor, and afterwards dean of the faculty. He 
died in 1582, leaving two sons, the subjects of the follow- 
ing articles. l 

BAUH1N (John), his eldest son* was born at Basil in 
1541, took his doctor's degree iti 1562* and afterwards be- 
came principal physician to Frederick duke of Wirtemberg. 
In 1561 he attached himself to the celebrated Gessner, 
under whom he studied botany with great perseverance 
and success. The principal works by which he gained a 
lasting name in the annals of that and other sciences, were 
his 1. " Memorabilis historia luporum aliquot rabido- 
tum," 1591, 8vo. 2. " De plantis a divis, sanctisque no- 
men habentibus*" Basil, 1591* 8vo. 3. " Vivitur ingenio, 
caetera mortis erunt," the inscription of a work on insects 
and joints, but which has no other title, 1592* oblong form. 
4. " De plantis absynthii nomen habentibus*" Montbelliard, 
1593, 1599, 8vo. 5. Historia novi et admirabilis fontis, bal- 
neique Bollensis," ib. 1598, 4to. , 6. " Historise pi ant arum 
prodromus," Ebroduni (Brinn) 1619, 4to. 7. " Historia 
plantarum universalis," 3 vols, folio, 1650, 1 65 1. This edi- 
tion is enriched with the notes of Dominic Chabfans, a physi- 
cian of Geneva* and the remarks of Robert Moryson, which 
he first published in his " Hortus Blesensis," and which, it 
is now allowed, were unreasonably severe. 8. " De Aquis 
medicatis, nova methodus, quatuor libris comprehensa," 
Wontbeliard, 1605, 1607, 1612, 4to. Bauhin, after being 

I Moreri. 


160 B A UHIN. 

* physician to the duke of Wirtemberg for forty years, da- 
ring which he resided at Montheliard, died there in 1613.* 
BAUHIN (Gaspard), brother of the preceding, was 
born at Basil, Jan. 17, 1560, and at the early age of sixteen 
began to study medicine. In 1577 he went to Padua, 
where he was instructed in botany and anatomy, and after- 
wards visited the university of Montpellier, and the most 
celebrated schools of Germany. On his return to Basil in 
1580, he took his doctor's degree, and was appointed 
by the faculty to lecture on anatomy and botany. In 
1582 he was elected professor of Greek; and in 1588 
professor of anatomy and botany. In 1596, Frederick 
duke of Wirtemberg gave him the title of his physi- 
cian, which he had before conferred on his brother. He 
was also, in 1614, principal city physician, and in the 
course of his life four times rector of the university, and 
eight times dean of the faculty of medicine. He died Dec. 
&, 1624, after establishing a very high reputation for his 
knowledge in botany and anatomy, in both which he pub- 
lished some valuable works. The principal were his repre- 
sentations of plants, and especially what he called the ex- 
hibition of the botanical theatre (" Phytopinax," Basil, 
1596, 4to, and " Pinax Theatri Botanici," ib. 1623, 4to), 
a work which was the fruit of fourteen years collections 
.and labours, and served much to facilitate the study of bo- 
tany, and to promote its knowledge. Bauhin was not the 
creator of a system, but he reformed many abuses and de- 
fects, especially the confusion of names. He collected the 
synonymous terms of six thousand plants, which various 
authors had capriciously assigned to them. This prevented 
the many mistakes which till then had been made l>y bo- 
tanists, who took several descript plants for non-descripts, 
and gave them few names, only because they had been de- 
scribed too much and too variously. Bauhin himself made 
several mistakes in this new method, which, however, con- 
sidering the whole extent of his merit, candour would over- 
look. After his time botany stood still for some years, the 
learned thinking it sufficient if they knew and called the 
plants by the names which Bauhin had given them. Man- 
get and other writers have given a large list of Bauhin's 
other works, which we suspect is not quite correct, some 
being attributed to Gaspar which belong to John* and vic# 

1 Moreri.— Diet HUt. 

B A U H I tf. 181 

versa. Other branches of this family were physicians of 
eminence in their time, but did not arrive to the same fame 
as authors. x , 

BAULDRI (Paul), surnamed d'Iberville, professor of 
ecclesiastical history at Utrecht, was born at Rouen in 
1639. His father, a Protestant and a man of opulence, had 
him educated with great care. He was first instructed in 
classical learning at Quevilli, a village near Rouen, where 
the Protestants had a college and church. Thence he 
went to Saumur, where ~ he learned Hebrew under Louis 
Cappel, and improved his knowledge of Latin and Greek 
under Tanaquil le Fevre, who was particularly attached to 
him, corresponded with him after he left Saumur, and de- 
dicated to him one of his works. Bauldri also studied di- 
vinity in this university, and afterwards went to England, 
and resided some years at Oxford, passing most of his time 
in the Bodleian library, and becoming acquainted with 
Henry Juste), the king's librarian, and Dr. Fell, bishop of 
Oxford. After having twice visited England, he returned 
to his own country, and gave himself up to study, enlarg- 
ing his library by a judicious selection of valuable books. 
He brought from England an Arabian, with whom he stu- 
died that language. In 1682 he married, at Rouen, Magda- 
len Basnage, the daughter of Henry. After the revocation 
of the edict of Nantz, he intended to have taken refuge in 
England, but his friends and admirers in Holland invited 
him thither, and by their interest he was, in 1685, appoint- 
ed professor of ecclesiastical history in the university of 
Utrecht In 1692 he published, 1. A new edition of Lac - 
tantius u De mortibus persecutorum," with learned notes. 
He published also, 2. A new edition of Furetiere's a Nou- 
velle allegorique, ou, Histoire des derniers troubles arrives 
au royaume d'eloquence," Utrecht, 1703, 12mo. 3. " Cri* 
tical remarks on the book of Job, 9 ' inserted in Basnage' s 
memoirs of the works of the learned, August 1696. 4. A 
letter on the same subject, July 1697, and some other dis- 
sertations in the literary journals. . The states of Utrecht 
endeavoured to obtain for M. Bauldri the restitution of his 
property at the treaty of Ryswick, but did not succeed. 
He died at Utrecht, highly esteemed, Feb. 16, 1706, 8 


* Gen. Diet— Moreri.— Stocver'i Life of Linnssus, p. 61.— Mangel. Bfty* 
-Script Med.— Saxii Ooomasticou. 
8 Moreri.— Saxii Oaomasticon^ 

182 B A U L O T. 

BAULOT, or BEAULIEU (James), a celebrated litho- 
tomist, was born in 1651, in a village of the bailiwick of 
Lons-le-Saunier in Franche Comte, of very poor parents. 
He quitted them early in life, in order to enter into a regi- 
ment of horse, in which he served some years, and made 
an acquaintance with one Pauloni, an empirical surgeon, 
who had acquired a name for lithotomy. After having 
taken lessons under this person for five or six years, he re- 
paired to Provence. There he put on a kind of monastic 
habit, but unlike any worn by the several orders of monks, 
and was ever afterwards known only by the name of friar 
James. In this garb he went to Languedoc, then to Rous- 
sillon, and from thence through the different provinces of 
France. He at length appeared at Paris, but soon quitted 
it for his more extensive perambulations. He was seen at 
Geneva, at Aix-la-Chapelle, at Amsterdam, and practised 
everywhere. His success was various, but his method was 
not uniform, and anatomy was utterly unknown to this bold 
operator. He refused to take any care of his patients af- 
ter the operation, saying, a I have extracted the stone ; 
God will he?il the wound." Being afterwards taught by 
experience that dressings and regimen were necessary, his 
treatments were constantly more successful. He was in- 
disputably the inventor of the lateral operation. His me- 
thod was to introduce a sound through the urethra into the 
bladder with a straight history, cut upon the staff, and then 
he. carried his incision along the staff into the bladder. 
- He then introduced the forefinger of the left hand into the 
bladder, searched for the stone, which, having withdrawn 
the sound, he extracted by means of forceps. Professor 
Rau of Holland improved upon this method, which after- 
wards suggested to our countryman, Cheselden, the lateral 
operation, as now, with a few alterations, very generally 
practised. In gratitude for the numerous cures this ope~ 
rator had performed in Amsterdam, the magistracy of that 
city caused his portrait to be engraved, and a medal to be 
struck, bearing for impress his bust. After having appeared 
at the court of Vienna and at that of Rome, he made 
choice of a retreat near Besan^on, where he died in 1720, 
at the age of sixty- nine. The history of this hermit was 
written by M. Vacher, surgeon-major of the king's armies, 
and printed at Besah^on, in 1757, 12mo. 1 

1 Diet. Hilt 

B E A U M E'. 18$ 

x BEAUME' (Antony), an eminent French chemist, wag 
born at Senlis, Feb. 26, 1728, and devoted his time to the 
study of pharmacy and chemistry. In 1752 he was admit* 
ted as an apothecary at Paris, and in 1775 was elected a 
member of the royal academy of sciences. He more re- 
cently became a, member of the National Institute, and 
died at Carrieres near Paris, March 14, 1805. Repub- 
lished, 1. " Plan d'un cours de Chimie experimentale et 
raisonn6e," Paris, 1757, 8vo. Macquer, the celebrated 
phemist, had a hand in this work. 2. " Dissertation sur 
TEther," ibid. 1757, 12mo. 3. " Elemens de Pharmacie 
theorique et pratique," ibid, 1762, and eight editions af- 
terwards. 4. " Manual de Chimie," ibid. 1763, 1765, 

1769, 12mo. 5. " Memoire sur les argiles,. ou, recherches 
sur la nature des terres les plus propres a V agriculture, et 
sur les moyens de fertiliser celles qui sont steriles," ibid* 

1770, 8vo. 6. " Chimie experimentale et raisonnSe," 
ibid. 1773, 3 vols. 8vo. This extends only to the mineral 
kingdom, * 

BAUME (James Francis de la), canon of the collegiate 
church of St. Agricola d' Avignon, was born at Carpentras 
in the Comtat Venaissin, in 1,705. His passion for the 
belles-lettres attracted him to Paris, and after having made 
some stay there, he published a pamphlet entitled " Eloge 
de la Paix," dedicated to the academic Franchise; it is in 
the form of a discourse, an ode, an d an epopea, but has 
little merit in any of these styles. This did not, however, 
prevent him from meditating $ work of greater length. 
He carried the idea of his design with him into his pro- 
vince, and there he completed it. • ' The<£hristiade, or 
Paradise regained," which is here meant, occasioned its 
author a second jpurney to Paris, where his poem was 
.printed, in 1753, 6 vols. 12 mo. The work, well executed 
as to the typographical p^rt, is written in a pompous, af- 
fected, and often ridiculous style, and the sacred subject 
was so much burlesqued, that it was condemned by the 
parliament of Paris, and the author fined. He died at 
Paris in 1757. He wrote besides several small pieces, as 
the " Saturnales Fran§oises," 1736, 2 vols. 12mo, and he 
worked for upwards of ten years on the " Courier d'Avigr 
non." He was a man of a warm imagination, but void 
Jboth of taste and judgment. * 

* Diet. HUt * Ib|+ 

184 B A U M GAR TEN. 

BAUMGARTEN (Alexander Theophilus), a philo- 
sopher of the German school, was bom at Berlin, June 17, 
1714. He studied divinity at Halle, at a time when it was" 
a crime to read the writings of the celebrated Wolff, but 
these he perused with avidity, and cultivated the friendship! 
of their author. Mathematics became afterwards his fa- 
vourite study, and he conceived at the same time the idea 
of elevating the belles-lettres to a rank among the sciences,- 
and the science according to which he explained his prin- 
ciples on this subject, he called ^Esthetics. At Halle, he 
was professor of logic, metaphysics, the law of nature and 
moral philosophy. He died at Francfort on the Oder, 
May 26, J 762. His principal works are : 1. " Disputatio 
de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus," Halle, 1735, 4to, 
in which he discloses the principles of his Esthetics. 
52. " Metaphysica," Halle, 1739, 1743, and 1763, 8vo, 
a work highly praised by his countrymen. 3. " Etica 
philosophica," ibid. 1740, 1751^1762. 4. " iEsthetica," 
Francfort, 1750, 1758, 2 vols. 8vo, but not completed; 
5. " Initia philosophise practical primae,'* ibid. 1760, 8vo. 
His brother Siegmond, was a Lutheran divine, and a most 
voluminous writer. He died in 1757. One of the best of 
his works which we have seen, is a supplement to the Eng- 
lish Universal History, printed about 1760. i 

BAUNE (James de la), a learned French Jesuit, was 
born at Paris, April 15, 1649, and entered the society in 
1665. He had, taught grammar and the classics in the 
Jesuits college of Paris, for five years, and had completed 
his theological studies, when about 'the end of 1677 he 
was appointed tutor to the duke of Bourbon, and obliged 
to return to his studies again for five years, after which he 
was appointed professor of rhetoric, and filled that office 
for the same number of years. As soon as he found leisure 
from these engagements, he began to collect the works 
of father Sirmond, which he published in 1696, in 5 
vols. fol. at Paris, and which were afterwards reprinted at 
Venice, in 1729. He also intended to have collected the 
works of the celebrated Petau, but the weakness of his 
sight began now to interrupt his literary labours, and he 
Jwas at the same time ordered to Rouen as rector of the 
college. Three years after he returned to Paris, whence 
he went to Rome, to be present at the general assembly 

» Diet. Hitt. 

B A U N E. 18* 

of the society. The rest of his life he passed partly at 
Rouen, and partly at Paris, where he died Oct. 21, 1725* 
Besides the edition of the works of Sirmond, we owe to 
his labours, 1. " Symbola Heroica," Paris, 1672, 4to: 

2. "In funere Gabrielis Cossartii carmen," Paris, 1675, 4to. 

3. " Panegyrici veteres, adusum Delphini," ibid. 1676, 4to, 
which Dr. Clarke says is one of the scarcest of the Delphiit 
editions; it was reprinted at Amst. 1701, 8vo; Venice, 
1725, 4to; and again in 1728, with the notes of Schwartz. 
There is also a London edit. 1716, 8vo, which, contains 
only the panegyric of Pliny, with the notes of de la Baune, 
Lipsius, Baudius, &c. 4. " Ludus poeticus in recentem 
cometam," Paris, 1681, 4to. 5. " Ludovico duci Bor* 
bonio, Oratio," ibid. 1682, 12mo. 6. " Ferdinando de 
Furstenberg, pro fundata missione Sinensi, gratianim 
actio," ibid. 1683, 4to. 7. " In obituth ejusdem, car** 
men," 1684, 4to. 8. i€ Ludovico magno liberalium ar- 
tium parenti et patrono, panegyricus," ibid. 1684, 12mo. 
9. " Augustiss. Galliarum senatui panegyricus," ibid. 1685, 
4to. 10. " Laudatio funebris Ludovici Borbonii principis 
Condaei," ibid. 1687, 4to. Many of his Latin poems were 
inserted in a collection entitled " Collegii Parisiensis so* 
ciet. Jesu, festi plausus ad nuptias Ludovici Galliarum 
Delphini, et Mariae-Aunse-ChristianjB-Victorice Bavarae," 
ibid. 1680, fol. 1 

BAUR (John William), an eminent painter, was born 
at Strasburg, in 1610, and was a disciple of Frederick 
Brendel. He had an enlarged capacity, but the livelines* 
of his imagination hindered htm from studying nature, or 
the antique, in such a manner as to divest himself of his Ger- 
man taste, though he went to Rome to imgrove himself in 
the art. In Italy, he applied himself entirely to archi- 
tecture, as far as it might contribute to the enrichment of 
his landscapes, which were his favourite subjects ; and for 
his scenes and situations he studied after the rich prospects 
about Frascati and Tivoli, which could afford him the most 
delightful sites, views, and incidents. - He was fond of in- 
troducing into his designs, battles, marchings of the army, 
skirmishes, and processions ; but although he resided for 
a considerable length of time in and about Naples and 
Rome, he never arrived at a grandeur of design ; nor could 
ever express the naked but indifferently. It must, how*- 

* Moreri from a MS. of Father Oudin. 

18* B A U R. 

ever, be said in his commendation, that his pencil was 
light, bis composition good, and his dispositions emi- 
nently picturesque. He painted with great success in 
water-colours on vellum, and etched the Metamor- 

£ hoses of Ovid, and a great many other plates, from 
is own designs; his works were completed by Mel- 
chior Kussel, to the amount of five hundred prints,, in- 
cluding those by his own hand. Of his engravings from 
the Metamorphoses, which are generally preferred to the 
rest, and consist of one hundred and fifty, Mr. Strutt says 
that the figures which are introduced are generally small, 
and very incorrect in the drawing ; the back-grounds are 
dark and heavy, and the trees want that lightness and 
freedom which are necessary to render the effect agreeable* 
The pieces of architecture 1 which he is very fond of in- 
troducing into his designs, appear to be well executed ; 
Mid the perspective is finely preserved. In his manner of 
engraving he seems in some degree to have imitated C al- 
lot ^ and the nearer he approaches to the style of that 
master, the better are his productions. These designs 
manifest great marks of a superior genius, but without cul- 
tivation, or the advantage of a refined judgment to make 
a proper choice of the most beautiful objects. Argen- 
▼iiie mentions a peculiarity of him, that when at work, he 
might be heard muttering in Spanish, Italian, or French, 
as. if holding a conversation with the persons he was paint- 
ing, and endeavouring to hit the>r characters, gestures, 
and habits. About 1638, he fixed his residence at Vienna, 
at the invitation of the emperor Ferdinand II L and there 
be married, but while happy in his family and in the pa* 
tronage of the emperor, he was attacked by an illnesp 
which proved fatal in 1640, when he was only thirty ye^rt 
of age. * 

BAUSCH (John Laurence), was born at Schweinfurt, 
Sept. 3L0, 1 605 ; his father, Leonard Bausch, a physician 
in that place, acquired some fame about the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, by his commentary on two of 
the books of Hippocrates, which was published at Madrid, 
1694, fol. His son was early inclined to his father's, pro- 
fession, and after studying medicine in Germany, went to 
Italy, and lastly, took his doctor's degree at Altdorf, in 
.1 630. He practised afterwards at Schweinfurt, and ea*» 

* Pilkington.— Strutt— D>Argenyffle, vol. III. 


ployed all bis leisure time in botanical and chemical par* 
suits, accumulating a valuable library, and a rich museum 
of natural history. In 1652 he founded a society called 
" Collegium Curiosorum naturae," of which he was the 
first president. He died at Schweiofurt, Nov. 17, 1665, 
He was the author of 1. i€ Schediasmata bina curiosa de 
lapide haematite et oetite," Leipsic, 1665, 8vo, with a dis- 
sertation on the blood prefixed* 2. " Schediasma curio- 
sum de unicorn u fossili," Breslaw, 1666, 8vo. 3. " Scbe- 
diasnia posthumum, de coeruleo et chryocolla," Jena, 
1668, 8vo. l 

BAXTER (Andrew), a very ingenious metaphysician 
and natural philosopher, was born in 1686, or 1687, at Qld 
Aberdeen, in Scotland, of which city his father was a mer- 
chant, and educated in king's college there. His prin- 
cipal employment was that of a private* tutor to young gen- 
tlemen ; and among other of his pupils were lord Grey* 
lord Blantyre, and Mr. Hay of Drummelzier. About 
1724, he married the daughter of Mr. Mebane, a clergy- 
man in the shire of Berwick. A few years after he pub- 
lished in 4to, " An Enquiry into the nature of the human 
Soul, wherein its immateriality is evinced from the prin- 
ciples of reason and philosophy ;" without date. In 1741, 
he went abroad with Mr. Hay, and resided some years at 
Utrecht ; having there also lord Blantyre under his care. 
He made excursions from thence into Flanders, France, 
and Germany ; his wife and family residing in the mean 
•time chiefly at Berwick upon Tweed. He returned *» 
Scotland in 1747, and resided till his death at Whitting- 
ham, in the shire of East Lothian. He drew up, for the 
use of his pupils, and his son, a piece entitled " Mathot 
fiive, Cosmotheoria puerilis, Dialogus. In quo prima ele- 
menta de mundi ordine et ornatu proponuntur, &c." 
This was afterwards greatly enlarged, and published in 
English, in two volumes, 8vo. -In 1750 was published* 
" An Appendix to his Enquiry into the nature of the hu- 
man Soul/' wherein he endeavours to remove some diffi- 
culties, which had been started against his notions of the ' 
*' vis inertiae" of matter, by Maclaurin, in his " Account 
of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries." To 
this piece Mr. Baxter prefixed a dedication to Mr. John 
Wilkes, afterwards £o well known in the political world, 

* Freheri Thegtrunv— Diet Hist* 

' 18* BAXTER, 

with whom he had commenced an acquaintance abroad:, 
He died this year, April the 23d, after suffering for some 
months under a complication of disorders, of which the 
gout was the chief, and was buried in the family vault of 
Mr. Hay, at Whittingham. 

The learning and abilities of Mr. Baxter are sufficiently- 
displayed in his writings, which, however, were of much 
more note in the literary world during his own time, than 
now. He was very studious, and sometimes sat up whole 
nights reading and writing. His temper was cheerful, and 
in his manners, he. appeared the gentleman as well as 
the scholar, but in conversation he was modest, and not 
apt to make much shew of the extensive knowledge of 
which he was possessed- In the discharge of the several 
social and relative duties of life, his conduct was exem- 
plary. He had the most reverential sentiments of the 
Deity, of whose presence and immediate support he had 
always a strong impression upon his mind ; and the gene- 
ral tenour of his life appears to have been conformable. 
Mr. Baxter paid a strict attention to oeconomy, but was 
not parsimonious in his expences. It is known, also, that 
there were several occasions, on which he acted with re- 
markable disinterestedness ; and so far was he from court* 
ing preferment, that he has repeatedly declined consider- 
able offers of that kind which were made him, if he would 
have taken orders in the Church of England. His friends 
and correspondents were numerous and respectable ; and 
among them are particularly mentioned Mr. Pointz, pre- 
ceptor to the late duke of Cumberland, and Dr. Warbur- 
ton, bishop of Gloucester. His wife, by whom he had 
one son and three daughters, all of whom were lately liv- 
ing, survived him ten years, and was buried in the church 
/ of Linlithgow, in 1760. 

Mr. Baxter left many manuscripts behind him : but the 
only one which appears to have received his last correc- 
tions, and to be prepared for the press, is entitled ' Histor, 
a Dialogue ; in which the experiments brought by foreign 
philosophers, against the English estimation of the forces 
of moving bodies, are shewn to agree exactly with and 
very much to confirm that estimation. 9 In this piece, Mr. 
Leibnitz's computation is particularly considered and con- 
futed ; and an Appendix is added, concerning the contro- 
versy between Dr. Clarke and Mr. Leibnitz. Several un- 
finished tracts, political, historical, and philosophical, but 

BAXTER. 18| 

chiefly the latter, were also lately in the possession, of his 

In 1779, the late Rev. Dr. Duncan of South Warmbo- 
fough, published " The evidence of reason in proof of the 
Immortality of the Soul, independent on the ipore abstruse 
inquiry into the nature of matter and spirit. Collected 
from the MSS. of Mr. Baxter," London, 8vo. 

Bishop Warburton has characterised Mr. Baxter's trea- 
tise on the Soul, as " containing the justest and most precise 
notions of God and the soul, and as altogether one of. the 
most finished of its kind," an encomium too unqualified, 
although it certainly discovers great metaphysical acute* 
ness. The great principle on which Baxter builds his rea- 
soning, is the vis inertue of matter. The arguments he 
hath founded upon this principle, and the consequences 
he hath drawn from it, have, in the opinion of several per- 
sons, been carried too far. Mr. Hume made some objec- 
tions to Mr. Baxter's system, though without naming him, 
in his Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. It is 
probable that Mr. Baxter did not think Mr. Hume to be 
enough of a natural philosopher to merit particular notice; 
or he might not have seen Mr. Hume's Philosophical Es- 
says, which were first published only two years before our 
author's death. He had a much more formidable antago- 
nist in Mr. Colin Maclaurin. This ingenious gentleman, 
in his account of sir Isaac Newton's philosophical discove- 
ries, had started various difficulties with regard to what 
had been urged concerning the vis inerti<e of matter ; and 
it was to remove these difficulties, and still farther to con- 
firm his own principles, that Mr. Baxter wrote the Ap- 

In the second volume of his Enquiry, Mr. Baxter has ' 
inserted a very copious Essay on the Phenomenon of 
Dreaming, and what he has advanced on this subject ex- 
cited much attention at the time of its first publication. 
He endeavoured to prove, that the scenes presented to? the 
soul in sleep, in which there is so much variety, action, 
and life, nay oftentimes speech and reason, cannot be the- 
effect of mechanism, or any cause working mechanically : 
And farther, that the favlaafju*, or what is properly called 
the vision, is not the work of the soul itself. His conclu- 
sion was, that ' our dreams are prompted by separate im- 
material beings :' that there are living beings existing se- 
parate from matter ; that they act in that state; and that 


19a BAXTER. 

they act upon the matter of our bodies, and prompt dtrf 
sleeping visions. Some observations upon this subject* 
and several objections to Mr. Baxter's hypothesis, may b& 
found in Mr. David Fordyce's * Dialogues concerning Edu-> 
cation,' vol. II. p. 223 — 257. * 

BAXTER (Richard)* an eminent nonconformist divine, 
was born Nov. 12, 1615, at Rowton, near High Ercal, in 
Shropshire. He was unlucky as to his education, by fall- 
ing into the hands of ignorant schoolmasters; neither had 
ke the advantage of an academical education, his pa- 
vents having accepted of a proposal of putting him under 
Mr. Wickstead, chaplain to the council of Ludlow : but 
this did liot answer their expectation ; Mr. Wickstead was 
not a scholar, and consequently took little pains with his 
pupil ; the only benefit be reaped was the use of an ex-* 
eellent library, with which he endeavoured to supply the? 
place of a regular education. When he had remained in 
this situation about a year and a half, he returned to his 
lather's, but immediately after, at the request of lord New- 
port, he taught for six months in th6 free- school of Wrox-* 

In 163$, Mr. Wickstead persuaded him to lay aside hisr 
studies, and to think of making his fortune at court. Mr. 
Wickstead, we have said, was not a scholar, nor certainly 
a judge of character, when he fancied he saw the materials 
of a courtier in Richard Baxter's mind. Baxter, however, 
who probably did. not know what a couf tier Was, came to 
Whitehall, and was recommended to sir Henry Herbert* 
jaofester of the revels, by whom he was very kindly received 5 
but, in the space of a month, being tired of a court life, 
he returned to the country, where he resumed his studies, 
and klr. Richard Foley of Stourbridge got him appointed 
master of the free-school at Dudley, with an assistant un- 
der him. During this time he imbibed many of those sen- 
timents of piety, neither steady, nor systematic, which 
gave a peculiar bias to his future life and conduct, not 
only towards the church, but towards his brethren, the 
•nonconformists. In 16$8, he applied to the bishop of 
Winchester for orders, which he received, having at that 
time no scruples about conformity to the Church of Eng- 
land. The " Et caetera" oath was what first induced him 
to examine into this point. It was framed by the convo«* 

1 Biog. BriUnuica.— Tytler'i Life of Karnes, vol I. p. 23> 

BAXTER, 191 

cation then sitting, and all persons were thereby enjoined 
to swear, " That they would never consent to the altera* 
tion of the present government of the church by archbi- 
shops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, &c." There were 
many persons who thought it hard to swear to the continu- 
ance of a church government which they disliked; and yet 
they would have concealed their thoughts, had not this 
oath, imposed under the penalty of expulsion, compelled 
them to speak. Others complained of the " Et caetera,** 
which they said contained they knew not what Mr. Bax- 
ter studied the best books he could find upon this subject, 
the consequence of which was, that he utterly disliked 
the oath. 

Before this, however, he seems to have been in some 
measure, prepared for dissent, and Mr. Calamy has given 
us an account of the means by which he first came to alter 
his opinions, which is too characteristic of the man to be 
omitted. " Being settled at Dudley, he fell into the ac-» 
quaintance of several nonconformists, > whom though he 
judged severe and splenetic, yet he found to be both godly 
and honest men. They supplied him with several writings 
pn their own side, and amongst the rest, with Ames's Fresh 
Suit against Ceremonies, which he read oyer very dis- 
tinctly, comparing it with Dr. Burgess's Rejbynder. And, 
upon the whole, he at that time came to these conclusions; 
Kneeling he thought lawful, and all mere circumstances 
determined by the magistrate, which God in nature or 
scripture hath determined on only in the general. The 
surplice he more doubted of, but was inclined to think it 
lawful : and though he intended to forbear it till under ne- 
cessity, yet he could not see how he could have justified 
the forsaking his ministry merely on that account, though 
he never actually wore it. About the ring in marriage he 
had no scruple. The cross in baptism he thought Dr. 
Ames had proved unlawful ; and though he was not with- 
out some doubting in the point, yet because he most in- 
clined to judge it unlawful, he never once used it. A 
Form of Prayer and Liturgy he judged to be lawful, and 
in some cases lawfully imposed. The English Liturgy in 
particular he judged to have much disorder and defective -* 
ness in it, but nothing which should make the use of it in 
the ordinary public worship to be unlawful to them who 
could not do better. He sought for discipline in the 
Church, and saw the sad effects of its neglect ; but he was 


not then so sensible as afterwards, that the very frame of 
diocesan prelacy excluded it, but thought it had been 
chargeable only on the personal neglects of the bishops. 
Subscription he began to think unlawful, and repented his 
rashness in yielding to it so hastily. For though he could 
use the Common -prayer, and was not yet against dio- 
cesans, yet to subscribe ex animo, that there is nothing in 
the three books contrary to the word of God, was that which 
he durst not do, had it been to be done again. So that sub- 
scription and the cross in baptism, and the promiscuous 
giving the Lord's supper to all comers, though ever so 
unqualified, if they were not excommunicated by a bishop 
or chancellor who knows nothing of them, were the only 
things in which as yet he inclined to nonconformity, and 
even in these he kept his thoughts to himself. He con- 
tinued to argue with the nonconformists, about the points 
they differed in, and particularly kneeling at the Sacra- 
ment, about which he had a controversy with some of 
them, which they did not think it proper to continue any 
farther. He also, with equal candour and spirit, reproved, 
them for the bitterness of their language against the bi- 
shops and churchmen, and exhorted them to patience and 

. In 1640, he was invited to be minister at Kidderminster, 
which he accepted ; and had been here two years when the 
civil war broke out. He was a favourer of the parliament, 
which exposed him to some inconveniences, and obliged 
him to retire to Gloucester ; but being strongly solicited,. 
he returned to Kidderminster. However, not finding him- 
self safe in this place, he again quitted it, and took up his 
residence at Coventry, where he lived in perfect quiet, 
preaching once every Sunday to the garrison, and once to 
the town's people, and contending warmly against the 
Anabaptists. After Naseby fight, he was appointed chap- 
Jain to colonel Whalley's regiment, and was present at 
several sieges, but was never in any engagement, although 
a story was afterwards raised that he had killed a man in 
cool blood, and robbed him of a medal. This Was first 
told by Dr. Boreman of Trinity college, Cambridge, and 
became very current until Mr. Baxter refuted it in his 
u Catholic Communion," 1684. In 1647 he was obliged 
to leave the army* by a sudden illness, and retired to- sir 
Thomas Rouse's, where he continued a long time iri a lan- 
guishing state of health. He afterwards returned to Kid* 

BAXTER. 193 

derminster, where he continued to preach with great suc- 
cess. He is said to have impeded, as far' as was in his 
power, the taking of the covenant, and vyhat was called 
the engagement, and both spoke and wrote against the 
army marching to Scotland to oppose Charles II. And 
when Cromwell gained the superiority, Mr. Baxter ex- 
pressed his dissatisfaction to his measures, but did not think 
proper to preach against him from the pulpit : once in- 
deed he preached before the protector, and made use of 
the following text: "Now I beseech you, brethren, by 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the 
same thing, and that there be no divisions amongst you, 
but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind 
and in the same judgment." He levelled his discourse 
against the divisions and distractions of the church. A 
while after Cromwell sent to speak with him : when he be- 
gan a long and serious speech to him of God's providence 
in the change of the government, and how God had owned 
it, and what great things had been done at home and 
abroad in the peace with Spain and Holland. Mr. Bax- 
ter told him, " It was too great condescension to acquaint 
him so fully with all, these matters, which were above him: 
.but that the honest people of the land took their ancient 
monarchy to be a blessing, and not an evil ; and humbly 
craved his patience, that he might ask him, how they had 
forfeited that blessing^ and unto whom that forfeiture was 
made ?" Upon this question Cromwell became angry, 
and told him, " There was no forfeiture, but God had 
changed it as pleased him ;" and then he reviled the par- 
liament, which thwarted him, and especially by name 
four or five members, Mr. Baxter's particular acquaint- 
ances, whom he presumed to defend against the protec- 
tor's" passion. A few days after he sent for him again, 
under pretence of asking him his opinion about liberty of 
conscience; at which time also he made, a long tedious 
speech, which took up so much time, that Mr. Baxter de- 
sired to offer his sentiments in writing, which he did, but 
says, he questions whether Cromwell read them. 

Mr. Baxter came to London a little before the deposition 
of Richard Cromwell, and preached before the parliament 
the day preceding that on which they voted the king's re- 
turn. He preached likewise before the lord mayor at St. 
Paul's a thanksgiving sermon for general Monk's success. 
Upon the king's restoration he was appointed one of his 

Vol. IV. O 

. i 

194 B A X T E R. 

.chaplains in ordinary, preached once before him, had fre- 
quent access to his majesty, and was always treated by him 
with peculiar respect. He assisted at the Conference at 
the Savoy, as one of the commissioners, and drew up a 
reformed Liturgy, which Dr. Johnson pronounced " one 
of the finest compositions of the ritual kind he had ever 
seen." He was offered the bishopric of Hereford by'the 
lord chancellor Clarendon, which he refused, and gave 
his lordship his reasons for not accepting of it, in a letter ; 
he required no favpur but that of being permitted to con- 
tinue minister at Kidderminster, but* could not obtain it. 
Being thus disappointed, he preached occasionally about 
the citv of London, having a licence from bishop Sheldon, 
upon nis subscribing a promise not to preach any thing 
against the doctrine or peremonies of the church. May 15, 
1662, he preached his farewell sermon at Black friars, and 
afterwards retired to Acton in Middlesex. In 1665, during 
the plague, he went to Richard Hampden's, esq. in Bucking- 
hamshire ; and when it ceased, returned to Acton. He 
continued here as long as the act against conventicles wa» 
in force, and, when that was expired, had so many auditors 
that he wanted room : but, while thus employed, by a 
warrant signed by two justices, he was committed for sir 
months to New Prison gaol ; having, however, procured an 
habeas corpus, he was discharged, and removed to Totte- 
ridge near Barnet. In this affair, he experienced the sin- 
cerity of many of his best friends. As he was going to 
prison, he called upon serjeant Fountain for his advice, 
who, after perusing the mittimus, said, that he might be 
discharged from his imprisonment by law. The earl of 
Orrery, the earl of Manchester, the earl of Arlington, and 
the duke of Buckingham, mentioned the affair to the king, 
who was pleased to send sir John Baber to him, to let him 
know, that though his majesty was not willing to relax the 
law, yet he would not be offended, if by any application 
to the courts in Westminster- hall he could procure his 
liberty ; upon this an habeas corpus was demanded at the 
bar of the common pleas, and granted. The judges were 
clear in their opinion, that the mittimus was insufficient, 
and thereupon discharged him. This exasperated the jus- 
tices who committed him ; and therefore they made a 
hew mittimus in order to have sfent him to the county-gaol 
of Newgate, which he avoided by keeping out of the way. 
After the indulgence in 1672, he returned u> London, and 

BAXTER. 195 

preached oil week-days at Pinner's hall, at a meeting in 
Fetter-lane, and in St James's market house ; s*nd the times 
appearing more favourable about two years after, he built 
a meeting-house in Oxenden-street, where he had preached 
but once, when a resolution was formed to take him by sur- 
prise, and send him to the county gaol, on the Oxford act ; 
which misfortune he escaped, but the person who happened 
to preach for him was sent to the Gate-house, where he 
was confined three months. After having been three years 
kept out of his meeting-house, he took another in Swal- 
low-street, but was likewise prevented from preaching there, 
a guard having been placed for many Sundays to hinder 
his entrance. Upon the death of Mr. Wadsworth, be 
preached to bis congregation in Southwark. 

In 16S2, he was seized by a warrant, for coming within 
'five miles of a corporation ; and five more warrants were 
served upon him to distrain for 195/. as a penalty for five 
sermons he had preached, so that his books and goods were 
sold. He was not, however, imprisoned on this occasion, 
which was owing to Dr. Thomas Cox, who went to five 
justices of the peace, before whom he swore that Mr. Bax- 
ter was in such a bad state of health, that he could not go 
to prison v without danger of death. In the beginning of 
1685, be was committed to the king's bench prison, by a 
warrant from the lord chief justice Jefferies, for his para- 
phrase on the New Testament ; and on May 1 8, of the 
same year, he was tried in the court of king's bench, and 
found guilty. He was condemned to prison for two years ; 
but, in 1686, king James, by the mediation of the lord 
Powis, granted him a pardon ; and on Nov. 24^ he was dis- 
charged out of the king's bench*. After which he retired 

* As this trial was the most remark- give him a minute's mora time to save 
.able transaction in Mr. Baxter's life, his life. We have had to do with other 
and oae of the most characteristic of sorts of persons, bat now we have* a 
Jefferies's arbitrary disposition, we are saint to dealt with, and I know how to 
•persuaded our readers will not com- deal with saints as well as sinners, 
plain of the length of this note. On Yonder stands Oates in the pillory (as 
-the 6th of May, Mr. Baxter appeared he actually did in the New Palace yard), 
in the court of king's bench, aud Mr. and he says, lie suffers for the truth, 
Attorney declared he would file an in- and so does Baxter ; but if Baxter did 
formation against him. On the 14th, but stand on the other side of the pit- 
the dependent pleaded not guilty, and lory with him, I would say two "of the 
en the 18th, Mr. Baxter being much greatest rogues and rascals in the king- 
indisposed, and desiring further time dom stood there." On the 30th of 
than to the 30th, the day appointed May, in the afternoon, he was -brought 
for the trial, he moved by bis counsel to bis trial before the lord chief justice 
that it might be put off ; on which the Jefferies at Guildhall. Sir Henry 
4&i&f justice answered, '* I will not Attaint, who could not fomke hi* own 

O 2 



to a house in Charterhouse-yard, where he assisted Mr* 
Sylvester every Sunday morning, and preached a lecture 
every Thursday. 

and his father's friend, stood by bim 
all the while. Mr. Baxter came first 
into court, and with all the marks of 
serenity and composure waited for the 
coming of the lord chief justice, who 
appeared quickly after with great in- 
dignation in his face. He no sooner 
sat down, than a short cause was called* 
and tried; after which the clerk be- 
gan to read the title of another cause. 
You' blockhead you (says Jefferies), 
the next cause is between Richard 
Baxter and the king : upon which Mr. 
Baxter's cause was called. The pas- 
sages mentioned in the information, 
were his paraphrase on Matth. v. 1 9. 
Mark ix. 39. Mark xi. 31. Mark xii. 
38, 39, 40. Luke x. 2. John xi. 57. and 
Acts xt. 2. These passages were 
picked out by sir Roger L'Estrange, 
and some of his fraternity. And a 
certain noted clergyman (who shall be 
nameless) put into the hands of his 
enemies some accusations out of Rom. 
xiii. &c. as against the king, to touch 
his life ; but no use was made of them. 
The great charge was, that in these 
several passages he reflected on the 
prelates of the church of England, and 
so was guilty of sedition, &c. The 
king's counsel opened the information 
at large, with its aggravations. Mr. 
Wallop, Mr. Williams, Mr. Rother- 
ham, Mr. Atwood, and Mr. Phipps, 
were Mr. Baxter's counsel, and had 
been feed by sir Henry Ashurst Mr. 
Wallop said, that he conceived the 
matter depending being a point of doc- 
trine, it ought to be referred to the 
bishop, his ordinary ; but if not, he 
humbly conceived the doctrine was 
innocent and justifiable, setting aside 
the inuendos, for which there was no 
colour, there being no antecedent to 
refer them to (i. e. no bishop or clergy 
of the church of England named). He 
said the book accused, i. e; The Com- 
ment on the New Testament, contained 
many eternal truths; but they who 
drew the information were the libellers, 
in applying to the prelates of the 
church of England, those severe things 
which were written concerning some 
prelates who deserved the characters 
which he gave. My lord (says he), I 
humbly conceive the bishops Mr. Bax- 

ter speaks of, as your lordship, if you 
have rea/1 church history, must con- 
fess, were the plagues of the church 
and of the world. " Mr. Wallop," says 
the lord chief justice, " I observe 
you are in all these dirty causes ; and 
were it not for you gentlemen of tha 
long robe, who should have more wit 
and honesty than, to support and hold 
up these factious knaves by the chin, 
we should not be at the pass we are." 
My lord, says Mr. Wallop, I humbly 
conceive, that the passages accused 
are natural deductions from the text. 
" You humbly conceive," says Jeffe- 
ries, " and I humbly conceive : Swear 
him, swear bim." My lord, says he, 
under favour, I am counsel for the 
defendant ; and, if I understand either 
Latin or English, the information now 
brought against Mr. Baxter upon such 
a slight ground, is a greater reflection, 
upon the church of England, than any 
thing contained in the hook he is ac- 
cused for. Says Jefferies to him, 
" Sometimes you humbly conceive, 
and sometimes you arc very positive : 
You talk of your skill in church his- 
tory, andof your understanding Latin 
and English; I think 1 understand 
something of them as well as you ; hut, 
in short, must tell you, that if you 
do not understand your duty better, I 
shall teach it you." Upon which Mr. 
Wallop sat down. Mr. Rotheram 
urged, that if Mr. Baxter's book had 
sharp reflections upon the church of 
Rome by name, but spake well of the 
prelates of the church of England, it 
was to be presumed that the sharp 
reflections were intended only against 
the prelates of the church of Rome. 
The lord chief justice said, Baxter waa 
an enemy to the name and thing, tha 
office and person of bishops. Rothe- 
ram added, that Baxter frequently at- 
tended divine service, went to the sa- 
crament, and persuaded others to do 
so too, as was certainly and publicly 
known ; and had, in the very book so 
charged, spoken very moderately and 
honourably of the bishops of the church, 
of England. Mr. Baxter added, My 
lord, I have been so moderate with 
respect to the church of England, that 
1 bava incurred the censure of many 



Mr. Baxter died Dec. the 8th, 1691, and was interred in 
Christ-church, whither his corpse was attended by a nu- 
merous company of persons of different ranks, and many 

of the dissenters upon that account. 
" Baxter for bishops !" says* Jefferies, 
" that's aimerry conceit indeed; turn 
to it, turn to it." Upon this Rotheram 
turned to a place where it is said, 
" That great respect is due to those 
truly called to be bishops among us," 
or to that purpose. " Ay," saith Jef- 
feries, this is your Presbyterian cant ; 
truly called to be bishops ; that is him* 
self, and such rascals, called to be 
bishops of Kidderminster, and other 
such places : bishops set apart by such 
factious, snivelling Presbyterians as 
himself; a Kidderminster bishop he 
means : According to the saying of a 
late learned author, and every parish 
shall maintain a tithe-pig Metropo- 
litan." Mr. Baxter beginning to speak 
-again, says he to him, " Richard, 
Kichard, dost thou think we will hear 
thee poison the court, &c. Richard, 
thou art an old fellow, an old knave; 
thou hast written books enough to load 
a cart, every one as full of sedition (I 
might say treason) as an e%g is full of 
meat. Hadst thou been whipped out 
of thy writing trade forty years ago, it 
had been happy. Thou pretendest to 
be a preacher of the gospel of peace, 
and thou hast one foot in the grave ; 
'tis time for thee to begin to think what 
account thou in tend est to give. But 
leave thee to thyself, and 1 see thouPt 
go on as thou hast begun ; but, by the 
grace of Ood, I will look after thee. 
I know thou hast a mighty party, and 
I see a great many of the brotherhood 
in corners, waiting to see what will 
become of their mighty don, and a 
doctor of the party (looking to Dr., 
Bates) at your elbow ; but, by the 
grace of Almighty God, I'll crush you 
all." Mr. Rotheram sitting down, 
Mr. At wood began to shew, that not 
one of the passages meutioned in the 
information ought to be strained to 
that sense which was put upon them 
by the inuendos, they being more na- 
tural when taken in a milder sense, 
nor could any one of them be applied to • 
the prelates of the church of England 
without a very forced construction. 
To evidence this, he would have read 
som« of the text : But Jefferies cried, 
out, You shall not draw me into a con- 

venticle with your annotations, nor 
your snivelling parson neiiber. My 
lord, says Atwood, 1 conceive this to 
be .expressly within Ros well's case, 
lately before your lordship. You con- 
ceive, says' Jefferies, you conceive 
amiss; it is not. My lord, says Mr* 
Atwood, that I may use the best au- 
thority, permit me to repeat your 
lordship's own words in that case. No, 
you shall not, says be : You need not 
speak, for you are an author already ; 
though you speak and write imperti- 
nently. Says Atwood, 1 cannot help 
that, my lord, if my talent be no bet- 
ter ; but it is my duty to do my best 
for my client. Jefferies thereupon 
went on, inveighing against what At- 
wood had published; and Atwood jus- 
tified it to be in defence of the English 
constitution, declaring that he never 
disowned any thing that he had written. 
Jefferies several times ordered him to 
sit down, but he still went on. My 
lord, says he, 1 have matter of law to 
offer for my client; and he proceeded 
to cite several cases, wherein it had 
been adjudged that words ought to bo 
taken in the milder sense, and not to 
be strained by inuendos. Well, says 
Jefferies, when he had done, you have * 
had your say. Mr. Williams and Mr. 
Phipps said .nothing, for they saw it 
was to no purpose. At length, saya 
Mr. Baxter himself, My lord, I think 
I can clearly answer all that is laid 
to my charge, and I shall do it 'briefly. 
The /sum is contained in these few pa- 
pers, to which I shall add a little by 
testimony. But Jefferies would not 
hear a word. At length the chief jus- 
tice summed up the matter in a long 
and fulsome harangue. " 'Tis noto- 
riously known," says he, " there has 
been a design to ruin the king and 
the nation. The old game has been 
renewed, and this has been. the main 
incendiary. He is as modest now as 
can be; but time was, when no man 
was so ready to bind your kings in 
chains, and your nobles in fetters of 
iron ; and to your tents, O Israel. 
Gentlemen, for God's sake don't let us 
be gulled twice in an age, &c." And 
when 'lie concluded, he told the jury, 
that if they iu their consciences bo- 



clergymen of the established church. He wrote a great 
number of books. Mr. Long of Exeter says fourscore ; 
Dr. Calamy, one hundred and twenty; but the author of 
a note in the Biographia Britannica tells us he had seen an 
hundred and forty-tive distinct treatises of Mr. Baxter's : 
bis practical works have been published in four volumes 
folio. Of these his " Saint's Everlasting Rest," and his 
** Call to the Unconverted,'* are the most popular, but ex* 
cepting the last, we know not of any of his works that have 
been reprinted for a century past, doubtless owing to his 
peculiar notions on points about which the orthodox dis- 
senters are agreed. Bishop Burnet, in the History of his 
own times, calls him " a man of great piety ;" and says* 
" that if he had not meddled with too many things, he 
would have been esteemed one of the most learned men of 
the age ; that he had a moving and pathetical way of writ- 
ing, and was his whole life long a man of great zeal and 
much simplicity, but was unhappily subtle and metaphysi- 
cal in every thing." This character may be justly applied 
to Mr. Baxter, whose notions agreed with no church, and 
no sect. The consequence was, that no man was ever 
more the subject of controversy. Calamy says that about 
sixty treatises were opposed to him and his writings. What 
his sentiments were, will appear from the following sketch 
drawn up by the late Dr. Kippis. <* His Theological Sys- 
tem has been called Baxterianism, and those who embrace 
his sentiments in divinity, are styled Baxterians. Baxte- 
rianism strikes into a middle path between Calvinism and 
Arminianism, endeavouring, in some degree, though per- 
haps not very consistently, to unite both schemes, and to 
avoid the supposed errors of each. The Baxterians, we 
apprehend, believe in the doctrines of election, effectual 

lieved he meant the bishops and clergy Baxter told my lord chief justice, who 

of the church of England, in the pas- had so loaded him with reproaches, 

tages which the information referred and yet continued them, that a pre- 

to, they must find him guilty ; and he decessor of his had had other thoughts 

could mean no man else ; if not, they of him : Upon which he replied, " That 

must find him not guilty. When he there was not an honest man in Eng- 

had done, says Mr. Baxter to him, land but' what took htm for a great 

Does your lordship think any jury will knave." He had subpceuaed several 

pretend to pass a verdict upon me, clergymen, who appeared in court, 

upon such a trial? '* I'll warrant but were of no use to him, through the 

you, Mr. Baxter," soys he, '* don't violence of the chief justice. The 

you trouble yourself about that." The trial being over, sir Henry Ashnrst 

jury immediately laid their heads to- led Mr. Baxter through the crowd (I 

getber at the bar, and found him guilty, mention it to his honour), and cob* 

As he waft going from the bar, Mr. veyed him away in his coach. 


BAXTER. 199 

calling, and other tenets of Calvinism, and, consequently, 
suppose that a certain number, determined upon in the 
divine counsels, will infallibly be saved. This they think 
necessary to secure the ends of Christ's interposition. But 
then, on the other hand, they reject the doctrine of repro- 
bation, and admit that our blessed Lord, in a certain sense, 
died for all ; and that such a portion of grace is allotted to 
every man, as renders it his own fault, if he doth not attain 
to eternal happiness. If he improves the common grace 
given to all mankind, this will be followed by that special 
grace which will end in his final acceptance and salvation. 
Whether the Baxter ians are of opinion, that any, besides 
the elect, will actually make such a right use of common 
grace, as to obtain the other, and, at length, come to 
heaven, we cannot assuredly say. There may possibly be 
a difference of sentiment upon the subject, according as 
they approach nearer to Calvinism or to Arminianism. Mr. 
Baxter appears likewise to have modelled the doctrines of 
justification, and the perseverance of the saints, in ^man- 
ner which was not agreeable to the rigid Calvinists. His 
distinctions upon all these heads we do not mean particu- 
larly to inquire into, as they would not be very interesting 
to the generality of our readers. Some foreign divines, in 
the last century, struck nearly into the same path; and 
particularly, in France, Mons. le Blanc, Mr. Cameron, and 
the celebrated Mons. Amyrault. For a considerable time, 
the non-conformist clergy in England were divided into 
scarcely any but two doctrinal parties, the Calvinists and 
the Baxterians, There were, indeed, a few direct Ar- 
minians among them, whose number was gradually increas- 
ing. Of late, since many of the dissenters have become 
more bold in their religious sentiments, the Baxterians 
among them have been less numerous. However, they 
are still a considerable body ; and several persons are fond 
of the name, as a creditable one, who, we believe, go 
farther than Mr. Baxter did. The denomination, like other 
theological distinctions which have prevailed in the v world, 
will probably, in a course of time, sink into desuetude, till 
it is either wholly forgotten, or the bare memory of it be 
only preserved in some historical production." l 

1 Biog. Brit.*— Life by Sylvester, fol. written by himself, and containing a bis* 
tory of his times.— Abridgement of ditto by Calamy.— Long's Review of ois.tifi&j 
$yo-— -fee, fee. . 

200 BAXTER. 

BAXTER (William), an eminent grammarian and cri- 
tic, and nephew to the preceding, was born in 1650, at 
Lanlugan in Shropshire.. His education appears to have 
been more irrrguldr and neglected than that of his uncle, 
since at the a<>e of eighteen, when he went to Harrow 
school, he could not read, nor understood one word of any 
language but Welch, a circumstance very extraordinary 
at a time when education, if' given at all, was given early, 
and when scholars went to the universities much younger 
than at present. Mr. Baxter, however, must have retrieved 
his loss of time with zeal and assiduity, as it is certain he 
became a man of great learning, although we are unac- 
quainted with the steps by which he attained this eminence, 
and must therefore employ the remainder of this articje 
principally in an account of his publications. His favourite 
studies appear to have been antiquities and physiology. 
His first publication was a Latin Grammar, entitled " De 
Analogia, sive arte Linguae Latinos Commentariolus, &c, 
in usum provectioris adolescentiae," 1679, 12mo. In 1695, . 
he published his well-known edition of " Anacreon," at- - 
terwards reprinted in 1710, with improvements, but those 
improvements are said to have been derived from Joshua 
Barnes's edition of 1705. Dr. Harwood calls'this edition 
" an excellent one," but, according to Harles and Fischer, 
Baxter has been guilty of unjustifiable alterations, and has 
so mutilated passages, that his temerity must excite the 
indignation of every sober scholar and critic. Mr. Boswell, 
in his Life of Dr. Johnson, mentions a copy of Baxter's 
edition, which his father, lord Auckinlech, had collated 
wi^h the MS. belonging to the university of Ley den, ac- 
companied by a number of notes. This copy is probably 
still in the library of that venerable judge. 

In 1701 Mr. Baxter's celebrated edition of Horace made 
its appearance, of which it is said that a second edition was 
finished by him a few days before his death, and published 
by his son John, but not until 1725. In it there were 
some corrections, alterations, and additions introduced. Dr. 
Harwood bestows the highest praise on it, as "by far the 
best edition of Horace ever published.'* He adds, " I have 
read it many times through, and know its singular worth, 
England has not produced a more elegant or. judicious cri- 
tic than Baxter." Gesner, entertaining the same sentin 
ments, when he was requested to give an edition of (i-or^c^ 

BAXTER. 201 

made Baxters labours the foundation of his own, and pub- 
lished his edition, thus improved in 1752, and again in 
1772, the latter still more improved by a collation of some 
MSS. and some very early editions which do not appear to 
have been consulted by Baxter. On the appearance of 
this last edition, Dr. Lowth, the late learned bishop of Lon- 
don, pronounced it the best edition of Horade ever yet 
delivered to the world. In 1788, Zeunius republished it, 
preserving all Baxter's and Gesner's observations, adding 
a few of his own, and availing himself of the labours of 
Jani and Wieland. Of this a very elegant edition was 
published in 1797, by Mr. Payne, of Pall Mall, printed 
by Mundell of Glasgow, in 8vo. But what can we^ay to 
the uncertainties of criticism ? HarleS and Mitscherlich 
do not concur with Dr. Harwood in his opinion of Baxter's 
edition of 1725, and they both under-rate his labours, 
Harles blaming him for his "ribaldry and abuse of Bentley." 
Baxter was certainly irritated against Betuley, probably 
on account of some remarks introduced by Bentley into 
his edition of Horace, which had been published in the 
interval between 1701 and the time of his death. Gesnec 
makes all the apology that can now be offered : he thinks 
that Baxter might feel Bentley's contempt, than whom no 
man could deal out contempt more severely, or Baxter 
might himself be affected with somewhat of the irritability 
of age. 

In 1719, Baxter published his Dictionary of the British 
Antiquities, under the title of ". Glossnrium Antiquitatum 
Britannicarum, sive Syllabus Etymologicus Antiquitatum 
veteris Britanniae, atque Ibernia), temporibus Roman orum, 
&c." dedicated to Dr. Mead, and with a fine head of the 
author by Vertue, from a picture by Highmore, when Bax- 
ter was in the sixty-ninth year of his age. The collectors 
will be glad to hear that in some of the earliest impressions, 
the painter's name is spelt Hymore. This painting was 
done for a club-room, where Mr. Baxter presided, in the 
Old Jewry, but the landlord removing, took it with him, 
and it has never been heard of since. It is, perhaps, of 
more importance to add, that this work was published by 
the Rev. Moses Williams, who also, in 1726, published 
Baxter's Glossary or Dictionary of the Roman Antiquities, 
under the title of " Reliquiae Baxterianae, sive W. Baxter} 
Opera Posthuma." This goes no farther than the letter A, 
feuf has a fragment of the life of the author written by 

«0$ BAXTE 

himself. His etymologies in this work are often correct, 
and undeniable, but some are capricious. The reason of 
his declining to proceed farther than the first letter of the 
alphabet, was the reluctance of the booksellers to bear the 
expence of his Glossarium, which, however, he had the 
satisfaction of seeing published before his death, by the 
liberality of Dr. Mead. On the publication of the last 
mentioned work, Mr. Bowyer, the celebrated printer, whose 
memory has been so ably and so usefully preserved by his 
successor, published a small tract (included in his " Mis-* 
cellaneous Tracts") entitled " A View of a book, entitled 
* Reliquiae Baxterianae,' in a Letter to a friend." This is 
fc very acute and learned analysis of the work mentioned, 
and gives us an amusing account of Baxter's Life of him- 
self, which is, in fact, an endeavour to trace his family. He 
derives bis name Baxter from the Saxon, Baker, for which 
reason he writes himself, from a word of the same signifi- 
cation in Welch, Popidius. We may also add, that to this 
day Baxter and Paker (the trade) are in most parts of Scot- 
land synonymous. In this short pedigree, he speaks with 
the warmth of affection for his celebrated relative Richard 
Baxter. Alluding to the usual reproach passed on extem- 
pore preachers, he says, " Vir extemporanea dicendi fa- 
cultate incredibili, zelo plane Apostolico (quern scurrse 
nostrorum temporum cantum dicunt), &c." 

In 1731 Mr. Moses Williams issued proposals for print- 
ing " Gulielmi Baxteri quae supersunt enarratid et-nofcae 
in D. Junii Juvenalis Satyras," but which was not pub- 
lished. Mr. Baxter contributed alsb largely to the trans- 
lation of Plutarch's Morals by various hands, published 
about the beginning of the last century. He perfectly 
understood the ancient British and Irish languages, as well 
us the northern and eastern tongues. He kept a corre- 
spondence with most of the learned men of his time, par- 
ticularly with Edward Lluyd* the antiquary. Some of Mr. 
Baxter's letters to him are published in the " Glossarium 
Antiq. Romanarum." There are likewise in the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, some communications by him, and some 
in the first volume of the Arch&ologia. Most of Mr. Bax- 
ter's life was spent in the education of youth, and for that 
purpose he kept a boarding school at Tottenham High- cross 
in Middlesex, until he was chosen master of the Mercers 
school* in London, which situation he held above twenty 

BAXTER. 803 

years, but resigned it before his death. He died May 
31, 1723, and was buried at Islington. * 

BAYARD (Peter du Terrail, Chevalier de), a brave 
and celebrated French officer, was born in 1476. The fa- 
mily name was Terrail, and Bayard the name of the castie 
in which he was born. The family of Terrail, now extinct, 
once held a very distinguished rank among the nobility of 
Dauphiny. It was one of the houses* which, in that pro- 
vince, were honoured with the name of the Scarlet Nobi- 
lity, which served to distinguish the ancient nobility from 
those who were created by the letters patent of Louis XL 
which, when he invaded Dauphiny, he distributed without 
distinction to whoever would purchase them. Although 
descended from a line of heroes, our chevalier eclipsed 
them all. His inclination for arms discovered itself very 
early, and an answer which he made to his father, when 
he was only thirteen years old, was a sufficient presage of 
his future achievements. His father asked him what kind 
of life he would chuse, to which he answered, that having 
derived from his ancestors an illustrious name, and the ad- 
vantage of many shining examples of heroic virtue, he . 
hoped he should at least be permitted to imitate them. 

His father, affected and delighted with this answer, sent 
next day to the bishop of Grenoble, his brother-in-law^ 
and requested him to present young Bayard to the duke of 
Savoy, in the quality of his page. His clothes and equi- 
page being prepared in a few hours, he mounted a horse, 
which having never before felt a spur, gave three or four 
springs, which greatly alarmed the company.; but the 
' young hero, without being at all disconcerted, fixed him- 
self in the saddle, and repeated the discipline of his heel 
until his steed submitted to his direction. The parting of 
the father and the son was affecting, and, his biographer 
observes, is a lively picture of that noble simplicity of 
manners, from which his nation has so much degenerated, 
by the false refinements of an effeminate politeness. His 
mother recommended three things to him ; the first was, 
" to fear, and love, and to serve God ;" the second, " to 
be gentle and courteous to the nobility, without pride or 
haughtiness to any ;" and the third was, " to be generous 
and charitable to the poor and necessitous ;" adding, that 

* Nichols's Life of Bowyeiv— Dibdin'i Clasfics.— Month, Rev. N. S. vol. XXV. 
*^Biog. Brit.— Archaologia, vol. I. 

504 BAYARD. 

* to give for the love of God neter made any man poor.** 
Bayard promised to follow these g6od precepts, and al- 
though his deviations were not unfrequent, he preserved a 
sense of religion which led him to fulfil all its external du- 
ties at least with exemplary punctuality and zeal : neither 
his youth, nor the tumults and hurry of a military life, nor 
the dissolute company into which he naturally fell, nor 
even the failings, from which he was not himself exempt, 
could ever extinguish in his breast a certain veneration for 
the religion in which he had been brought up. 

Bayard continued about six months in the service of the 
duke of Savoy, by whom he was then presented to Charles 
VIII. who sent him to the count de Ligny, of the imperial 
house of Luxembourg, that he might be brought up in his 
family. At the age of seventeen years he carried away all 
tn£ honour of a tournament, which the lord of Vaudrey, 
one of the roughest knights of his time, held in the city of 
Lyons. In 1494, Charles VIII. resolved to assert his % right 
to the crown of Naples, and therefore passed into Italy at 
the head of a numerous army, consisting of the prime no- 
bility of his kingdom : so great an expedition, says Ber- 
ville (from whom this article is taken) was never fitted out 
with so much speed, splendour, and success. The con- 
quest, however, was almost as soon lost as gained. Charles, 
as he was returning to France with less than 10,000 men, 
was attacked near Fornoue by an army of six times the 
number. Upon this occasion he behaved with the greatest 
intrepidity, and gained a complete victory, and Bayard 
distinguished himself in an extraordinary manner. He 
took a standard from a party of fifty men, and presented 
it to the king, who rewarded him with a present of 500 

Soon after Charles VIII. was succeeded by Louis XIL 
Bayard followed the new king to the war, which broke out 
in Italy, and was always at the head of the most dangerous 
enterprizes. He undertook singly, 4nd alone, as his bio- 
grapher expresses it, to defend a bridge over the G aril Ion 
against two hundred Spanish cavaliers; and actually sus- 
tained their whole force until the French troops came to 
his assistance. . Another time, with only thirty-six men, 
he stopped the whole Swiss army near Pavia. Most of the 
advantages gained by the French, in the course of this 
war, were owing to his valour : and it was by one of thes§ 
achievements. that he obtained the name of tlje " Chevalier 

BAYARD. 205 

sans peur et sans reproche," the knight without fear and 
without reproach ; a distinction, which did him the more 
honour as it was never possessed by any other, and as he 
acquired it at a time when the military honour of France 
was at its height, in the time of the Nemours, the Foixes, 
the Lautrecs, Trimouilles, and Chabannes; but he seemed 
to surpass himself in the battle of Raven nes, which was 
planned and conducted by him alone. 

The confidence with which he inspired the troops, and 
the love which they had for him, were not merely the ef- 
fects of his courage : they knew that his prudence was not 
inferior to his valour, and that he never would expose them 
wantonly or rashly : he was besides so disinterested, that 
he left the booty wholly to others, without reserving any 
part of it for himself. One day, when he had taken 1 5,000 
ducats of gold from the Spaniards, he gave half of them to 
capt. Terdieu, and distributed the rest among the soldiers 
who accompanied him in the expedition. With the same 
generous spirit he divided 2,400 ounces of silver plate, 
which he received as a present from the count de Ligny, 
among bis friends and followers. Having defeated Audre, 
the Venetian general, he took Brisse, and a lady of that 
city present4ng him with 2,500 pistoles, to prevent her 
house from being pillaged, he divided them into three parts ; 
1000 he gave to each of the two daughters of the lady, to 
help, as he said, to marry them, and the 500 which re- 
mained he caused to be distributed among the poor nun- 
neries that had suffered most in the pillage of the place. lu 
this lady's house he lodged until he had recovered from a 
dangerous wound which he received in the action. 

Bayard, in his progress to military command, passed 
through all the subordinate stations ; and if he did not ar- 
rive at the first military dignity in France, he was univer- 
sally thought to deserve it. And after all, the title of mar- 
shal of France was an honour which he would have pos- 
sessed in common with many others; but to arm his king 
as a knight was a personal and peculiar honour, which no 
other could ever boast. The occasion was this : Francis I. 
who was himself one of the bravest men of his time, de- 
termined, after bis victory of Marignan, to receive the 
order of knighthood from the hands of Bayard. Bayard 
modestly represented to his majesty, that so high an ho- 
nour belonged only to princes of the blood; but the king 
replied in a positive tone, " My friend Bayard, I will this 



day be made a knight by your bands." u It is then mf 
duty ," said Bayard, "to obey," and taking his sword, said, 
*' Sire autant vaille v que si c'etoit Roland ou Olivier, 1 ' — 
" May it avail as much as if it was Roland or Olivier," two 
heroes in the annals of chivalry, of whom many romantic 
tales are told. When the ceremony was over, Bayard ad- 
dressed his sword with an ardour which the occasion in- 
spired, and declared it was a weapon hereafter to be laid 
up as a sacred relic, and never to be drawn, except against 
Turks, * Saracens, and Moors. This sword has been lost ; 
Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, having applied for it 
to the/ heirs of Bayard, without being able to procure it. 

Bayard also made an expedition into Piedmont, where 
he -took Prosper Colonnes, the pope's lieutenant-general, 
prisoner. Chabannes, who was inarsbal of France, and 
Humbercourt and d'Aubigny, two general officers, all much 
superior in rank to Bayard, gave up the honour of conduct- 
ing the expedition to him, and served in it under his or- 
ders. But the defence of Mezieres completed the military 
reputation of this extraordinary man. This place was far 
from being in a condition to sustain a siege, and it had 
been resolved in a council of war to burn it, and ruin the 
adjacent country,., that the enemy might fiud neither shel- 
ter nor subsistence. But Bayard opposed this resolution^ 
and told the king that no place was weak which had honest 
men to defend it He then offered to undertake its de- 
fence, and engaged to give a good account of it His pro- 
posal was accepted ; and he went immediately and locked 
himself up in the town. Ttoo days after he had entered it, 
. the count de Nassau, and capt de Sickengen invested the 
place with 40,000 men. Bayard so animated his soldiers, 
sowed such dissention between, the two generals who be- 
sieged him, and so effectually defeated all the attempts of 
the Imperialists, that in three weeks he obliged them to 
Taise the siege, with the loss of many men, and without 
once making the assault. ' AH France now resounded with 
the praises of Bayard : the king received him at Fervagues 
with caresses "and encomiums of the most extraordinary 
kind : he created him a knight of his own order, and gave 
him, by way of distinction, a company of an hundred 
men armed in chief, which was scarce ever given but to 
princes of the blood. 

In 1523, Bayard followed admiral Bonnivet into Italy, 
and, in a defeat which the French suffered near Rebec in 

BAYARD. 207 

April 1524, he received a musket- shot in the reins, which' 
broke the spinal bone. The moment he was struck he pro- 
nounced himself a dead man, kissed the guard of his sword, 
which had the figure of a cross, and recommended himself 
to God in prayer. He then ordered them to lay him un- 
der a tree, with his face towards the enemy, and to sup- 
port his head by placing a stone under it, which he saw 
lying upon the ground. " Having never yet turned my 
back upon an enemy," said he, " I will not begin the last 
day of my life.*' He desired the seigneur d'Alegre to tell 
the king that he should die contented because he died in 
his service, and that he regretted nothing but that with his 
life he should lose the power of serving him longer. He 
then made his military testament, and confessed himself. 
When the constable, Charles de Bourbon, who pursued 
the French army after the defeat, came up to the spot where 
Bayard was dying, he expressed his concern to see him in 
that condition. " Alas, captain Bayard, how sorry am I 
to see you thus ! I have always loved and honoured you 
for your wisdom and valour, and I now sincerely pity your 
misfortune." — " Sir," said Bayard, " I thank you ; but 
there is no reason why you should pity me who die like an 
honest man in the service of my king, though there is great 
reason to pity you wl\o are carrying arms against your 
prince, your country, and your oath." The constable, far 
from taking offence at the freedom of Bayard's address, 
endeavoured to justify himself by motives arising from the 
disgrace he had endured ; but Bayard exhorted him, with 
a feeble and faltering voice, to reconcile himself to his 
sovereign, and quit the part which he had unjustly and 
precipitately taken, in obedience to the dictates of his pas- 
sion. Bayard very soon after expired, ki the forty-eighth 
year of his age, and was buried in the cathedral of Grenoble, 
with great funeral honours. Many anecdotes are told 
highly to the honour of Bayard's courage, disinterested 
spirit, generosity, and presence of mind ; but the religion 
so often attributed to him, seems to have consisted in a su- 
perstitious regard to forms and ceremonies ; if, for exam- 
ple, before fighting a duel, he heard mass, he was satis- 
fied with the propriety of his conduct ; but this, howiever, 
is to be attributed to the times in which he lived. His 
life was first written by Champier, Paris, 1525, 4to. 2. By 
one of his secretaries, 1619, 4to. 3. By Lazare Bocquillot, 
prior of Louval, 1702, 12mo; and 4. by Guyard'de Berville, 

208 BAYARD. 

1760, 12mo, from which the present article is principally 
taken. A short, but well written memoir of him was pub- 
lished at London by the Rev. Joseph Stirling in 1781. * 

BAYER (John) was a German lawyer and astronomer 
of the latter part of the sixteenth and beginning of the 
seventeenth century, but in what particular year or place 
he was born, is not certainly known ; however, his name 
will be ever memorable in the annals of astronomy, on ac- 
count of that great and excellent work which he first pub- 
lished in 1603, under the title of " Uranometria," being a 
complete celestial atlas, or large folio charts of all the con- 
stellations, with a nomenclature collected from all the tables 
of astronomy, ancient and modern, with the useful inven- 
tion of denoting the stars in every constellation by the let- 
ters of the Greek alphabet, in their order, and according 
*o the order of magnitude of the stars in each constellation. 
JBy means of these marks, the stars of the heavens may, 
with as great facility, be distinguished and referred to, as 
the several places of the earth are by means of geographi- 
cal tables ; and as a proof of the usefulness of this method, 
our celestial globes and atlasses have ever since retained it; 
and hence it is become of general use through all the lite- 
rary world ; astronomers, in speaking of any star in the 
constellation, denoting it by saying it is marked by Bayer, 
a f or ft or y, &c. 

Bayer lived many years after the first publication of this 
work, which he greatly improved and augmented by his 
constant attention to the study of the stars. At length, in 
1627, it was republished under a new title, viz, " Ccelum 
stellatum Christianum,". or the " Christian stellated Hea- 
ven," or the " Starry Heavens Christianized;" for in this 
work the heathen names and characters, or figures of the 
constellations, were rejected, and others, taken from the 
scriptures, were inserted in their stead, to circumscribe the 
respective constellations. This was the project of one Ju- 
lius Schiller, a civilian of the same place. But this attempt 
was too great an innovation to find success, or a general 
reception, and would have occasioned great confusion. 
And we even find, in the later editions of this work, that 
the ancient figures and names were restored again ; at least 
in the two editions of 1654 and 1661. * 

1 See also Diet. Hist.^-Moreri. 

* MartiaVBiographia Philosophica. — Hutton'a Math; Diet 

feAYER. $W 

BAYER (Theophilus Siecfrid), grandson of the pre- 
ceding, was born in 1694. He was first educated at Ko- 
nigsburgh, where, besides philosophy and theology, hd 
devoted much of his time to the study of the Oriental 1 
languages, under some rabbis, and under Dr« Abraham 1 
Wolff, professor of theology. In 1713 he began thef 
study of the Chinese language, but his severe and vat- 
interrupted application having injured his health, he way 
recommended to try change of -ail*. With this view be? 
went to Dantzic, to John Sartorius, professor of rhetoric, 
who was his maternal great«tmcle, and as soon as he wasc 
able to return to Konigsburgb, he went through his dispu- 
tation, and obtained a pension. Soon after, he went tb* 
Berlin, where M. Grabe, a privy-counsellor, assisted hint 
with the means of prosecuting his studies, and there he* 
formed an intimacy with de la Croze, Jablondri, des Vig~ 
noles, Chauvin, and many other learned men of the time; 
At Halle, professor Frank introduced him to Solomon As* 
sadi, whose lessons removed many of the difficulties he h*<f 
encountered in learning the Arabic ; and M. Michaetis aftdf 
Heineccrius furnished him with much useful information' 
respecting the Ethiopian and Greek churches. Fronr Halle? 
he went to Leipsic, where, in Feb. 1717, he was admitted 
to the degree of M. A. Here M. Sieber permitted him the" 
free use of his fine library, and M. GoStze gave him access' 
to the manuscripts of the public library, of which he made 
a catalogue. At the request of M. Mencke he drew up 
several curious articles for the Leipsic "Acta eruditorum,? 
particularly one on the triumphal arch of Trajan, another 
on the Malabaric new Testament, a third on the Coptic 
new Testament, &c. with all which Mencke was so well sa- 
tisfied, as to make Mm very advantageous offers if be would 
consent to reside at Leipsic. The magistrates of Konigs- 
burgfa wrote to him at the same time, that if he wished to 
continue his travels, his expences should be defrayed ; but 
the bad state of his health obliged him to return home. 
Recovering a little, he went to Wirtemberg and Berlin, 
where M. de la Croze gave him some lessons in the Coptic ; 
and at Stettin he had the happiness to be admitted to in- 
spect the Chinese collections made by Andrew Muller, 
which are preserved there. About the end of autumn 
1717, having returned to Konigsburgh, the magistrates 
appointed him librarian, and in 1720 and 1721 he was 
chosen co-rector and pro-rector of the principal college. 
Vol- IV. P 

210 BAYER. 

About the beginning of 1726, he was invited to ReteYs- 
burgh to be professor of Greek and Roman antiquities. 
The same year he delivered some orations in the presence 
of the empress Catherine, who laid the foundation of the 
new academy, in honour of the coronation of Peter II. In 
1730 the royal academy of Berlin enrolled him among its 
members. He was about to have retired to Konigsburgb, 
with his family, when he was attacked by a disorder which 
proved fatal, Feb. 21, 1738. Besides a number of philolo- 
gical and antiquary dissertations in the literary journals, he 
published, 1. " Museum Sinicum, in quo Sinicae Linguae et 
Literature ratio explicatur ; item grammatica, lexicon, et 
diatribe Sinicae reperiuntur," Petrop. 1730, 2 vols. 8vo. 
The first volume contains the grammar, the characters cut 
on numerous copperplates. The lexicon, in the second, ia 
also on copperplates, with a Latin translation. This is a 
work of singular erudition, and the most perfect we have 
on the Chinese language. 2. " Historia regni Graecorum 
Bactriani," ibid. 1738, 4to. 3. " Historia Osrhoena et 
Edessena ex nummis illustrata, in qua Edessae urbis, Os~ 
rhoeni regni, Abgarorum regum, &c. fata explicantur," ib. 
1734, 4to. Many of his academical dissertations were pub- 
lished by Christ. Adolphus Klotz, under the title of. 
v Opuscula ad historiam antiquam, chronologiam, geogra- 
phiam, et rem nummariam spectantia," Halle, 1768, 8vo. l 
BAYF (John Anthony de la Neuville), the natural 
son of the subject of the next article, was born at Venice in 
1532, during his father's embassy there, and studied voider 
Ronsard, making particular progress in the Greek tongue. 
He devoted himself afterwards to French poetry, which he 
disfigured not a little by a mixture of Greek and Latin 
words. His object was to give to the French the cadence 
and measure of the Greek and Latin poetry, in which he 
was very unsuccessful. Cardinal PeVron said of him, that 
he was a good man, but a bad poet. He set his own verses, 
however, to music ; not, says Dr. Burney, to such music as 
might be expected from a man of letters, or a dilletanti, 
consisting of a single melody, but to counterpoint, or mu- 
sic in parts. Of this kind he published, in 1561, "Twelve 
hymns or spiritual songs;" and, in 1578, several books of 
" Songs," all in four parts, of which both the words and the 
music were his own. In all he was allowed to be as good 

> Moreri.— Clarke's Diet. Biblt— Saiii Qnomastiwik 

B A Y t. 2ii 

& musician as a poet; but what mostly entitles him to no- 
tice; is his having established a musical academy at Paris,* 
the first of the kind ; but in this he had to encounter many 
difficulties. The court was for itj and Charles IX. and 
Henry IH. frequently attended these concerts; but the 
parliament and the university opposed the scheme as likely 
to introduce effeminacy arid immorality. The civil wars 
bccasioned their being discontinued, but they were long 
after revived, and proved the origin of the divertissements, 
the masquerades, and balls, which formed the pleasures of 
the court until the time of Louis XIV. Bayf died in 1592. 
His poems were published at Paris in 1573, 2 vols. 8vo, and 
Consist of serious, comic, sacred, and profane pieces ; the 
first volume is entitled " Euvres en rime," the other " Les 
Jeux." His mode of spelling is as singular as his composi- 
tion, but the whole are now fallen into oblivion. * 

BAYF (Lazarus de), father to the above, a gentleman 
of family in Anjou, was educated under Budceus, and 
brought up to the profession of the bar. Happening, how- 
ever, to go to Rome, he studied Greek under Musurus, a 
learned Candiot, and pursued it with such pleasure and 
success, that on his return he determined to devote himself 
entirely to the study of classical and polite literature. 
From this design, however, he was partly diverted by 
Francis I. who being made acquainted with his merit, sent 
him, in 1531, as ambassador to Venice, where he remained 
near three years, and formed an intrigue with a lady of fa- 
ihily in that place, by whom he had the subject of the pre- 
ceding article. After his return to Paris he was made 
counsellor of parliament. In 1539 he was sent as ambas- 
sador to Germany, and about 1541 was appointed master of 
the requests. The abbeys also of Grenetiere and Charroux' 
were bestowed upon him. Moreri says, that in 1547 he 
assisted at the funeral of Francis I. as one of the eight 
masters of the requests; but Saxius" says that he died in 
1-545. In order to make his countrymen acquainted with 
the Greek drama, he published translations into French 
pfoetry, of the " Electra" of Sophocles, 1537, 8vo, and the 
" Hecuba" of Euripides, 1550, 12mo. His original works 
were principally, 1. " De re vestiaria liber," Basil, 1526, 
4to. 2. u Annotationes in Legem II. de captivis et* post-. 

l Moreri.— Burney's Hist, of Music, vol. III. — Marchand, see Index, 

P 2 

2J2, BAY F. 

limwiio teversis, in quibus tractatur de re navali,^ Pari*, 
1536, 4to, and often reprinted with the preceding work, as 
well as inserted in Gronovius' Thesaurus. He also trans- 
lated some of Plutarch's, lives, but we do not find that they 
wexe published. * 

BAYLE (Francis), a learjped French physician and me- 
dical writer, was royal professor of, philosophy in the uni- 
versity of Toulouse, where he died, Sept. 24, 1 709, in the 
eighty -seventh year of his. age. He was a member of the 
Eloreal academy, and a man. of integrity, always more ready- 
to discern merit in others, thai) ip himself, a strict discipli- 
narian, and, through many unpleasant vicissitudes, a truly 
Christian philosopher. As. to his profession, it appears 
from his works that he was a good theorist, as well as a suc- 
cessful practitioner. Haller pronounces him " Iatrome- 
chanicus, sed ex cautioribus." His works, which are partly- 
ip Latin and partly iu French, were, 1, " Systema generate 
philosophise," Toulouse, 1669, 8vo. 2. " Tractatus de 
Appplexia, 1 ' ib. 1676, 12mo; Hague, 1678. 3. " Disser- 
tations Medicae tres," Toulouse, 1678, fol. 4< " Disser- 
tationes Physicae," Hague, 1678, 12mo< 5. " Dissertation 
nes de experientia et ratione conjungenda in Pbysica, Me- 
dicina, et Chirurgia," Paris, 1675; Hague, 1678. 6. 
"Probleraata Physica et Medica," ib. 1678, 12mo. 7- 
" Histoire Anatomique d'une grossesse de 25 ans," Tou- 
louse, 1678, 12 mo. 8. if> Iustructiones Physicae ad usum 
scholar urn accommodate," ibid. 1700, 3 vols. 4to. 9, 
" Dissertatio quaestiones nonqullas Physicas et Mecticas ex-» 
planans," ibid. 1688, 12mp. 10. " Opuscula," ibid. 1701, 
4 to. * 

BAYLE (Peter)., a French writer who once made a 
great figure in the literary world, was bqrn Nov. 18, 1647,, 
ajt Cayla, a. small town in the county of Foix, the son of 
John Bayle, a Protestant minister* Peter gave early 
prooft of genius, which his father cultivated with the ut- 
most care ; he himself taught him the Latin and Greek 
languages, and sent him to the Protestant academy at Puy- 
laurens in 1666. The same year, when upon<a visit to his 
father, he applied so closely to his studies, that it brought 
upon him an illness which kept.hiu* atCarla above eighteen 
months. On his recovery he returned to Puy laurens to, 
prosecute his studies, and afterwards he went to Toulouse 

1 Moreri.— Saxii Onomasticon. « Moreri.— Haller and Mangel. 

■B A Y L E. ^213 

in 4669, where he attended the lectures in the Jesuits' col- 
lege. The controversial books which x he read at Ptiylau- 
*ens Taised several scruples in his mind in regard to thfe 
f*rotestant rdigion, and his doubts were increased by some 
disputes he had with a priest, who lodged in the satire house 
With hkn at Toulouse. He thought the Protestant tenets 
were false, because he could not answer all the argument* 
raised against them ; so that about a month after his arrival 
at Toulouse, he embraced the Roman catholic religion. 
This gave mwch uneasiness to all his relations, atid Mr. 
Bertier, bishop of Rieux, rightly judging, that after this 
step young Bayle had no reason to expect any assistance 
from them, took upon him the charge of his maintenance. 
They piqued themselves much, at Toulouse, upon ihfc £c± 
cjuisition of so promising a young man. When it came to 
his turn to defend theses publicly, the most distinguished 
persons of the clergy, parliament, and city, Yfpre present; 
so that there had hardly ever been seen in th§ university a 
more splendid and numerous audience. The theses were 
dedicated to the Virgin, and adorned with s her picture, 
which was ornamented with several emblematical figures, 
representing the conversion of tjie respondent. 

Some time after Mr. Bayle's conversion, Mr. Naudis de 
JJruguiere, a young gentleman of great wit and penetration, 
and a relation of his, happened to come to Toulouse, where 
fie lodged in the same house with him. They disputed 
warmly about religion, and after having pushed the argu- 
ments on both sides with great vigotif, they used to exa- 
mine them oyer again coolly. These familiar disputes 
often puzzled Mr. Bayle, and made him distrust several 
opinions of the church of Rome ; and he began to silspect 
that he had embraced them too precipitately. Sortie time 
after Mr. de Pradals came to Toulouse, whom Mr. Bayle's 
father had desired to visit him, hoping he would in a little 
time gain his confidence ; and this gentleman so fat suc- 
ceeded, that Bayle one day owned to him his having been 
too hasty in entering into the church of Rome, since he 
now found several of her doctrines contrary to reason and 
scripture. August 1670, be departed secretly from Tou- 
louse, where he had staid eighteen months, and retired to 
Mafceres in the Lauragais, to a country-house of Mr. du 
Vivie. His elder brother came thither the day after, with 
some ministers of the neighbourhood; and next day Mr. 
Rival, minister of Saverdun, received his abjuration in 

214 B A Y L E. 

presence of his elder brother and two other ministers, after 
which they obliged him instantly to set out for Geneva. 
Soon after hisarrival here, Mr. de Nonnandie, a syndic of 
the republic, having heard of his great character and abi- 
lities, employed him as tutor to his sons. Mr. Basnage 
at that time lodged with this gentleman, and it was here 
Mr. Bayle commenced his acquaintance with him. When 
he had been about two years at Geneva, at Mr. Basnage' s 
recommendation he entered into the family of the count de 
Dhona, lord of Copet, as tutor to his children ; but not 
liking the solitary life he led in this family, he left it, and 
went to Roan in Normandy, where he was employed as tu~ 
tor to a merchant's son ; but he soon grew tired of this 
place also. His great ambition was to be at Paris ; he went 
accordingly thither in March 1675, and, at the recom- 
mendation of the marquis de Ruvigny, was chosen tutor to 
messieurs de Beringhen, brothers to M. de Beringhen, 
counsellor in the parliament of Paris. 

Some months after his arrival at Paris, there being a va-r 
cancy of a professorship of philosophy at Sedan, Mr. Bas- 
iiage proposed Mr. Bayle to Mr. Jurieu, who promised to 
serve him to the utmost of his power, and desired Mr. 
Basnage to write to hini tp copie immediately to Sedan. 
But Mr. Bayle excused himself, fearing lest if it should be 
known that he had changed his religion, which was a se- 
cret to every body in that country but. Mr. Basnage, it 
might bring him into trouble, and the Roman catholics 
from thence take occasion to disturb the protestants at 
Sedan. Mr. Jurieu was extremely surprised at his refusal ; 
and even when Mr. Basnage communicated the reason, he 
was of opinion it ought not to hinder Mr. Bayle's coming, 
since he and Mr. Basnage being the only persons privy tq 
the secret, Mr. B?iyle could run no manner of danger. Mr. 
Basnage therefore wrote again to Mr. Bayle, and prevailed 
with him to come to- Sedan. He hful three competitors, 
all natives of Sedan, the friends of whom endeavoured to 
raise prejudices against him because he was a stranger. 
But the affair being left to be determined by dispute, and 
the candidates having agreed to make their theses without 
books or preparation, Mr. Bayle defended his theses with 
such perspicuity and strength of argument, that, in spite 
of all the interest of his adversaries, the senate of the uni- 
versity determined it in his favour ; and nptwithstanding 

BAYLE. 213 

the opposition he met with upon his first coming to Sedan, 
bis merit soon procured him universal esteem. 

In 16S0, an affair of the duke of Luxemburgh made a 
great noise : he had been accused of impieties, sorcery, 
and poisonings, but wa6 acquitted, and the process against 
him suppressed. Mr. Bayle, having been at Paris during 
the harvest- vacation, had heard many particulars concern- 
ing this affair, and immediately composed an harangue on 
the subject, wherein the marshal is supposed to vindicate 
himself before his judges. This speech is a smart satire 
upon the duke and some other persons. He afterwards 
wrote one more satirical, by way of criticism upon the 
harangue. He sent these two pieces to Mr. Minutoli, de- 
siring his opinion of them;* and, that he might speak his 
mind more freely, he concealed his being the author. 
About this time father de Valois, a Jesuit of Caen, pub- - 
lished a book, wherein he maintained that the sentiments 
of M. Des Cartes concerning the essence and properties of 
body, were repugnant to the doctrine of the church, and 
agreeable to the errors of Calvin on the subject of the eu- 
charist. Mr. Bayle read -this performance, and judged it 
well done. He was of opinion the author had incontesta- 
bly proved the point in question ; to wit, that the princi- 
ples of M. Des Cartes were contrary to the faith of the 
church of Rome, und agreeable to the doctrine of Calvin. 
He took occasion from thence to write his " Sentimens de 
M. Des Cartes touchant P essence, &c." wherein he main- 
tained the principles of Des Cartes, and answered all the 
arguments by which father de Valois had endeavoured to 
! ' confute them. 

The great comet, which appeared December 1 660, hav- 
ing filled the generality of people with fear and astonish- 
ment, induced Mr. Bayle to think of writing a letter on 
this subject to be inserted in the Mercure Galant; but, 
finding he had such abundance of matter as exceeded the 
bounds of a letter for that periodical work, he resolved to 
print it by itself ; and accordingly sent it to M. de Vise. He 
desired M. de Vise to give it to his printer, and to procure 
a licence for it from M. de la Reynie, lieutenant of the po- 
lice, or a privilege from the king if that was necessary ; but 
M. de Vise returned for answer, that M. de la Reynie, being 
unwilling to take upon him the consequences of printing it, 
it would be necessary to obtain the approbation of the doc- 
tors before a royal privilege could be applied for ; which 

%IS B A Y L E. 

being a tedious and difficult affair, Mr. Bayle gave orer aQ 
thoughts of having it printed at Paris. 

The protestants in France were at this time in a dis- 
tressed situation ; not a year passed without some infringe* 
ppent of the edict of Nantz, and it was at length resolved 
to shut up their academies. That at Sedan was accord- 
ingly suppressed by an arret of Lewis XIV. dated the 9th 
of July, 1631. Mr. Bayle staid six or seven weeks at 
Sedan after the suppression of the academy, expecting 
letters of invitation from Holland ; but not receiving any 
during that time, be left Sedan the 2d of September, and 
^rriyed at Paris the 7th of the same month, not being de- 
termined whether he should go to Rotterdam or England, 
or continue in France ; but whilst he was in this uncer- 
tainty he received an invitation to Rotterdam, for which 
place he accordingly set out, and arrived there the 30th 
of Octpber, \6&l. He was appointed, professor of philo- 
sophy and history ; with a salary of five hundred guilders 
per annum. The year following he published his " Let- 
ter cqneerning Comets ;" and father Maimbourg having 
pqblished about this time his History of Calvinism, wherein 
he endeavours to. draw upon the protestants the contempt 
and resentment of the catholics, Mr. Bayle wrote a piece 
to confute his history : in this he has inserted several cir- 
cumstances relating to the life and disputes of Mr. Maim- 
bourg, and has given a sketch of his character, which is 
thought to have a strong likeness. 

The reputation which Mr. Bayle had now acquired, in- 
duped the states of Friezland, in 1684, to offer him a pro- 
fessorship in their university ; but he wrote them a letter 
of thanks, and declined the offer. This same year he be- 
gan to publish his " Nouvelles de la republique des let- 
tres ;" and the year following he wrote a second part to , 
his 'f Censure on the History of Mr. Maimbourg." 

In 1686, he was drawn into a dispute respecting the fa* 
mous Christina queen of Sweden : in his Journal for April, 
he took notice of a printed letter, supposed to have been 
written by her Swedish majesty to the chevalier de Terlon, 
wherein she condemns the persecution of tho protestants 
in France. He inserted the letter itself in his Journal for 
May,; \au4in that of June following he says: " What we 
hinted at in our last month, is con6ra*ed to us from day to 
day, that Christina is the real author of the letter concern- 
ing the persecutions in France whip.h is ascribed to her : 

B A Y L E. 217 

it is a rfega&inder of protestantism." Mr. Bayle received 
*n anonymous letter, the author of which says, that he 
wrote to him of his own accord, being in duty bound to it, 
as a servant of the queen. He complains that Mr. Bayle, 
speaking of her majesty, called her only Christina, with- 
out any title ; be finds also great fault with his calling the 
letter, " a remainder of protestantism." He blames him 
likewise for inserting the Words " I am/' in the conclu- 
sion of the letter. " These words, says this anonymous 
writer, are not her majesty's ; a queen, as she is, cannot 
employ these words but with regard to a very few persons, 
and Mr. de Terlon is not of that number. 9 ' Mr. Bayle 
wrote 4 vindication of himself as to these particulars, with 
which the author of the anonymous letter declared himself 
satisfied, excepting as to what related to " the remainder 
of protestantism-" He would not admit of the defence 
with regard to that expression -> and, in another letter, ad- 
vised him to retract it. He adds in a postscript, " You 
mention in your Journal of August, a second letter of the 
queen, which you scruple to publish. Her majesty would 
be glad to see that letter, and you will do a thing agree- 
able to her, if you would send it to her. You might take 
this opportunity of writing to her majesty. This counsel 
may be of some use to you ; do not neglect it." Mr. Bayle 
look the hint, and wrote a letter to her majesty, dated the 
i4£h of November 1686 ; to which the queen, on the 14th 
of December, wrote the following answer : 

" Mr. Bayle, 

" I have received your excuses, and am willing you 
should know by this letter, that I am satisfied with them, 
I ^m obliged to the zeal of the person, who gave you oc- 
casion of writing to me ; for I am very glad to know you* 
You express so much respect and affection for me, that I. 
pardon you sincerely ; and I would have you know, that 
nothing gave me offence but that ' remainder of protestan- 
tism, 9 of which you accused me. I am very delicate on 
that head, because nobody can suspect me of it, without 
lessening my glory, and injuring me in the most sensible 
manner. You would do well, if you should even acquaint 
the public with the mistake you have made, and with your 
regret for it. This is all that remains to be done by you, 
in ojfder to deserve my being entirely satisfied with you. 

# 21S B A Y L E. 

"As to the letter which you have sent me, it is mine 
without doubt ; and since you tell me that it is printed, 
you will do me a pleasure if you send me some copies of 
it. As I fear nothing in France, so neither do I fear any 
thing at Rome. My fortune, my blood, and even my life, 
are entirely devoted to the service of the church ; but I 
flatter nobody, and will never speak any thing but the 
truth. I am obliged to those who have been pleased to 
publish my letter ; for I do not at all disguise my senti- 
ments. I thank God, they are too noble and too honour- 
able *to be disowned. However, it is not true, that this 
letter was written to one of my ministers. As 1 have every 
where enemies, and persons who envy me, so I in all 
places have friends and servants ; and I have possibly as 
many in France, notwithstanding the court, as any where 
in the world. This is purely the truth, and you may re- 
gulate yourself accordingly. 

u But you shall not get off so cheap as you imagine. I 
will enjoin you a penance ; which is, that you will hence- 
forth take the trouble of sending me all curious books that 
shall be published in Latin, French, Spanish, or Italian, 
on whatever subject or science, provided they are worthy 
of being looked into ; I do not even except romances or 
satires : and above all, if there are any books of chemistry, 
I desire you may send them to me as soon as possible. Do 
not forget likewise to send me your * Journal.* I shall 
order that you be paid for whatever you lay out, do but 
send me an account of it. This will be the most agree- 
able and most important service that can be done me. 
May God prosper you. Christina Alexandra." 

It now only remained that Mr. Bayle should acquaint 
the public with the mistake he had made, and his regret 
for it, in order to merit that princess's entire satisfaction. 
This he did in his Journal of January, 1687. " We have 
been informed, to our incredible satisfaction," says he, 
" that the queen of Sweden having seen the ninth article 
of the Journal of August, 1686, has been pleased to be 
satisfied with the explanation we gave there. Properly, it 
was only the words ' remainder of protestanism,' which 
had the misfortune to offend her majesty j for, as her ma- 
jesty is very delicate on that subject, and desires that all 
the world should know, that after having carefully exa- 
mined the different religions, she had found none to be 
trite but the Roman catholic, and that she has heartily em- 

B A Y L E. 2lf 

traced it; it was injurious to her glory to give occasion 
for the least suspicion of her sincerity. We are therefore 
very sorry that we have mpde use of an expression, which 
has been understood in a sense so very different from our 
intention > and we would have been very far from making 
use of it, if we had foreseen that it was liable to any am* 
biguity : for, besides the respect which we, together with 
all the world, owe to so great a queen, who has been the 
admiration of the universe from her earliest days, we join 
with the utmost zeal in that particular obligation which all 
men of letters are under to do her homage, because of the 
honour she has done the sciences, by being pleased tho- 
roughly to examine their beauties, and to protect them in 
a distinguishing manner." 

The persecution which the protestants at this time suf- 
fered in France affected Mr. Bayle extremely. He made 
occasionally some reflections on their sufferings in his 
Journal; and he wrote a pamphlet also on the subject. 
Some time after he published bis " Commentaire philoso- 
phique," upon these words, " Compel them to come in ;'* 
against compulsion in matters of religion ; but the great 
application he gave to this and his other works, threw him 
into a fit of sickness, which obliged him to discontinue his 
Literary Journal Being advised to try a change of air, he 
left Rotterdam, and went to.Cleves ; whence, after having 
continued some time, he removed to Aix la Chapelle, and 
thence returned to Rotterdam. In 1690, the famous 
book, entitled, " Avis aux Refugiez," &c. made its ap- 
pearance : Mr. Jurieu, who took Mr. Bayle for the author, 
wrote a piece against it, and prefixed an advice to the 
public, wherein he calls Mr. Bayle a profane person, and 
a traitor engaged in a conspiracy against the state. As 
soon as Mr. Bayle had read this accusation, he went to the 
grand schout of Rotterdam, and offered to go to prison, 
provided his accuser would accompany him, and undergo 
the punishment he deserved, if the accusation was found 
unjust. He published also an answer to Mr. JurieU's 
charge; and as his reputation, and even his life was at 
stake, in case the accusation of treason was proved, he 
therefore thought himself not obliged to keep any terms 
with his accuser, and attacked him with the utmost seve- 
rity. Mr. Jurieu applied to the magistrates of Amsterdam, 
who advised him to a reconciliation with Mr. Bayle, and 
^nj pined them not to publish any thing against each other 

*20 BAYLE. 

till it was examined by Mr. Boyer, the pensioner of Rot- 
terdam. But, notwithstanding this prohibition, Mr. Jurieti 
attacked Mr. Bayie again, and drew from him to write a 
new vindication of his character and principles. 

In November, 1690, Mr. de Beauval advertised m his 
Journal, a scheme for a " Critical Dictionary/* This was 
the work of Mr. Bayle. The articles of the three first let* 
ters of the alphabet were already prepared ; but a dispute 
happening betwixt him and Mr. de Beauval, be for some 
time laid the work aside. Nor did he resume it rift May 
1692, 'when he published his scheme ; but the public not 
approving of his plan, he threw it into a different form, 
and the first volume was published in August, 1695, the 
second the October following. The work was extremely 
well Deceived by the public ; but it engaged him in fresh 
disputes, particularly with Mr. Jurieu and the abb6 Renau- 
dot. Mr. Jurieu published a piece, wherein be endea- 
voured to engage the ecclesiastical assemblies to condemn 
the Dictionary : he presented it to the senate sitting at 
Delft ; but they took no notice of the affair. The con* 
sitory of Rotterdam granted Mr. Bayle a hearing; and 
after having heard his answers to their remarks en his Die* 
tionary, declared themselves satisfied, and advised him to 
communicate this to the public. Mr. Jurieu made another 
attempt with the consistory in 169S; and so far he pre- 
vailed, that they exhorted Mr. Bayle to be more cautious 
about his principles in the second edition of his Dictionary ; 
which was published in 1702, with many additions and im- 

Mr. Bayle was a most laborious am} indefatigable writer. 
In one of his letters to Des Maizeaux, he says, that since 
his 20th year he hardly remembers to have had any leisure. 
W& intense application contributed perhaps to impair his 
constitution, for it soon began to decline. He had a decay 
of the lungs, which weakened him considerably ; and as 
this was a distemper which bad cut off several of his family, 
he judged it to be mortal, and would take no medicines. 
He died the 28th of December 1 706, after he had been 
writing the greatest part of the day. He wrote several 
books besides what we have mentioned, many of which 
were in his own defence against attacks from the abb6 Re- 
Baudot, M. le Clerc, M. Jaquelot, and others ; a particu- 
lar account of his work? may be seen in the sixth volume 
of Niceron. Among the productions which do honour to 

BAYLR 22\ 

the age of Lewis XIV. M. Voltaire has not omitted the 
Critical Dictionary of our author : It is the first work of thd 
kind, he says, in which a nan may learn to think. He 
censures indeed those articles which contain only a detail 
of minute facts, as unttorthy either of Bayle, an under- 
standing reader,, or posterity. In placing, him, continue* 
the same author, amongst the writers who do honour to the 
age of Lewis XIV. although a refugee in Holland, I only 
conform to the dearee of the parliament of Toulouse;, 
which, when it declared his will valid in Franco, notwith- 
standing the rigour of the laws, expressly said, " that such* 
a man. could not be considered as a foreigner.'* 

The opinion of Voltaire, however, which we hare pre- 
served (as we have done the article of Bayle nearly as- it 
stood in our last edition), must not be allowed much weight 
in a question where religion or moral? are concerned, 
Bayle has been, hailed as one- of those who introduced the 
spirit of free inquiry ; and while this merit majrbe allowed 
him, we may add that he has exhibited in his own person, 
the consequences of pushing free inquiry beyond all rea- 
sonable and necessary bounds. But it would have beem 
more just to have said that he was one of those who have' 
conducted an opposition to the truths of revealed religion 
by. the means of sarcasm and impertinence, instead of fair 
argument; and except the French Encyclopedic, there is 
not perhaps any book so likely to unsettle the minds of 
young readers as his, celebrated Dictionary. Nor is this 
the only objection that may be urged against it Bayle 
has been praised for his morality in private life ; but what 
are we to think of the morals of a. man, who not only takes 
every opportunity that may lay in his way to introduce ob<* 
scene discussions* quotations, and allusions, but even per- 
petually travels out of his way in search of them, who de« 
lights in accumulating the anecdotes and imagery of vice, 
and presenting! them to his readers in every shape i Con- 
sidered in a critical light, this* Dictionary may be allowed 
to. form a vast mass of information, but the plan is radically 
bad. It has. been said that be wrote it merely for the sake 
of the notes, which had accumulated in his common-place 
book ; hence the text bears a very small proportion to the 
notes suspended from it, and the reader's attention is per- 
petually diverted from the narrative to attend, not always 
to what may throw light on the object of the text, but to 
Mr* Bayle' s tattle and gossip collected from various quar~ 

222 B A Y L £ 

ters, and from his own prolific and prurient imaginatidrf/ 
It is much to be regretted th&t his reputation was such a^ 
to render this mode of writing Biography a fashion, and 
particularly that it was followed in our Biographia Britan- 
nica, in many parts of which Bayle's garrulity has been 5 
exactly followed. With respect to Bayle's other works, a 
reference for their titles to Niceron may be sufficient.' 
They are now in little repute, and his fame must pririci- 4 * 
pally stand or fall on the merits of his Dictionary. * 

BAYLIS (William), one of the physicians to the king 
of Prussia, and member of the colleges of physicians of 
London and Edinburgh, was author of u An essay on the' 
Bath Waters, 1757 ;** " A narrative of facts demonstrating 
the existence and cause of a Physical Confederacy, made 
known in the printed letters of Dr. Lucas and Dr. Oliver, 
1757," and " An historical account of the General Hos- 
pital or Infirmary in the city of Bath," 1758, all whichr* 
excited a contest between him and his medical brethren,' 
who seemed to have the public on their side, and he wasr 
excluded from consultations at Bath, where as well as in 
London he formerly practised physic. It is related of him 
that when he was .first introduced to the late king of Prus- 
sia, to whom much had been said of his medical skill, the 
king observed to him, " That to have acquired so much 
experience, he must necessarily have killed a great many 
people:" To which the doctor replied, " Pas tant que 
votre majesty," — " Not so many as your majesty." He 
died in 1787 at Berlin, and left his library and medals ta 
the king of Prussia, in the service of which court he had 
lived for many years. It was at the German Spa where his- 
talents were first noticed. Previously to his going abroad • 
he is said to have lived in a very splendid manner sit Eves- 
ham in Worcestershire, and was once a candidate for a 
seat in the British parliament, but without success. * 

BAYLY (Lewis), an English prelate, was born at Caer- 
marthen in Wales, and educated at the university of Oxford; 
but in what college, or what degrees he took is uncertain* 
We find only that he was admitted, as a member of Exe- 
ter college, to be reader of the sentences in 1611; about 
which time he was minister of Evesham in Worcestershire, 
chaplain to prince Henry, and rector of St. Matthew's, 

1 Life by Des Maizeaux prefixed to his Dictionary,— -Gen. Diet.— Saxii 0b»- 
• <ievt. Mag. 1787.— Lond. Chron. May, 17S7. 

BAYLY. *23 

Friday-street, in London. Two years after lie took his de- 
grees in divinity ; and being very much celebrated for his 
talent in preaching, was appointed one of the chaplains to 
king James I. who nominated him to the bishopric of Ban- 
gor in the room of Dr. H. Rowlands, in which see he was 
consecrated at Lambeth, Dec. 8, 1616. On the 15th of 
July 1621, he was committed to the Fleet, but was soon 
after discharged. It is not certain what was the reason of 
his commitment, unless, as Mr. Wood observes, it was on 
account of prince Charles's intended marriage with the In* 
fanta of Spain. He died in the beginning of 1632, and 
was interred in the church of Bangor. His fame rests 
chiefly on his work entitled " The practice of Piety," of 
which there have been a prodigious number of editions in 
12mo and 8vo, that of 1735 being the fifty-ninth. It was 
also translated into Welsh and French in 1633, and such 
was its reputation, that John D'Espagne, a French writer, 
and preacher at Somerset-house chapel in 1656, com- 
plained, that the generality of the common people paid' 
too great a regard to it, and considered the authority of it 
as almost equal to that of the Scriptures. This book was 
the substance of several sermons, which Dr. Bayly preach- 
ed while he was minister of Evesham. But Lewis du Mou- 
lin, who was remarkable for taking all opportunities of 
reflecting upon the bishops and church of England, in his 
" Patronus Bonae Fidei, &c." published in 8vo, 1672, as- 
serts, that " this book was written by a Puritan minister, 
and that a bishop, whose life was not very chaste and re- 
gular, after the author's death, bargained with his wiaow 
for the copy, which he received, but never paid her the 
money ; that he afterwards interpolated it in some places, 
and published it as his own." It is not very probable, how- 
ever, that a man " whose life was not very chaste and re- 
gular," should have been anxious to publish a work of this 
description; but Dr. Kennet, in his Register, has very 
clearly proved that bishop Bayly was the real author. l 

BAYLY (John), son of the above, born in Hereford- 
shire, in 1595, entered of Exeter college in 1611, and be- 
came fellow the year following. His tutor was Dr. Pri- 
deaux. After completing his master's degree, he went 
into orders, and had some church preferment from his fa- 
ther. He was afterwards one of his majesty's chaplains, 

* Bio$. Brit— Wood's Atfieiw, vol. 1,-rKcnntt's Register, p. 359. 

5*2* BAYLY. 

and guardian of Christ's hospital in Rutbyn. fie ptfbtf sh-* 
ed " The Angel Guardian/ 1 a collection of sermons, Lon> 
don, 1630, 4to, and some others which Wood has not eiVor-r 
merated, nor does he give any account of his death. ' 

BAYLY (Thomas),, the fourth and youngest son 6t 
bishop Bayly, vras educated at Cambridge* atnd having 
commenced B. A. was presented to the sobdeariery of 
Wells by Charles I. in 1633. In 1644, he retired withf 
other loyalists to Oxford, where, proceeding in his degrees 
he was created D. D. and two years after we find- him will* 
the. marquis of Worcester, in Ragfond castle r after the bat- 
tle of Naseby. When this was- surrendered to* the parlia- 
ment army, on which occasion he was employed to dfa\fr 
up the articles, he travelled into* France and othef coun- 
tries ; but retwned the year alter the king's death, and! 
published at London, in 8vo, a book, entitled " Certafrneti 
Religiosum, or a conference between king Charles I. and 
Henry late marquis of Worcester, concerning religion, ift 
Bagland castle, anno 1646." But this conference was be- 
lieved to have no real foundation, and considered as nothing 
else than a prelude to the declaring of himself a papist. 
The same year, 1649, he published "The Royal Charter 
granted unto kings by God himself, &c. to which is added,' 
a treatise, whereifi is proved, that episcopacy is Jure divu 
no" 8vo. These writings giving offence, occasioned him 
to be committed to Newgate ; whence escaping, he re- 
tired to Holland, and became a zealous Rorilan catholic. 
During his confinement in Newgate, he wrote a piece en- 
titled, " Herba Parietis, or the wall-flower, as it grows 
out of the stone-chamber belonging to the metropolitan 
prison ; being an history, which is partly true, partly ro- 
mantic, morally divine; whereby a marriage between' 
reality and fancy is solemnized by divinity," Lond. 1650,> 
in a thin folio* Some time after,, he left Holland, add set- 
tled at Douay; where he published another book, entitled 
" The end to controversy between the Roman catholic and 
Protestant religions, justified by all the several manner of 
ways, whereby all kinds of controversies, of what nature 
soever, are usually or can possibly be determined," Douay,' 
1€54, 4to, and afterwards " Dr. Bayly's Challenge." At 
last this singular person went to Italy, where he lived and 
di*d extremely poor (although Dodd says* that he died ia ! 

* Wood's Ath* vol. I, 

BAYLY. 225 


cardinal Ottoboni's family) : for Dr. Trevor, fellow of Mer- 
ton college, who was in Italy in 1659, told Mr. Wood seve- 
ral times, that Dr. Bayly died obscurely in an hospital, 
and that he had seen the place where be was buried. 

The works above mentioned occasioned the following 
answers; " A vindication of the Protestant Religion against 
the marquis of Worcester's last papers. By Christ. Cart- 
wright, Lond. 1652, 4to. "An answer to the marquis of 
Worcester's papers relating to king Charles I." by L'Es- 
strange, Lond. 1651, 8va " Answer to Dr. Bayly's Chal- 
lenge," an imperfect work, by Rob. Sanderson. "Ani- 
madversions on Certamen Religiosum, &c. by Peter Hey- 
lin, who in 1649, 1650, and 1659, published a collection 
of papers entitled " Bibliotheca Regia." In this, says 
Wood, is inserted the conference between king Charles I. 
and the marquis of Worcester- at Raglan d, which is by 
many taken to be authentic, because published by Heylin. 

Dr. Bayly's name is likewise to a well-known " Life of 
bishop Fisher," which is said to have been the production 
of Richard Hall, D.D. of Christ church, Cambridge, and 
afterwards canon and official of the cathedral church of 
St. Omer's, where he died in 1604. The manuscript, after 
his death, came into the possession of the English monks of 
Dieulwart, in Lorrain ; from whence a copy fell into the 
hands of one Mr. West, who presented it to Francis a St. 
Clara, alias Francis Davenport, a Franciscan friar. Da- 
venport gave it to sir Wingfield Bodenham, who put it 
into the hands of Dr. Bayly. The doctor read it, took a 
copy of it, and sold it to a bookseller who published it with 
Dr. Bayly's name. — Such is the account Wood gives, and 
in which he is followed by Dodd, on which we have only 
to remark that this life is preceded by a dedication signed 
with the doctor's initials, and avowing himself to be the 
author. l 

BAYLY (Walter). SeeBALEY. 

BAYNARD (Anne), a learned English lady, the only 
daughter of Dr. Edward Bay nard, a gentleman of an ancient 
family, and an eminent physician in London, was born at 
Preston, in Lancashire, in 1 672. Her father, who discovered 
her early capacity, bestowed great care on her education, and 
was rewarded by the extraordinary proficiency she made in 

1 Bios. Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. I. II.— Dodd's Cb. Hist. 

Vol. IV. Q , 

226 B A Y N A R D. 

various branches of learning not usual with her sex. She 
was well acquainted with philosophy, mathematics, and 
physics. She was also familiar with the writings of the 
ancients in their original languages. At the age of twenty- 
three she had the knowledge of a profound philosopher, 
&id in metaphysical learning was a nervous and subtle 
disputant. She took great pains with the Greek language, 
that she might read in their native purity the works of St. 
Chrjrsostom. Her Latin compositions, which were va- 
rious, were written in a pure and elegant style. She pos- 
sessed an acute and comprehensive mind, an ardent thirst 
of knowledge, and a retentive memory. She was accus- 
tomed to declare, " that it was a siu to be content with a 
little knowledge." To the endowments of the mind she 
added the virtues of the heart ; she was modest, humble, 
and benevolent, exemplary in her whole conduct, and in 
every relative duty. She was pious and constant in her 
devotions, both public and private ; beneficent to the 
poor; simple in her manners; retired, and rigid in her 
notions and habits. It was her custom to lay aside a cer- 
tain portion of her income, which was not Targe, for cha- 
ritable uses ; to this she added an ardent desire and stre- 
nuous efforts for the mental and moral improvement of 
those within her circle and influence. About two years 
previous to her death, she seems to have been impressed 
with an idea of her early dissolution ; which first suggested 
itself to her mind while walking alone among the tombs, 
in a church-yard ; and which she indulged with much 
complacency. On her death-bed she earnestly entreated 
the minister who attended her, that he would exhort all 
the young people of his congregation to the study of wis- 
dom and knowledge, as the means of moral improvement 
and real happiness. " I could wish, 9 ' says she, " that all 
young persons might be exhorted to the practice of virtue, 
and to increase their knowledge by the study of pbilo* 
sophy ; and especially to read the. great book of nature, 
wherein they may see the wisdom and power of the Cre- 
ator, in the order of the universe, and in the production 
and preservation of all things*" — " That women are capable 
of such improvements, which will better their judgments 
fend understandings, is past all doubt, would they but set 
about it in earnest, and spend but half of that time in study 
and thinking, which they do in visits, vanity,, and folly. 

B A Y N A R D. 227 

It would introduce a composure of mind, and lay a solid 
basis for wisdom and knowledge, by which they would be 
better enabled to serve God, and to help their neighbours.** 
These particulars are taken from her funeral sefriion, 
preached at Barnes, where she died in her 25th year, June 
12, 1697, by the rev. John Prade, and reprinted in that 
useful collection of such documents, u ^Vilford's Memo- 
rials." She was interred at the East end of the church- 
yard of Barnes, with a monument and inscription, of which 
no traces are now to be found, but the inscription is pre- 
served in Aubrey. l 

BAYNES (John), was born in April 1753, at Middle- 
ham, in Yorkshire ; where bis father, who afterwards re- 
tired from business, then followed the profession of the 
law. Mr. Baynes received his education at Richmond, 
under the rev, Mr. A. Temple, author of three discourses, 
printed in 1772; of "Remarks on the Layman's Scriptural 
Confutation ; and letters to the rev. Thomas Randolph, 
D. D. containing a defence of Remarks on the Layman's 
Scriptural Confutation," 1779, 8vo. At school he soon 
distinguished himself by his superior talents and learning, 
and by the age of fourteen years was capable of reading 
and understanding the Greek classics. From Richmond 
he was seut to Trinity college, Cambridge ; where, before 
he had arrived at the age of twenty years, he obtained the 
medals given for the best performances in classical and 
mathematical learning. In 1777 he took the degree of 
B. A. ; and determining to apply himself to the study of the 
law, he about 1778, or 1779, became a pupil to Allen 
Chambre, esq. and entered himself of the society of 
Gray's-inn. In 1780 he took the degree of M. A. and 
about the same time was chosen fellow of the college. 
From this period he chiefly resided in London, and, 
warmed with the principles of liberty, joined those who 
were clamorous in calling for reformation in the state. 
He was a member of the constitutional society, and took, 
a very active part at the meeting at York, in December, 
1779. In his political creed he entertained the same sen- 
timents with his friend Dr. Jebb ; and, like him, without 
hesitation renounced those of his party whom he consU 
dered to have disgraced themselves by the unnatural coa- 

.* BaH*rd'« Memoin^Wilford's Memorial*, p, 38l<-«*Lysohs'i Eurirotis, 
to!. 1. 

Q 2 


lition between lord Nortt and Mr. Fox. We are told r 
liowever, that if the warmth of his political pursuits was 
not at fill tiroes under the guidance of discretion, he 
never acted but from the strictest principles of integrity. 
He had a very happy talent for poetry, which by many 
will be thought to have been misapplied, when devoted as 
it was, to the purposes of party. He wrote many ocCa* 
sional pieces in the newspapers, particularly in the Lon- 
don Courant, but was very careful to conceal himself as 
the writer of verses, which he thought would have an ill 
effect on him in his profession, a species of caution not 
much calculated to prove that independence of spirit for 
which men of his stamp contend. There is great reason 
to believe that he wrote the celebrated Archaeological 
epistle to Dr. Milles, dean of Exeter. , It is certain this 
excellent performance was transmitted to the press through 
his hands ; and it is more than probable, that the same 
reason which occasioned him to decline the credit of his 
other poetical performances, influenced him to relinquish 
the honour of this. It is a fact, however, which should 
not be suppressed, that he always disclaimed being the 
author of this poem ; and when once pressed on the sub- 
ject by a friend, he desired him to remember when it should 
be no longer a secret, that he then disowned it. Mr. 
Baynes had many friends, to whom he was sincerely at- 
tached, and by whom he was greatly beloved. Scarce any 
man, indeed, bad so few enemies. Even politics, that 
fatal disuniter of friendships, lost its usual effect with him. 
As he felt no rancour towards those from whom he dif- 
fered, so he experienced no malignity in return. What 
he conceived to be right, neither power nor interest could 
deter him from asserting. In the autumniiefore his death, 
when he apprehended the election for fellows of Trinity 
college to be irregularly conducted, he boldly, though 
respectfully, with others of the society^ represented the 
abuse to the heads of the college ; and when, instead of 
the expected reform, an admonition was given tb the re- 
monstrants, to behave with more respect to their supe- 
riors, conscious of the rectitude of their intentions, he 
made no scruple of referring the conduct of himself and 
his friends to a higher tribunal, but the matter was not 
decided kefore his death. It was his intention to publish 
a more correct edition of lord Coke's tracts; and we are 

B A Y N E S. 229 


informed he left the work nearly completed. His death 
is supposed to have been occasioned by an intense appli- 
cation to business, which brought on a putrid fever, of 
which he died, universally lamented, August 3, 1787, 
after eight days illness. In the ensuing week he was bu- 
ried near the remains of his friend Dr. Jebb, privately, in .. 
Bunhill -fields burying-ground. 1 

BAYNES (Paul), an English divine of considerable 
eminence at Cambridge, was a native of London. He 
received his school-education at Withersfield, in Essex, 
and was afterwards admitted of Christ college, Cambridge, 
where his behaviour was so loose and irregular that his 
father left what he meant to bestow on him, in the hands 
of Mr. Wilson, a tradesman of London, with an injunction 
not to let him have it, unless he forsook his evil courses. 
This happy change took place not long after his father's 
death, and Mr. Wilson delivered up his trust. In the in- 
terim, although his moral conduct was censurable, such 
was his proficiency in learning, that he was elected a fellow 
of his college ; and after his reformation, having been ad- 
mitted into holy orders, he was so highly esteemed for 
his piety, eloquence, and success, as a preacher, that he 
was chosen to succeed the celebrated Perkins, as lecturer 
of St. Andrew's church. In this office he continued until 
silenced for certain opinions, not favourable to the disci- 
pline of the church, byAbp. Bancroft's visitor, Mr. (afterwards 
archbishop) Harsnet ; and Mr. Baynes appealed, but in. 
vain, to the archbishop. On another occasion he was 
summoned by Dr. Harsnet, them bishop of Chichester, to 
the privy-council, but acquitted himself so much to the 
satisfaction of all present, that he met with no farther 
trouble. During his suspension from the regular exercise 
of his ministry, he employed himself on his writings, none 
of which, if we may judge from the dates of those we have 
seen, were published in his life-time. He died at Cam- 
bridge, in 1617. His works are: 1. " A commentary on 
the first chapter of the epistle to the Ephesians, handling 
the controversy of Predestination," London, 1618, 4to. 
2. " The Diocesan's Trial, wherein all the sinews of Dr. 
Downham's defence are brought into three heads, and dis- 
solved," 1621. 3. " Help to true happiness, explaining 

1 Gent, Mag, vol. LVII. 

230 te a y n e s, 

the fundamentals of Christian religion," London, 12ma 
3d edit. 1635. 4. " Letters of consolation, exhortation, 
direction, with a sermon of the trial of a Christian's estate, 
1637, 12mo. 5. " A Commentary on the epistle to the 
Epbesians," Lond. fol. 1643. l 

BAYNES (Ralph), an English prelate, was a native of 
Yorkshire, and educated in St. John's college, Cambridge, 
where he attained considerable reputation, as an expounder 
of the Scriptures, and as a Greek and Hebrew scholar. 
Having taken his degree of D. D. he went over to Paris, 
and was for some time royal professor of Hebrew. He 
remained abroad during the latter part of the reign of 
Henry VIII. and the whole of Edward VI. but upon the 
accession of queen Mary, with whose principles he coin- 
cided, he was consecrated bishop of Lichfield and Co- 
ventry. When queen Elizabeth succeeded, he was de- 
?>rived, and for some time imprisoned, but lived afterwards 
n the bishop of London's house. He died in 1559, of 
the stone. Fuller says, in allusion to the persecutions he 
occasioned in his diocese, that although he was as bad as 
Christopberson, he was better than Bonner. He wrote 
" Prima Rudimenta in linguam Hebraicam," Paris, 155Q, 
4to, and " Comment, in proverbia Salomonis, lib. JII." 
ibid, and same year, fol. 2 

BAYNES (Sir Thomas), an eminent physician, and 
professor of music at Gresham-college, in London, was 
born about the year 1622, and educated at Christ's col- 
lege, in Cambridge, under the tuition of the learned Dr. 
Henry More, where he took the degree of B. A. about the 
year 1642. In 1649, he took the degree of M. A. and 
commenced the study of physic. He went into Italy in 
/ company with Mr. Finch (afterwards sir John), with whonj 
he had contracted the strictest friendship ; and at Padua 
they were both created doctors of physic. Upon the re-» 
storation of king Charles II. in 1660, Mr. Baynes and Mr. 
Finch returned into England, and the same year were 
created doctors of physic at Cambridge. On the 26th of 
February following, Mr. Baynes, together with sir John 
Finch, was admitted a fellow extraordinary, i. e. one be? 

1 Clarke's Lives, at the end of his Martyrologjr, p. 22. — Cole's MS Athena) 
in Beit. Mas. 

• Tanner, Sale, and Pits.— Godwin.— Strype's Annals.— Cranmer, p. 320, 

B A Y N E S. »i 

yond the then limited number, of the college of physicians 
of London. Dr. Petty having resigned bis professorship 
of music in Gresham-college, Dr. Baynes was chosen to 
succeed him, the 8th of March, 1660; and the 26th of 
June following, he and his friend sir John Finch were ad* 
mitted, graduates in physic at Cambridge, in pursuance of 
the grace passed in their favour the year before. In March 
1663, they were elected F. R, S. upon the first choice 
made by the council, after the grant of their charter, of 
which they had been members before ; and May 15, 1661, 
had, with several others, been nominated a committee for 
a library at Gresham college, and for examining of the 
generation of insects. In March 1664, Dr. Baynes ac- 
companied sir John Finch to Florence, where that gentle- ' 
man was appointed his majesty's resident;, and returned 
back with him into England in 1670. Towards the end of 
the year 1672, sir John being appointed the king's am* 
bassador to the grand 1 signor, Dr. Baynes was ordered to 
attend him as his physician, and before he left England, 
received from his majesty the honour of knighthood* Nine 
years after, sir Thomas still . continuing in Turkey, the 
Gresham committee found it necessary to supply his pro- 
fessorship, by chusing Mr. AVilliam Perry in his roouv, bttt 
of this he never heard, as he died at Constantinople about 
a month after, Sept. 5, 1681, to the inexpressible grief 
of fcis affectionate friend, sir John Finch, who died- Not. 
18, 1682, and according to his own desire, • was interred 
at Cambridge, in the chapel of Christ's college, wjiither 
the remains of sir Thomas had been brought. • J)r,- Henry 
More inscribed a long qpitaph vto their memories, com* 
memoratincr their many virtues and steady friendship. 
The} 7 jointly left four thousand pounds to that college, by 
which two fellowships and two scholarships were founded, 
and an addition made to the master's income. Sir John 
was supposed to have paid most of the money, though he 
was willing that sir Thomas should share with him in the 
honour of this donation, as in all his other laudable actions. 
This instance of a long and inviolably mutual attachment, 
may be added to the histories of human friendship, which 
are so rare, and so gratifying when they do occur. Is it 
not probable that these two gentlemen imbibed something 
of the noble enthusiasm they were inspired with from their 
tutor, Dr. Henry More ; who was a man of the warmest 

233 BAYNES. 


and most generous affections, and a great adept in the 
Platonic philosophy ? ' 

BAYRO (Peter de), an Italian physician, of great re- 
putation in his day, charitably attentive to the wants of 
the poor, and so successful in his practice, as to be often, 
consulted by princes and men of rank, who munificently 
rewarded his services, was born at Turin, about the year 
1478, and became first physician to Charles II. (or ac- 
cording to Diet. Hist. Charles HI.) duke of Savoy. He 
died April 1, 1558. His works are: 1. " De pestilentia 
ejusque curatione per preservationum et curationum regi- 
men," Turin, 1507, 4to, Paris, 1513, 8vo. 2. " Lexi- 
pyretae perpetuae questionis et annexorum solutio, de no- 
bilitate facultatum per terminos utriusque facultatis,*' 
Turin, 1512, fol. 3. €€ De medendis humani corporis 
malis Enchyridion, quod vulgo Vade-mecum vocant," 
Basil," 1563, and often reprinted. a 

* BAZIN (N.) a physician at Strasburgh, who died in 
May 1754, was not more esteemed for his successful prac- 
tice, than for his knowledge of botany and natural history. 
In his pursuit 6f these studies, he published : I. i € Obser- 
vations sur les Plantes," Strasburgh, 1741, 8vo. 2. "Trait6 
de l'accroissement des Plantes," 1745, 8vo. 3. " Histoire 
des Abeilles," Paris, 1744, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. i: Lettre sur 
le Polypes," 1745, 12mo. 5. " Abrege* de Phistoi*e des 
Insectes," Paris, 1747, 2 vols. 12 mo, an excellent abridg- 
ment of Reaumur. * 

'• BE (William le), engraver, and letter-founder, was 
born at Troyes, in 1525, son of Guilleaume le Be, a noble 
-bourgeois, and Magdalen* de St. Aubin. Being brought 
up in the house of Robert Stephens, whom his father sup- 
plied with paper, he got an insight into the composition 
of the types of that famous printing-house. He after- 

• wards, by order of Francis I. made those beautiful oriental 
types which Robert Stephens used; and Philip II. era- 
ployed him to prepare those with which his Bible of Ant- 
werp was printed. In 1545 le B6 took a journey to 

♦Venice, and there cut for Mark Anthony Justiniani, who 
ihad raised a Hebrew printing-house, the punches neces- 
sary to the casting of the founts to be employed in that 

I Ward's Gresham Professors. — Biog. Brit 

• Moreri, Man^et, and Hajler, 9 Diet. HifV 

B E. 233 

establishment. Being rfeturned to Paris, he there prac- 
tised his art till 1598, the year of his decease. Casaubon 
speaks of him highly to his credit in his preface to the 
Opuscula of Scaliger. Henry le B£, his son, was a printer 
at Paris, where he gave in 1581, a quarto edition of the 
4t Institutiones Clenardi Gr. n This book, which was of 
great utility to the authors of the " Methode Grecque" of 
Port-royal, is a master-piece in printing. His sons and 
his grandsons signalised themselves in the same art. The 
last of them died in 1685. * 

BEACH (Thomas), an English writer, was 'a wine 
merchant at Wrexham, in Denbighshire, a man of learn- 
ing, great humanity, of an easy fortune, and much re- 
spected. He published in 1737, " Eugenio, or virtuous 
and happy life," 4to, a poem inscribed to Pope, and by 
no means destitute of poetical merit. He submitted it in 
manuscript to Swift, who wrote him a long and very candid 
letter, now printed in his works, and Mr. Beach adopted Swift's 
corrections. He is said to have entertained very blameable 
notions in religion, but his friends endeavoured to vindi- 
cate him from this charge, when his death took place, May 
17, 1737, precipitated by his own hand. * 

BEACON or BECGN (Thomas), one of the English 
reformers, was a native of Norfolk, or Suffolk, and edu- 
cated «at Cambridge, where he took his bachelor's degree 
in 1530. He was presented on May 24, 1547, to the 
rectory of St Stephen Walbrook, of which he was de- 
prived in 1554, and imprisoned twice in queen Mary's 
time, but escaped to Marpurg. From Strasburgb, irrthe 
same year, we find him addressing au " Epistle to the 
Faithful in England," exhorting them to patient perse-* 
verance in the truth. After queen Mary's death, he re- 
turned to England, and in 1560 was preferred to the rec- 
tory of Buckland, in Hertfordshire, and in 1563 to that of 
St Dionis Backchurch, in London. He was also a pre- 
bend of the fourth stall in Canterbury cathedral, and had 
been, in Cranmer's time, chaplain to that celebrated pre- 
late. Tanner's account of bis promotions is somewhat dif- 
ferent. We learn from Strype, in his life of Grindall, 
that he objected at first, but afterwards conformed to the 

' Diet. Hist — Moreri. 

• Swift'i Works.— Gent. Ma;, vol. VII. p. 316, 377. 


clerical dress, some articles of which at that time were 
much scrupled by the reformers who had lived abroad. 
He died at Canterbury, about 1570, in his sixtieth year. 
Jn the Heerologia, a work not much to be depended on, 
it is said that he was professor of divinity at Oxford, an 
assertion contrary to all other authority. He wrote: 

I. *' Ccenae Dominic® et Missae Papisticse comparatio," 
Basil, 1559, Svo. 2. " Various treatises/' fol, printed 
by Day, 1560. 3. " The Acts of Christe and Anti- ' 
christe," Loud. 1577, 12mo. 4. "The reliques of Rome," 
t>y Day, 1563, 16mo. On the opposite side to the title 
is the head of the author, with the inscription, " JEtatis 
suae 41, 1553," which makes the time of his birth 1512; 
and at the time of his persecution in 1541, he must have 
Ibeen about twenty-nine years of age. 5. " Postills upon 
the sundry Gospels," Lond. 4to, 1566. 6. " His works," 
Lond. 1564, 2 vols. 7. " The Sick-inaii's salve, or direc- 
tions in sickness, and how to dye," Edin. 1613, 8vo. It 
fcas been said that he was die first Englishman that wrote 
against bowing at the name of Jesus, but no such work is 
enumerated in the list of his writings. * 

BE ALE (Mary), a portrait-painter in the reign of Charles . 

II. was daughter of Mr. Cradock, minister of Walton upon 
Thames, but was born in Suffolk in 1632. She was as- 
siduous in copying the works of sir Peter Lely and Van- 
dyke. She painted in oil, water-colours, and crayons; 
and bad much business. The author of the essay towards 
an English school of Painters, annexed to De Piles' s art 
of Painting, says, that " she was little inferior to any of 
her contemporaries, either for colouring, strength, forpe, 
or life ; insomuch that sir Peter was greatly taken with her 
performances, as he would often acknowledge. She worked 
with a wonderful body of colours, and was exceedingly in- 
dustrious." She was greatly respected and encouraged 
by many of the most eminent among the clergy of that 
time; she took the portraits of Tillotson, StUHngfieet, 
Patrick, Wilkins, &c. some of which are still remaining 
at the earl of Ilchester's, at Melbury, in Dorsetshire. In 
the manuscripts of Mr. Oldys, she is celebrated for her 
poetry as well as for her painting; and is styled "that 

1 Tanner.— EUii's Hist, of Shorediteh.— Churton's Life of Nowell. — Strype's 
Life of Cranmer, p. 161, 171, 276, 290, 313, 329, 357, 423.— Strype V Parker* 
Bo, 130, 22b.— Lupton's Modern Divines, &c. 

BEALE, - 235 

masculine poet, as well as painter, the incomparable Mrs. 
Beale." In Dr. S. Woodford's translation of the Psalms, 
are two or three versions of particular psalms, by Mrs. 
Beale : whom, in his preface, he calls " an absolutely 
complete gentlewoman ?" He says farther, " I have hardly 
obtained leave to honour this volume of mine with two otr 
three versions, long since done by the truly virtuous Mrs. 
Mary Beale ; among whose least accomplishments it is, 
that she has made painting and poetry, which in the fancies 
of others had only before a kind of likeness, in her own ta 
be really the same. The reader, I hope, will pardon this 
public acknowledgement, which I make to so deserving < 
person." She died Dec. 28, 1697, in her 66th year. 
She had two sons, who both exercised the art of painting 
some little time ; one of them afterwards studied physic under 
Dr. Sydenham, and practised at Coventry, where he and 
his father died. There is an engraving, by Chambers, 
from a painting by herself, of Mrs. Beale, in Walpole'» 
Anecdotes of Painting in England. l 

BEALE (Robert), or BELUS, who was the eldest son 
of Robert Beale, a descendant from the family of Beale, 
of Woodbridge, in Suffolk, appears to have been educated 
to the profession of the civil and canon law. He was an 
exile on account of religion, in queen Mary's days, but 
some time after his return, married Editha, daughter of 
Henry St. Barbe, of Somersetshire, and sister to the lady 
of sir Francis Walsingham, under whose patronage he first 
appeared at court. In 1571 he was secretary to sir Francis 
when sent ambassador to France, and himself was sent in 
the same character, in 1576, to the prince of Orange. 
Heylin and Fuller inform us that he was a great favourer 
of the Puritans, and wrote in defence of their principles. 
About the year 1564 he wrote in defence of the validity of 
the marriage between the earl of Hertford and lady Ca- 
therine Grey, and against the sentence of the delegates, 
which sentence was also opposed by the civilians of Spire, 
and of Paris, whom Beale had consulted. Strype, in his 
life of Parker, mentions his, " Discourse concerning the 
Parisian massacre by way of letter to the lord Burghley." 
His most considerable work, however, is a collection of 
some of the Spanish historians, under the title " Rerum 
^ispanicarum Scriptores," Francf. 1579, 2 vols. foL He was 

} ,Biof , Brit— Walpole'* Anecdotes.-— Pilkington. 

236 B E A L E. 

by the interest of Walsingbam appointed secretary for the 
northern parts* and a clerik of the privy council. Camden 
seems to think that his attachment to Puritanism made hini 
be chosen to convey to Fotheringay the warrant for be- 
heading Mary queen of Scots, which he read on the scaf- 
fold, and was a witness of its execution. He was also one 
of the commissioners at the treaty of Bologne, the year 
before his death, which event happened May 25, 1601, at 
parties, in Surrey. He was interred in the parish church 
of Allhallows, London Wall. 1 

BEARCROFT (Philip), D. D. master of the Charter- 
house, was born May 1, 1697, and elected scholar of the 
Charter-house, on the nomination of lord Somers, July 
19, 1710; whence, in Nov. 1712, he was elected to the 
University, and was' matriculated of St. Mary Magdalen 
ball, Oxford, Dec. 17, following. In 1716 he took his 
bachelor's degree, and in June 1717, was elected proba- 
tionary, and two years after, actual fellow of Merton col- 
lege. After taking deacon's orders in 1718, and priest's 
in 1719, and proceeding M. A. he was appointed preacher 
to the Charter-house in 1724. In 1730 he accumulated 
the degrees of B. and D. D. and in 1738 was made one of 
, the king's chaplains, and in March 1739, secretary to the 
society for propagating the gospel in foreign parts. In 
1743 he was* instituted to the rectory of Stormouth in Kent, 
which he held by dispensation, and was elected master of 
the Charterhouse Dec. 18, 1753. He died Nov. 17,1761. 
Although a man of worth and learning, he bad no talents 
for writing. The only attempt he made was in his " His- 
torical Account of Thomas Sutton, esq. and of his Founda- 
tion in the Charter-house," Lond. 1737, 8vo. He intended 
also to have published a collection of the Rules and Orders, 
but being prevented by the governors, some extracts only 
were printed in a quarto pamphlet, and dispersed among 
the officers of the house. * 

. BEARD (John), an English actor and singer, born in 
1717, was bred up in the king's chapel, and was one of 
the singers in the duke of Chandos's chapel at Cannons, 
where he performed in Esther, an oratorio composed by 
Mr. Handel. He appeared the first time on the stage at 

i Tanner.— Lodge's Illustrations.— Lysona's Environ*, vol. L— Antonio Bibl* % 
• Nichols's Bowyer, vol. I. 

BEARD. 237 

Drury-lane, Aug. 30, 1737, in sir John Loverulp, in the 
" Devil to Pay." He afterwards, on the 8th of Jan. 1739, 
married lady Henrietta Herbert, daughter of James earl 
Waldegrave, and widow of lord Edward Herbert, second 
son of the marquis of Powis. She died 31st of May 1753* 
On his marriage he quitted the stage for a few years. He 
afterwards returned to Drury-lane, and in 1744 to Covent- 
garden, where he remained until 1758. In that year be 
engaged with Mr. Garrick, and continued with him until 
1759, when having married a daughter of Mr. Rich, he 
was engaged at Co vent- garden, where, on the death of 
that gentleman, he became manager. His first appear- 
ance there was on the 10th of Oct 1759, in the character 
of Macheath, which, aided by Miss Brent in Polly, ran fif- 
ty-two nights. In 1768 he retired from the theatre, and 
died universally respected at the age of seventy-four, in 
1791. His remains were deposited in the vault of the 
church at Hampton in Middlesex. He was long the de- 
served favourite of the public ; and whoever remembers 
the variety of his abilities, as actor and singer, in oratorios 
and operas, both serious and comic, will testify to his 
having stood unrivalled in fame and excellence. This 
praise, however, great as it wag, fell short of what his pri- 
vate merits acquired. He had ode of the sincerest hearts 
joined to the most polished manners. He was a most de- 
lightful companion, whether as host or guest. His time, 
his pen, and purse, were devoted to the alleviation of 
every distress that fell within the compass of his power, and 
through life he fulfilled the relative duties of son, brother, 
guardian, friend, and husband, with the most exemplary 
truth and tenderness. 1 

BEATON, or BETON (David), archbishop of St. An- 
drew's in Scotland, and cardinal of the Roman church, 
was born 1494, and educated in the university of St. An* 
drew's. He was afterwards sent over to the 'university of 
Paris, where he studied divinity ; and when he attained a 
proper age, entered into orders. In 15 19 he was appointed 
resident at the court of France ; about the same time his 
uncle James Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, conferred 
upon him the rectory of Campsay; and in 1523 this 
uncle, being then archbishop of St. Andrew's, gave him 
the abbacy of Aberbrothock, or Arbroath. David re- 

» From the last edition of this Diet— Gent, Mag. 1791. 

£38 BEATON. 

turned to Scotland in 1525, and in 1528 was made lord 
privy seal. In 1533 be was sent again to France, in con- 
junction with sir Thomas Erskine, to confirm the leagues 
subsisting between the two kingdoms, and to bring about a 
marriage for king James V. with Magdalene, daughter of 
the king of France ; but the princess being in a very bad 
state of health, the marriage could not then take effect. 
During his residence, however, at the French court, he 
received many favours from his Christian majesty. King 
James having gone over to France, had the princess Mag- 
dalene given him in person, whom he espoused on the first 
of January 1537. Beaton returned to Scotland with their 
majesties, where they arrived the 29th of May ; but the 
death of the queen happening the July following, he was 
sent over again to Paris, to negotiate a second marriage 
for the king with the lady Mary, daughter to the duke of 
Guise ; and during his stay at the court of France, he was 
consecrated bishop of Mirepoix. All things being settled 
in regard to the marriage, in the month of June, he em- 
barked with the new queen for Scotland, where they ar- 
rived in July : the nuptials were celebrated at St. Andrew's, 
and the February following the coronation was performed 
with great splendour and magnificence in the abbey church 
of Holyrood -house. 

Beaton, though at this time only coadjutor of -St. An- 
drew's, yet had all the power and authority of the arch- 
bishop ; and in order to strengthen the catholic interest in 
Scotland, pope Paul III. raised him to a cardinalship, by 
the title of St. Stephen in Monte Coelo, Dec. 20, 1S38. 
King Henry VIII. having intelligence of the ends proposed 
by the pope in creating him a cardinal, sent a very able 
minister to king James, with particular instructions for a 
deep scheme to procure the cardinal's disgrace ; but it did 
not take effect. A few months after, the old archbishop 
dying, the cardinal succeeded : and it was upon this pro- 
motion that he began to shew his warm and persecuting 
zeal for the church of Rome. Soon after his instalment, 
he got together, in the cathedral of St Andrew's, a great con- 
fluence of persons of the first rank, both clergy and laity ; to 
whom, from a throne erected for the purpose, he made a 
speech, representing to them the danger wherewith the 
church was threatened by the increase of heretics, who had 
the boldness to profess their opinions even in the king'r 
£0urt ; where, said he, they find but too great couuteuancei 

BEATON, 239 

and he mentioned by name sir John Borthwick, whom he 
had caused to be cited to that diet, for dispersing heretical 
hooks, and holding several opinions contrary to the doctrine 
of the Roman ctiurch. Then the articles of accusation 
were read against him, and sir John appearing neither in 
person nor by proxy, was declared a heretic, his goods 
confiscated, and himself burnt in effijy. Sir John retired 
to England, where he was kindly received by king Henry, 
who sent him into Germany, in his name, to conclude a 
treaty with the protestant princes of the empire. Sir John 
Borthwick was not the only person proceeded against for 
heresy; several others were also prosecuted, and among 
the rest, George Buchanan, the celebrated poet and histo- 
rian : and as the king left all to the management of the 
cardinal, it is difficult to say to what lengths such a furious 
zealot might have gone, had not the king's death put a 
stop to his arbitrary proceedings. 

When the king died, there being none so near him as 
the cardinal, it was suggested by his enemies that he forged 
his will ; and it was set aside, notwithstanding be had it 
proclaimed at the cross of Edinburgh, in order to establish 
the regency in the earls of Argyle, Huntley, Arran, and 
himself. He was expressly excluded from the government, 
and the earl of Arran was declared sole regent during the 
minority of queen Mary. This was chiefly effected by the 
noblemen in the English interest, who, after having sent 
jthe cardinal prisoner to Blackness/castle, managed the 
public affairs as they pleased. Things did not remain long, 
however, in this situation ; for the ambitious enterprising 
cardinal, though confined, raised so strong a party, that 
the regent, not knowing how to proceed, began to dislike 
his former system, and having at length resolved to aban- 
don it, released the cardinal, and became reconciled to 
Jiiai, Upon the young queen's coronation, the cardinal 
was again admitted of the council, and had the high office 
of chancellor conferred upon him ; and such was now his 
influence with the regent, that be got him to Solicit the 
court of Rome to appoint him legate a latere from the 
pope, which was accordingly done. 

His authority being now firmly established, he began 
again to promote the popish cause with his utmost e forts. 
Towards the end of 1545 he visited s?me parts of his dio- 
cese, attended with the lord governor, and others of the 
nobility, and ordered several persons to be executed for 

240 BEATON, 

heresy. In 1546 he summoned a provincial assembly of 
the clergy at the Black friars in Edinburgh, in order to 
concert measures for restraining heresy. How far they 
proceeded is uncertain ; but it is generally allowed that the 
cardinal was diverted from the purposes he had then in 
hand, by information he received of Mr. George Wishart, 
the most famous protestant preacher in Scotland, being at 
the house of Mr. Cockburn at Ormiston. The cardinal, by 
ian order from the governor, which was indeed with diffi- 
culty obtained, caused him to be apprehended. He was 
for some time confined in the castle Of Edinburgh, and re- 
moved from thence to the castle of St. Andrew's. The car- 
dinal, having resolved to proceed without delay to his trial, 
summoned the prelates to St. Andrew's. At this meeting the 
archbishop of Glasgow gave as his opinion, that application 
should be made to the governor, to grant a commission to 
some nobleman to try so famous a prisoner, that the whole 
blame might not lie upon the clergy. He was accordingly ap- 
plied to; and notwithstanding his refusal, and his message to 
the cardinal, not to precipitate, his trial, and notwithstand- 
ing Mr. Wishart's appeal, as being the governor's prisoner, 
to a temporal jurisdiction ; yet the furious prelate went on 
with the trial, and this innocent gentleman was condemned 
to be burnt at St. Andrew's. He died with amazing firm- 
ness and resolution : and it is averred by some writers, that 
he prophesied in the midst of the flames, not only the ap- . 
proaching death of the cardinal, but the circumstances also, 
that should attend it. Buchanan's account is as follows : 
After relating the manner in which Mr. Wishart spent the 
morning of his execution, be proceeds thus : " A while af- 
ter two (executioners were sent to him by the cardinal ; one 
of them put a black linen shirt upon him, and the other 
bound many little bags of gun-powder to all the parts of 
his body. In this dress they brought him forth, and com- 
manded him to stay in the governor's outer chamber, and 
at the same time they erected a wooden scaffold in the 
court before the castle, and made up a pile of wood. Thp 
windows and balconies over against it were all hung with 
tapestry and silk hangings, with cushions for the cardinal 
and his train, to behold and take pleasure in the joyful 
sight, even the torture of an innocent man ; thus courting 
the favour of the people as the author of so notable a deed. 
There was also a great guard of soldiers, not so much to 
{secure the execution, as for a vain ostentation of power ; 

BEATON. 341 

fend beside, brass guns were placed up and down in all 
convenient places of the castle. Thus, while the trutppets 
sounded, George was brought forth, mounted the scaffold, 
and was fastened with a cord to the stake, and haying, 
scarce leave to pray for the church of God, the execu- 
tioners fired the wood, which immediately taking hold of 
the powder that was tied about him, blew it up into flame 
and smoke. The governor of the castle, who stood so 
near that be was singed with the flame, exhorted him in a 
few words to be of good cheer, and to ask pardon of God 
for his offences* To whom he replied, ( This flame occa- 
sions trouble to my body indeed, but it hath in no wise 
broken my spirit; but he, wh$ now looks down so proudly 
upon me from yonder lofty place (pointing to the cardinal), 
shall ere long be as ignominiously thrown down, as now he 
proudly lolls at his ease.' Having thus spoken, they 
straitened the rope which was tied about his neck, and 
so strangled him ; his body in a few hours being consumed 
to ashes in the flame. 9 ' 

This prophecy, however, is called in question by others* 
who treat it as a story invented after the cardinal's death. 
Archbishop Spotswood and Mr. Petrie follow fiuchanaa 
in regard to the circumstances of Mr. Wishart's deatt and 
his prophecy. On the other side, Mr. Keith suggests that 
the story is very doubtful, if not false. " I confess," says 
he, " I give but small credit to this, and to some other 
persons that suffered for religion in our country, and 
which upon that account I hive all along omitted to nar- 
rate. I own I think them ridiculous enough, and seem- 
ingly contrived, at least magnified, on purpose to render 
the judges and clergymen of that time odious and despi- 
cable in the eyes of men. And as to this passage concern* 
ins Mr. Wishart,, it may be noticed, that 'there is not one 
word of it to be met with in the first edition of Mr. Knox's 
History ; and if the thing had been true in fact, I cannot 
^ee how Mr. Knox, who was so good an acquaintance of Mr* 
Wishart's, and no farther distant from the place of his ex- 
ecution than East Lothian, and w}jo continued some months 
?long with the murderers of cardinal Beaton in the castle 
of St* Andrew's, could either be ignorant of the story, or 
neglect in history so remarkable a prediction. And it has 
even its own weight, that sir David Lindsay, who lived at 
that time, and wrote a poem called ' The tragedy of car- 
dinal Beaton,' in which he rakes together all the worst 
VoXm IV. R 

242 BEATON. 

things that could be suggested against this pfelate, yet 
makes no mention either of his glutting himself inhumanly 
with the spectacle of Mr. Wishart' s death, nor of any pro- 
phetical interiftination made by Mr. Wishart concerning' 
the cardinal ; nor does Mr. Fox take notice of either of 
these circumstances, so that I am much of the mind, that 
it has been a story trumped up a good time after the mur-* 

This proceeding, however, made a great noise through- 
out the kingdom ; the zealous papists applauded his con- 
duct, and the pfotestants exclaimed against him as a mur- 
derer ; but the cardinal was pleased with himself, imagin- 
ing he had given a fatal btow to heresy, and that be had 
struck a terror into his enemies. 

Soon after the death of Mr. Wishart, the cardinal went 
to Finhaven, the seat of the earl of Crawford, to solemnize 
a marriage between the eldest son of that nobleman and his 1 
daughter Margaret. Whilst he was thus employed, intel- 
ligence came that the king of England was making great 
preparations to invade the Scottish coasts. Upon this 
he immediately returned to St. Andrew's, and appointed & 
day for the nobility and gentry of that country, which lies 
much exposed to the sea, to meet and consult what was 
proper to be done upon this occasion. He likewise began 
to fortify his own castle much stronger than ever it had been 
before. Whilst he was busy about these matters, there 
came to him Norman Lesley, eldest son to the earl of 
Rothes, to solicit him for some favour ; who, having met 
with a refusal, was highly exasperated, and went away in 
great displeasure. His uncle ' Mr. John Lesley, a violent 
enemy to the cardinal, greatly aggravated this injury to his 
nephew ; who, being passionate and of a daring spirit, en- 
tered into a conspiracy with his. uncle and some other per- 
sons to cut off the cardinal. The accomplices met early 
in the morning, on Saturday the 29th of May. The first 
thing they did was to seize the porter of the castle, and to 
secure the gate : they then turned out all the servants and 
several workmen. This was performed with so little noise, 
that the cardinal was not waked till they knocked at hit 
chamber door ; upon which he cried out, " Who is there?" 
John Lesley answered, " My name is Lesley." " Which 
Lesley ?'* replied the cardinal, " Is it Norman ?" It was * 
answered, " that he must open the door to those who were 
there ;" but being afraid, he secured the door in the best 

fiEATON. 243 

manner he could. Whilst they were endeavouring to force 
it open, the cardinal called to them, " Will you have my 
life ?" John Lesley answered, " Perhaps we will." " N^y," 
replied the cardinal, " swear unto me, and I will open it.'* 
Some authors say, that upon a promise being given that 
no violence should be offered, he opened the door; but 
however this be, as soon as they entered, John Lesley 
smote him twice or thrice, as did likewise Peter Carmi- 
chael ; but James Melvil, as Mr. Knox relates the fact, 
perceiving them to be in choler, said, "This work and 
judgment of God, although it be secret, ought to be done 
with greater gravity; and, presenting the point of his 
sword, said, Repent thee of thy wicked life, but especially 
of the shedding the blood of that notable instrument of 
God, Mr. George Wishart, which albeit the flame of fire 
consumed before men, yet cries it for vengeance upon 
thee ; and we from God are sent to revenge it. For here, 
before my God, I protest, that neither the hatred of thy 
person, the love of thy riches, nor the fear of any trouble 
thou couldst have done to me in particular, moved or 
moveth me to sti^ke thee ; but only because' thou hast been, 
and remainest, an obstinate enemy against Christ Jesus 
and his holy gospel." After having spoken thus, he stab- 
bed him twice or thrice through the body : thus fell that 
famous prelate, a man of great parts, but of pride and 
ambition boundless, and withal an eminent instance of the 
instability of what the world calls fortune. This event is 
said to have taken place May 29, 1546. Though cardinal 
Beaton's political abilities were undoubtedly of the highest 
kind, and some false stories may have been told concern- 
ing him, it is certain that his ambition was unbounded, 
that his insolence was carried to the greatest pitch, and 
that his character, on the whole, was extremely detestable. 
His violence, as a persecutor, must ever cause his memory 
to be held in abhorrence, by all who have any feelings of 
humanity, or any regard for religious liberty. It is to the 
honour of Mr. Guthrie, that, in his History of Scotland, 
he usually speaks of our prelate with indignation. 

With respect to the story of cardinal Beaton's having 
forged king James the Fifth's will, the fact is considered 
as an undoubted one, by the generality of modern, as well 
as the more early historians. Dr. Robertson and Mr. Gu- 
thrie both speak of it in this light. Mr. Hume, in the 
following words, expresses himself with a certain degree 


244 BEATON. 

of caution upon the subject. *f He (Beaton) forged, it i* 
said, a will for the king, appointing himself, and three 
noblemen, regents of the kingdom during the minority of 
the infant princess : at least,' for historians are not well 
agreed in the circumstances of the fact, he had read to 
James a paper of that import, to which that monarch, du- 
ring the delirium which preceded his death, bad given an 
imperfect assent and approbation." 

The story of Wishart's prediction, concerning the fate 
of his malignant persecutor, seems to be controverted on 
good grounds. If there be any thing in the fact, it cer- 
tainly was not a prophecy properly so called, but a mere 
denunciation of the divine vengeance, which Wish art 
might naturally think would fall upon the cardinal for his 
iniquities. He could not but know, too, how hateful 
Beaton was to many persons, and that he might be' ex* 

Sected to become a victim to his arrogance and cruelty. 
Ir. Hume, who admits the prediction, says that it was 
probably the immediate cause of the event which it fore* 
told. Whatever becomes of this part of the story concern- 
ing Wishart's martyrdom, the other part of it, relative to 
the cardinal's viewing the execution from a window, is 
highly credible, and perfectly suitable to his character. 

The sons of the archbishop were James, Alexander, and 
John. They were all legitimated iu his own life-time, and 
are termed the natural sons of the right reverend, &c. 

We shall add Dr. Robertson's character of our prelate, 
when he mentions his pretensions to the regency, " The 
cardinal was by nature of immoderate ambition ; by long 
experience He had acquired address and refinement ; and 
insolence grew upon him from continual success. His 
high station in the Church placed him in the way of great 
employments ; his abilities were equal to the greatest of 
these; nor did he reckon any of them to be above his 
merit. As his own eminence was founded upon the power 
of the Church of Rome, he was a zealous defender of that 
superstition, and for the same reason an avowed enemy to 
the doctrine of the reformers. Political motives alone de- 
termined him to support the one or to oppose the other. 
His early application to public business kept him unac- 
quainted with the learning and controversies of the age ; 
He gave judgment, however, upon all points in dispute* 
with a precipitancy, "violence, and rigour, which conteoa? 
porary historian; mention with indignation." 

BEATON. 245 

Cardinal Beaton wrote, if we may depend upon Demp- 
ster, "Memoirs of his own Embassies;" " a treatise of 
Peter's primacy," which had been seen by William Bar- 
clay, and " Letters to several persons :" Of these last there 
are still some copies, said to be preserved in the library of 
the French king. * 

BEATON, BETON, or BETHUNE (James), archbi- 
shop of St Andrew's in the reign of James V. was uncle to 
the preceding. We have no certain account of his birth, 
or of the manner of his education, except that, being a 
younger brother, be was from his infancy destined for the 
church. He had great natural talents, and having im- 
proved them by the acquisition of the learning fashionable 
in those times, he came early into the world, under the. 
title of Provost of Bothwell ; a preferment given him 
through the interest of his family. He received his first 
benefice in 1503, and next year was advanced to the rich 
preferment of abbot of Dumferlirig P In 1505, upon the 
death of sir David Beaton, his brother, his majesty ho- 
noured him with the staff of high- treasurer^ and he was 
thenceforward considered as one of the principal statesmen.. 
In 1508 he was promoted to the bishopric of Galloway, and 
before be had sat a full year in that cathedral chair, he 
was removed to the archiepiscopal see of Glasgow, on 
which he resigned the treasurer'? staff, in order to be more 
at leisure to mind the government of his diocese : and in- 
deed it is universally acknowledged, that none more care- 
fully attended the duties of his functions than archbishop 
Beaton while he continued at Glasgow; and he has left 
there such marks of concern for that church, as have baf- 
fled time, and the rage of a distracted populace; the 
monuments of his piety and public spirit which he raised 
at Glasgow, still remaining to justify this part of his cha- 
racter. It does not appear that he had afty hand in the 
counsels which jdrove king James IV. into a fatal war with 
England. On the death of this monarch in the battle of 
'lodden-field, the regent John duke of Albany appointed 
our prelate to be high-chancellor. In 1523 he became 
archbishop of St. Andrew's, not only by the favour of the 
regent, but with the full consent of the young king, who' 
was then, and all his life, much under the influence of the 
archbishop's nephew David, the subject of the preceding 

. I Bitfg. Brit.— Mackenzie*! Scotch writers, jol. HI. 1&~ Home wid Bttart* 
coo's Histories, fco. 

246 BEATON. 

article. The power of the regent, however, being abro- 
gated by parliament, and the earl of Angus having placed 
himself at the head of government, our archbishop was 
dismissed the court, and obliged to resign the office of 
chancellor;, but when the Douglases were driven from 
court, and the king recovered his freedom, the archbishop 
came again into power, although he did not recover the 
office of chancellor. He now resided principally at the pa- 
lace of St. Andrew's, and, as some say, at the instigation 
of his nephew, the cardinal, proceeded with great vio- 
lence against the protestants, and is particularly account- 
able for the death of Patrick Hamilton, the protomartyr of 
Scotland, a young man of piety, talents, and high birth, 
whom he procured to be burnt to death, although it is but 
justice to add that the same sentence was subscribed by 
the other archbishop, three bishops, six abbots and friars, ; 
and eight divines. He is even said to have had some de- 
gree of aversion to such proceedings. The .clergy, how- 
ever, were for stopping the mouths of such as preached 
what they disliked, in the same manner as they had done 
Hamilton's. The archbishop moved but heavily in these 
kind of proceedings ; and there are two very remarkable 
stories recorded to have happened about this time, which 
very plainly shew he was far enough from being naturally 
inclined to such severities. It happened at one of their 
consultations, that some who were most vehement pressed 
for going on with the proceedings in the Archbishop's 
court, when one Mr. John Lindsey, a man in great credit 
with the archbishop, delivered himself to this purpose ; 
" If you burn any more of them, take my advice, and burn 
them in cellars, for I dare assure you, that the smoke of 
Mr. Patrick Hamilton has infected all that it blew upon." 
The other was of a more .serious nature; one Alexander 
Seton, a black friar, preached openly in the church of St 
Andrew's, that, according to St Paul's description of bu 
shops, there were no bishops in Scotland, which being re- 
ported to the archbishop, not in very precise terms, h§ 
sent for Mr. Seton, ancf reproved him sharply for having 
said, according to his information, " That a bishop who 
did not preach was but a dumb dog, who fed not the flock^ 
but fed his own belly." Mr. Seton said, that those who 
had reported this were liars, upon which witnesses were 
produced, who testified very positively to the fact. Mr. 
Setoo, by way of reply, delivered himself thus : " My 

BEATON. 247 

lord, you have heard, and may consider, what ears these 
asses have, who cannot discern between Paul, Isaiah, Za- 
chariah, Malachi, and friar Alexander Seton. In truth, 
my lord, 1 did preach that Paul saith, it behoveth a bishop 
to be a teacher. Isaiah saith, that they that feed not the 
flock are dumb dogs ; and the prophet Zachariah saith, 
that they are idle pastors. Of my own head I affirmed no- 
thing, but declared what the Spirit of God before pro- 
nounced ; at whom, my lord, if you be not offended, you 
cannot justly be offended with me." How much soever the 
bishop might be incensed, he dismissed friar Seton with- 
out hurt, who soon afterwards fled out of the kingdom., 
It does not appear, that from this time the archbishop 
acted much in these measures himself, but chose rather to 
grant commissions to others that were inclined to proceed 
against such as preached the doctrines of the reformation, 
a conduct which seems very fully to justify the remark of 
archbishop Spots wood upon our prelate's behaviour. " Se- 
venteen years," says he, " he lived bishop of this see, and 
was herein most unfortunate, that under the shadow of his 
authority many good men were put to death for the cause 
of religion, though h$ himself was neither violently set, 
nor much solicitous (as it was thought) bow matters went in 
the church." 

In the promotion of learning, he shewed a real concern, 
by founding the New-college in the university of St. An- 
drew's, which he did not live to finish, and to which, 
though he left the best part of his estate, yet after his 
death it was misapplied, and did not come, as he intended, 
jto that foundation. One of the last acts of his life was the 
being present at the baptism of the young prince, born at 
St. Andrew's the very year in which he died. His nephew 
acted for several years as his co-adjutor, and bad the whole 
management of affairs in his hands ; but the king retained 
to the last so great an affection for the archbishop, that he 
allowed hiqa to dispose of all his preferments, by which 
means, his relation, George Drury, obtained the rich abbey 
of Dumferline, and one Mr. Hamilton, of the house of 
Roplock, became Abbot of Killwinning. Our archbishop 
deceased in 1539, and was interred in the cathedral church 
of St Andrew's before the high altar. He enjoyed the 
primacy of Scotland sixteen years, and his character is 
very differently represented, according to the dispositions 
of those who have mentioned him in their writings ; but 


upon the whole more favourably than that of his nephew, 
the cardinal. l 

BEATON (James), another nephew of the preceding, 
and archbishop of Glasgow, was educated chiefly at Paris, 
and was early employed in political affairs *, but we have 
no account of the various steps by which he arrived at the 
archbishopric of Glasgow, to which he was consecrated in 
1552, as some writers report, at Rome, whither he was 
very probably sent, to lay before the pope ah account of 
the ecclesiastical affairs in Scotland after the murder of 
his uncle. He was, however, no sooner advanced to this 
dignity than he began to be considered as one of the ablest 
as well as most powerful persons in the kingdom. In 1557, 
he was one of the commissioners appointed to witness the 
marriage of the. young qtfeen Mary to the dauphin of 
France, a commission to which the historians of the time 
affix great importance. After his return, he acted as a 
privy-counsellor to the queen dowager, who was appointed 
by her daughter regent of Scotland, and laboured, al- 
though in vain, to preserve internal peace. When th$ 
reformers became powerful enough to make a successful 
stand against the court, our archbishop retired to France, 
carrying with him the treasures and records of the archie* 
piscopal see, and carefully deposited them in the Scots 
college in Paris. On his arrival in France, he was ex- 
tremely .well received by queen Mary, then sovereign of 
that country, and by the court of France. Immediately 
after his departure, the reformers in Scotland appointed a 
preacher at Glasgow, seized all the revenues of the arch- 
bishopric, and would no doubt have proceeded against his 
person had he appeared. 

When it was found that he could not return in safety, 
Mary, now a widow, and inclined to visit her hereditary 
dominions, determined to secure his services and residence 
in France, by making him her ambassador to the French 
court, which she first declared in 1561, and confirmed 
in 1564. Under this commission he acted as long as he 
lived, and the papers and letters he preserved would have 
no doubt formed valuable materials for future historians ; 
4>ut there is reason to think the greater part have been 
taken away -or destroyed. While he remained at Paris, as 
embassador of Scotland, he received very little, if any 

% Bio;. Brit 

BEATON. 24* 

thing, from thence : for we find Mr. James Boyd appointed 
•uperintendant of that diocese after the death of Mr. WiU 
lock ; and upon the death of Mr. Boyd in 1578, it was be* 
stowed on Mr. Robert Montgomery, who, in 1587 resigned 
it to Mr. Erskine, by whom the best part of the revenues 
of the see were granted away to the family of Lenox. But 
not long after, king James VI. becoming of age, and hav- 
ing a full account of our author's fidelity to his mother, re- 
stored him both to the title and estate of his archbishopric, 
of which he had been so long deprived. Before this, how* 
ever, he had obtained several ecclesiastical preferments in! 
France, for the support of his dignity, which he enjoyed 
as long as he lived, king James continuing him there as 
his ambassador, to whom he rendered many important ser- 
vices. He was universally and deservedly esteemed for his 
learning, loyalty, and hearty affection to his country. 
He was uniform in his conduct, sincere in his religion, and 
unblameable in his morals, and lived in credit abroad, be- 
loved and admired by all parties, and left his memory un- 
stained to posterity. He died April 24, 1603, aged 
eighty-six, and was succeeded in his see by the celebrated 
Spotswood. Archbishop Beaton is said, by Dempster, to 
have written, 1. " A Commentary on the book of Kings. 1 * 
2. " A Lamentation for the kingdom of Scotland." 3. 
u A book of Controversies against the Sectaries.'* 4. "Ob* 
servations upon Gratian's Decretals:" and 5. " A collec- 
tion of Scotch proverbs." None of these have been 
printed. * 

BEATTIE (James), LL.D. an eminent philosopher, 
critic, and poet, was born at Laurencekirk, in the county 
of Kincardine, Scotland, on the 25th day of October, 1735. 
His father, who was a farmer of no considerable rank, is said 
to have had a turn for reading and for versifying; but, as 
he died in 1742, when his son was only seven years of age, 
could have had no great share in forming his mind. James 
was sent early to the only school his birth-place afforded, 
where he passed his time under the instructions of a. tutor 
named Milne, whom he used to represent as a " good 
grammarian, and tolerably skilled in the Latin language, 
but destitute of taste, as well as pf some other qualifications 
essential to a good teacher. 19 ' He is said to have preferred 
Ovid as a school-author, whom Mr. Beattie afterwards 

» Biog. Brit 


gladly exchanged for Virgil. Virgil he had been accus- 
tomed to read with great delight in Ogilvy's and Dryden'p 
translations, as he did Homer in that of Pope ; and these, 
with Thomson'^ Seasons, and Milton's Paradise Lost, of 
all which he was very early fond, probably gave him that 
taste for poetry which he afterwards cultivated with so 
much success. He was already, according to his biogra- 
pher, inclined to making verses, and among his schoolfel- 
lows went by the name of The Poet. 

At this school he made great proficiency by unremitting 
diligence 9 and appeared to much advantage on his entering* 
Marischal college, Aberdeen, in 1749, where he obtained 
the first of those bursaries or exhibitions which were left for 
the use of students whose parents are unable to support the 
entire expences of academical education. Here he first 
studied Qreek^ under principal Thomas Blackwell, author of 
the " Inquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer," &c. who 
with much of the austerity of pedantry, was kind to his di- 
ligent scholars, and found in Mr, Beattie a disposition 
worthy of cultivation and of patronage. In the following 
year he bestowed on him the premium for the best Greek 
analysis, which happened to be part of the fourth book of 
the Odyssey, and at the close of the session 1749*50, he^ 
gave him a book elegantly bound, with the following iji^ 
scription : " Jacobo Beattie, in prima classe, ex comitatu 
Mernensi*, post examen publicum librum hunc afirzvovli, 
praeinium dedit T. Blackwell, Aprilis 3* MDCCL." The 
other professor, with whom Mr. Beattie was particularly 
connected, was the late Dr. Alexander Qeraad, author of 
l i The genius and evidences of Christianity ;" " Essays on 
Taste and Genius; 9 ' and other works. Under these 
gentlemen our author's proficiency, both at college and 
during the vacations, was very exemplary, and he accumu- 
lated a much more various stock of general knowledge than 
is usual with young men whose ultimate destination is the 
church. The delicacy of his health requiring amusement, 
he found, as he supposed, all that amusement can give, in 
cultivating his musical talents, which were very consider- 

The only science in which he made no extraordinary 
proficiency, was mathematics, in which although he per- 
formed the requisite tasks, he. was eager to return to sub* 

* " The Mearns," the vernacular name of the county of Kincardine. 


jects of taste or general literature. In every other branch' 
of academical study, be never was satisfied with what he 
learned within the walls of the college. His private read- 
ing was extensive and various, and he became insensibly 
partial to the cultivation of those branches on which his 
future celebrity was to depend. 

In 1753, having gone through every preparatory course 
of study, he took the degree of M. A. and hacl now tech- 
nically finished his education. Having hitherto been sup- 
ported by the generous kindness of an elder brother, he 
wished to exonerate his family from any farther burden. 
With this laudable, view, there being a vacancy for the of- 
fice of school-master and parish-clerk to the parish of For- 
doun, adjoining to Laurencekirk, he accepted the appoint* 
ment, August 1, 1753 ; but this was neither suited to his 
disposition, nor advantageous to his progress in life. He 
obtained in this place, however, a few friends, particu- 
larly lord Gardenstown and lord Monboddo, who ho- 
noured him with encouraging notice ; and his imagination 
was delighted by the beautiful and sublime scenery of 
the place, which he appears to have contemplated with 
the eye of a poet. His leisure hours he employed on 
- some, poetical attempts, which, as they were published in 
the " Scots Magazine," with his initials, and sometimes 
with his place of abode, must have contributed to make 
him yet better known and respected. 

The church of Scotland was at this time the usual re- 
source of well-educated young men, and with their acade- 
mical Stores in full memory, there were few difficulties to 
be surmounted before their entrance on the sacred office* 
Although this church presents no temptations to ambition, 
Mr. Beanie appears to have regarded it as the only means 
by which he could obtain an independent rank in life. He 
returned, therefore, during the winter, to Marischal col- 
lege, and attended the divinity lectures of Dr. Robert Pol- 
lock, of that coljege, and of professor John Lumsden, of 
King's, and performed the exercises required by the rules 
of both. One of his fellow-students informed sir William 
Forbes, that during their atteqdance at the divinity- hall, 
he heard Mr. Bpattie deliver a discourse, which met with 
much commendation, but of which it was remarked by the 
audience, that he spoke poetry in prose. 

While the church seemed his only prospect, and one 
which he never contemplated with satisfaction, there oc- 
curred, in 1757, a vacancy for one of the masters of the 


grammar school of Aberdeen, a situation of considerable 
importance in all respects. On this occasion Mr. Beattie 
was advised to become a candidate ; but he was diffident of 
his qualifications, and did not think himself so retentive of 
the, grammatical niceties of the Latin language as to be able 
to answer readily any question that might be put to him by 
older and more experienced judges. In every part of life, 
it may be here observed, Mr. Beattie appears to have formed 
an exact estimate of his own talents ; and in the present 
instance he failed just where he expected to fail, rather in 
the circumstantial than the essential requisites for the situ- 
ation to which he aspired. The other candidate was accor- 
dingly preferred. . But Mr. Beattie's attempt was attended 
with so little loss of reputation, that a second vacancy oc- 
curring a few months after, and two candidates appearing, 
both unqualified for the office, it was presented to him by 
the magistrates in the most handsome manner, without the 
form of a trial, and he immediately entered upon it in June 

He had not been long an u§her at this school before he 
published a volume of poems. An author's first appear- 
ance is always an important era; Mr. Beattie's was cer- 
tainly attended with circumstances that are not now com- 
mon. This volume was announced to the public in a more 
humble manner than the present state of literature is 
thought to demand in similar cases. On the 1 3th of March 
1760, not the volume itself, but " Proposals for printing 
original Poems and Translations," were issued. The poems 
appeared accordingly, on Feb. 16, 1761, and were pub- 
lished both in London and Edinburgh. They consisted 
partly of originals, and partly of the pieces formerly printed 
in the Scots Magazine, but altered and corrected, a prac- 
tice which Mr. Beattie carried almost to excess in all his 
poetical works. 

The praise bestowed on this volume was very flattering. 
The English critics, who then bestowed the rewards of li- 
terature, considered it as an acquisition to the republic of 
letters, and pronounced that since Mr. Gray (whom in their 
opinion Mr. Beattie had chosen for his model) they had 
not met with a poet of more harmonious numbers, more 
pleasing imagination, or more spirited expression. But 
notwithstanding praises which so evidently tended to give a 
-currency to the poems, and which were probably repeated 
with eagerness by the friends who had encouraged the pub* 

B E A T T I E. 2S3 

lication, the author, upon more serious consideration, was 
so dissatisfied with this volume as to destroy every copy he 
could procure, and some years after, when his taste and 
judgment became fully matured, he refused to acknowledge 
above four of them, namely, Retirement, ode to Hope, 
elegy on a Lady, and the Hares, and these he almost re- 
wrote before he would permit them to be printed with the 

But notwithstanding the lowly opinion of th$ author, 
these poems contributed so much to the general reputation 
he had acquired, that he was considered as deserving of a 
higher rank. Accordingly a vacancy happening in Maris- 
cbal college, his friends made such earnest applications in 
his behalf, that in September 1760 he was appointed, by 
his late majesty's patent, professor of philosophy. His de- 
partment in this honourable office extended to moral phi- 
losophy and logic; and such was his diligence, and such 
his love of these studies, that within a few years he was not 
only enabled to deliver an admirable course of lectures on 
moral philosophy and logic, but also to prepare for the 
press those works on which his fame rests ; all of which, 
there is some reason to think, were written, or nearly 
written, before he gave the world the result of his philoso- 
phical studies in the celebrated " Essay on Truth." It 
may be added, likewise, that the rank he had now attained 
in the university, entitled htm to associate more upon .a 
level with Reid and with Campbell, with Gerard ar>d with 
Gregory, men whose opinions were in many points conge- 
nial, and who have all been hailed, by the sister country, 
among the revivers of Scotch literature. With these gentle- 
men and a few others, he formed a society or club for the 
discussion of literary and philosophical subjects. A part 
of their entertainment was the reading a short essay, com* 
posed by each member in his turn. It is supposed that 
the works of Reid,. Campbell, Beattie, Gregory, and Ge- 
rard, or at least the outlines of them, were first discussed in 
this society, either in the form of essay, or of a question for 
familiar conversation. ' " 

In 1765, Mr. Beattie published " The Judgment of Pa- 
ris," a poem, in 4to. Its design was to prove that virtue, 
alone is capable of affording a gratification adequate to 
our whole nature, the pursuits of ambition or sensuality 
promising only partial happiness, as being adapted not; tot 
our whole constitution, but only to. a pan of it. So simple 


fe £ A T f 1 E. 

a position seems to require the graces of poetry td set it off. 
The reception of this poem, however, was unfavourable, 
and although he added it to a new edition of his poems, in 
1766, yet it was never again reprinted, arid even his bio- 
grapher has declined reviving its memory by an extract. To 
this edition of 1766 he added a poem " On the talk of 
erecting a Monument to Churchill in Westminister-ball," 
which, sir William Forbes says, was first published sepa- 
rately, and without a name. That it was printed separately 
we are informed on undoubted authority, but we question 
if it was ever published for sale unless in the above-men- 
tioned edition of his poems. The asperity with which 
these lines are marked induced his biographer, contrary 
to his first intention, to omit them, but they are added 
to his other poems, in the late edition of " English 
Poets *." 

Although Mr. Beattie had now acquired a station in which 
his talents were displayed with great advantage, and com- 
manded a very high degree of respect, the publication of 
the " Essay on Truth** was the great era of his life ; for 
this work carried bis fame far beyond all local bounds and 
local partialities. It Is not, however, necessary to enter 
minutely into the history of a work so well known. Its 
professed intention was to trace the several kinds of evi- 
dence and reasoning up to their first principles, with a view 
to ascertain the Standard of Truth, and explain its Immu- 
tability. He endeavours to show that his sentiments, how- 
ever inconsistent with the genius of scepticism, and with 
the practice and -principles of sceptical writers, were yet 
perfectly consistent with the genius of true philosophy, and 
with the practice and principles of those whom all acknow- 
ledge to have been the most successful in the investigation 
of truth ; and he concludes with some inferences or rules, 
by which the most important fallacies of the sceptical phi- 
losophy may be detected by every person of common sense, 
even though he should not possess acuteness of metaphysl- 

* " In the autumn of the year 1765, 
Mr. Gray came to Scotland on a visit 
to the late Earl of Strathmore. Dr. 
Beattie, who was an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer of Gray, as soon as he heard 
of his arrivaj, addressed to him a let- 
ter, which procured him an invitation 
to Glamtnis castle, and this led to a 
friendship and correspondence between 
these two eminent fctoets and amiable 

men, which continued, without inter* 
ruption, till the death of Mr. Gray." - 
*—Sir William Forbes, vol. I. p. 70. In 
the same year he became acquainted 
with his biographer, who has, by the 
life of Beattie, raised a monument to 
the excellence of his own character, 
scarcely inferior to that he intended 
for his friend. 

fi t A T T 1 £. 255 

«*1 knowledge sufficient to qualify him for a logical confu- 
tation of them. 

When this work was completed, so many difficulties oc- 
curred in procuring it to be published, that his friends, sir 
William Forbes and Mr. Arbuthnot, were obliged to become 
the purchasers, unknown to him, at a price with which they 
thought he would be satisfied. Sir William accordingly 
wrote to him that the manuscript was sold for fifty guineas, 
as the price of the first edition. This edition was pub- 
lished in an octavo volume in 1770, and bought up with 
such avidity that a second was called for, and published in 
the following year. The interval was short, but as the work 
bad excited the public attention in an extraordinary de- 
gree, the result of public opinion had reached the author's 
ear, and to this second edition he added a postscript, in 
vindication of a certain degree of warmth of which he had 
been accused. 

The " Essay on Truth," whatever objections were made 
to it, and it met with very few public opponents *, had a 
more extensive circulation than probably any work of the 
kind ever published. This may be partly attributed to the 
charms of that popular style in which the author conveyed 
bis sentiments on subjects which his adversaries had art- 
fully disguised in a metaphysical jargon, the meaning of 
which they could vary at pleasure; but the eagerness with 
which it was bought up and read, arose chiefly from the 
just praise bestowed upon it by the most distinguished 
friends of religion and learning in Great Britain. With 
many .of these of high rank both in church and state, the 
author had the pleasing satisfaction of dating his acquaint- 
ance from the publication of this work. There appeared, 
indeed, in the public in general, an honourable wish to 
grace the triumph of sound reasoning over pernicious so- 
phistry. Hence in less than four years five large editions 
of the Essay were sold f, and it was translated into several 
foreign languages, and attracted the notice of many emi- 

* The principal publication was Dr. hut the flippant and sarcastic style he 

Priestley's " Examination of Dr. Reid assumed on this occasion was diaap- 

on the Human* Mind; Dr. Beattiebn proved even by his own friends. - 
the Nature and Immutability of Truth ; 

and Dr. Oswald's Appeal to Common f The first appeared in May 1770; 

Sense," Oct 1775. Dr. Priestley pre- the second, April 1771 ; the third in 

fers {he system of Dr. Hartley, which 1779; the fourth, Jan. 1773; aud the 

. fee was then endeavouring to rnlroduce, fifth, Feb. 1774, 

256 BEATTI E, 

nent persons in France, Germany, Holland, Italy, *nd other 
parts of the continent. 

Among other marks of respect, the university of Oxford 
conferred the degree of LL. D. on the author *, and on his 
second arrival in London he was most graciously received 
by his Majesty, who not only bestowed a pension pn hint* 
but admitted him to the honour of a private conference* 
Many years after, when Dr. Beattie went tp pay his respects 
to his Majesty, be was still received with every mark of 
royal condescension and kindness. 

It was in July 1771 that Dr. Beattie first visited London* 
and commenced a personal acquaintance with men of the 
first eminence, with lord Mansfield and lord Lyttelton* 
Drs. Hurd, Porteus, Johnson, Mr. Burke, and, indeed, the 
whole of the literary society whose conversations have been 
so pleasantly detailed by Mr. Boswell ; and returned to 
Scotland with a mind elevated and cheered* by the praise, 
the kindness, and the patronage, of the goo<£ and great* 
It was, however, on his second visit to London, in 1773, 
that he received his degree from Oxford, and those honours 
from his majesty, which we anticipated as a direct, though 
not an immediate consequence of the services he rendered 
to bis country by the publication of the " Essay on Truth." 
His conversation with his majesty is detailed at some length 
by himself, in a diary published by sir William Forbes. 

Soon after this visit to London he was solicited by a very 
flattering proposal sent through the hands of Dr. Porteus, 
late bishop of London, to enter into the church of Eng- 
land. A similar offer had been made sometime before by 
the archbishop of York, but declined. It was now renewed 
with more importunity, and produced from himjbe impor- 
tant reasons which obliged him still to decline : an offer 
which he could not but consider as " great and generous. 9 * 
By these. reasons, communicated ip a letter to Dr. Porteus, 
we find that he was apprehensive of the injury that might 
be done to the cause he had espoused, if his enemies should 
have any ground for asserting that he had written his Essay 
on Truth, with a view to promotion : and he was likewise 
of opinion, that it might have the appearance of levity and 


* He bad received this honour some - sciences, and of the literary and philo- 

time before from King's college, Aber*-. sopbieal society of Manchester, and 

deen. He was afterwards chosen mem- was a fellow of the royal society of 

her of the Zealand society of arts aw}, fidjiibyrfh. 

B E A T T I ET. 257 

insincerity, and even of want of principle, were he to quir, 
without any other apparent motive than that of bettering 
his circumstances, the church of which he had hitherto 
been a member. Other reasons he assigned, on this occa- 
sion, of some, but Kiss weight, all which prevailed on his 
friends to withdraw any farther solicitation, while they bo* 
noored the motives by which he was influenced. In the 
same year he refused the offer of a professor's- chair in the 
university of Edinburgh, considering his present situation 
as best adapted to his habits and to his usefulness, and ap- 
prehending that the formation of a new society of friends 
might not be so easy or agreeable in a place where the 
enemies of his principles were numerous* To some of his 
friends, however, these reasons did not appear very con- 

Although Mr. Beattie had apparently withdrawn his 
claims as a poet, by cancelling as many copies of his ju- 
venile attempts as he could procure, he was not so in con- 
scious of his admirable talents, as to relinquish what was an 
early and favourite pursuit, and in which he had probably 
passed some of his most delightful hours. A few months 
after the appearance of the " Essay on Truth," he pub- 
lished the " First Book of the Minstrel,' 1 in 4to, but with- 
out his name. By this omission, the poem was examined 
with all that rigour of criticism which may be expected in 
the case of a work, for which the author's name can neither 
afford protection or apology. He was accordingly praised 
for having adopted the measure of Spenser, because he 
had the happy enthusiasm of that writer to support and 
render it agreeable ; but objections were made to the limi- 
tation of bis plan to the profession of the Minstrel, when so 
much superior interest might be excited by carrying him 
on through the practice of it. These objections appear 
to have coincided with the author's re-consideration ; and 
he not only adopted various alterations recommended by 
rhis friends, particularly Mr. Gray, but introduced others, 
which made the subsequent editions of this poem far more 
perfect than the first. 

The Minstrel, however, in its first form, contained so 
many passages of genuine poetry, the poetry of nature and 
of feeling, and was so eagerly applauded by those whose 
right of opinion was incoptestable^ that it soon ran through- 
four editions; and in 1774, the author produced the 
" Second Book ;" and as its success was not inferior to that 

Vot. IV. & 

258 B.EATTI-E. 

of the first, it was the general wish that the author would 
fulfil his promise by .completing the interesting subject ; 
but the increasing business of education, the cares of a 
family, and the state of his health, originally delicate, and 
never robust, deprived him of the time and thought which 
be considered as requisite. In 1777, however, he was in- 
duced to publish the two parts of the Minstrel together, 
and to add a few of his juvenile poems. 

During the preceding year, 1776, he prepared for the 
press a new edition of the " Essay on Truth," in a more 
splendid form than it had hitherto appeared in, and attended 
by a very liberal subscription, and with other circumstances 
of public esteem which were very flattering. The list of 
subscribers amounted to four hundred and seventy-six 
names of men and women of the first rank in life, and of 
all the distinguished literary characters of the time. The 
copies subscribed for amounted to seven hundred and 
thirty-two, so that no inconsiderable sum must have ac-» 
crued in this delicate manner to the author. Dr. Beattie 
was by no means rich ; his pension was only two hundred 
pounds, and the annual amount of his professorship never 
reached that sum. 

The Essays added to this volume, and which he after- 
wards printed separately in 8vo, were " On Poetry and 
Music ;" on " Laughter and ludicrous Cpmposition ; and 
" on the utility of Classical Learning." They were written 
many years before publication, and besides being read in 
the private literary society already mentioned, had been 
submitted to the judgment of his learned friends in Eng- 
land, who recommended them to the press. 

For the frequent introduction of practical and serious 
observations, he offers a satisfactory reason in the preface 
to " Dissertations Moral and Critical, on Memory and Ima- 
gination; on Dreaming; the Theory of Language; on Fable 
and Romance ; on the Attachments of Kindred ; and Illus- 
trations on Sublimity," 1783, 4to. These, he informs us^ 
were at first composed in a different form, being part of a 
course of prelections read to those young gentlemeu whom 
it was his business to initiate in the elements of moral 
science ; and he disclaims any nice metaphysical theories, 
or other matters of doubtful disputation, as not suiting his 
ideas of moral teaching. Nor was this the disgust of a 
metaphysician " retired from business." He had ever 
been of the same opinion. Dr. Beattie' s aim was, indeed, 

B E A T T I E. 2S9 

in all his lectures, " to inure young minds to habits of at- 
tentive observation ; to guard them against the influence 
of bad principles ; and to set before them such views of na- 
ture, and such plain and practical truths, as may at once 
improve, the heart and the understanding, and amuse 
and elevate the fancy*," 

Of these Essays, the preference has been generally 
given to those on " Memory and Imagination," and oa 
" Fable and Romance," and to " The Theory of Lan- 
guage," and in re-publishing the latter separately for the 
use of seminaries of education, he complied with the wish 
of many readers and critics. 

During a visit to the metropolis in 1784, Dr. Beattie 
submitted to the late bishop of London, with whose friend- 
ship he had long been honoured, a part of a work which 
at that excellent prelate's desire he published in 1786, en- 
titled " Evidences of the Christian Religion briefly and 
plainly stated," 2 vols. 12mo. This likewise formed part 
of his concluding lectures to his class, and he generally 
dictated an abstract of it to them in the course of the ses- 
sion. From a work of this kind, and on a subject which 
had employed the pens of the greatest and best English 
writers, much novelty was not to be expected, nor in its 
original form was any novelty intended. It must be al- 
lowed, however, that he has placed many of the arguments 
for the evidences of Christianity in a very striking and per- 
spasive light, and it is not too much to suppose that if he 
could have devoted more time and study to a complete re- 
view and arrangement of what had? or might be advanced 
on these evidences, be would have produced a work worthy 
of his genius, and worthy of the grandeur and importance 
of the subject. 

In the preface to Dr. Beattie' s tl Dissertations," he inti- 
mated a design of publishing the whole of his lectures oa 
Moral Science, but from this he was diverted by the cd- 
tgent reasons there assigned. He was encouraged, however, 

* Cowper's praise of this volume, is his ease too, that his own character 

too valuable to be emitted : — " Beat- appears in every page, and, which h 

tie, the most agreeable and amiable very rare, we aee not only the writer, 

writer i ever met with ; the only au- but the man ; and the man so gentle, 

thor I have seen whose critical and so well tempered, so happy in his re- 

phiiosophical researches are diversified ligion, and so humane in his philoso- 

and embellished by a poetical imagi- phy, that it is necessary to love htm if 

nation, that makes even the driest one has any sense of what is lovely." 

subject, and the leanest, a feast for an Hay ley's Life of Cowper, vol* III. 

epicure in books. He it 80 much at p. 247. 

3 2 

260 B E A T T I E. 

to present to the public, in a correct and somewhat en- 
larged form, the abstract which he used to dictate to bis 
scholars. Accordingly, in 1790, he published "Element* 
of Moral Science," vol. I. 8vo, including psychology, or 
perceptive faculties and active powers ; and natural theo- 
logy; with two appendices on the Incorporeal Nature and 
on the Immortality of the Soul. The second volume was 
published in 1793; containing ethics, economics, politics, 
and logic. All these subjects are necessarily treated in a 
summary manner; but it will be found sufficiently compre- 
hensive, not only for a text- book, or book of elements, 
which was the professed intention of the author, but also 
as an excellent aid to the general reader who may not have 
fen opportunity of attending regular lectures, and yet wishes 
to reap some of the advantages of regular education. 

In vol; II. there occurs a dissertation against the Slave 
Trade, which the author informs us he wrote in 1778 with 
a view to a separate publication. He exposed the weak 
defences set up for that abominable traffic with wonderful 
acuteness, and thus had the honour to contribute to that 
mass of conviction which at length became irresistible, and 
delivered the nation from her greatest reproach. 

To the second volume of the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, published in 1790*, he contributed 
" Remarks on some passages of the sixth book of the 
j&neid." This was, in fact, a dissertation' on the mytho- 
logy of the Romans, as poetically described by Virgil, in 
the episode of the descent of Apneas into hell ; and the 
author's object was to vindicate his favourite poet from the 
charges of impiety, &c, brought against him by Warbur- 
ton and others. In the same year he is said to have super- 
intended an edition of " Addison's periodical Papers," 
published at Edinburgh in 4 vols. 8vo. To this, however, 
be contributed only a few notes to Tickell's Life of Ad- 
dison, and to Dr. Johnson's remarks. It were to be wished 
he had done more. Addison never had a warmer admirer, 
nor a more successful imitator. 

t In 1794 appeared the last work our author composed, 
and its history requires some notice of his family. In 1767 
he maifcied Miss Mary Dun, daughter of Dr. James Dun, 

* About 1773 he printed a letter tained a few specimens of translation* 

to Dr. Blair " On the improvement of of the Psalms, He printed also some 

Psalmody in Scotland*" This was year? after a list of Scotticism*, for the, 

0iiljr priratelf circulated. It con- use of his students* 


rector or bead master of the grammar-school of\Aberdeen, 
a man of great personal worth, and an excellent classical 

With this lady Dr. Beattie enjoyed for many years as 
much felicity as the married state can add ; and when she 
visited London with him, she shared amply in the respect 
paid to him, and in the esteem of his illustrious friends. 
By her he had two sons, James Hay, so named from the 
earl of Errol, one of his old and steady friends ; and Mon- 
tagu, from the celebrated Mrs. Montagu, in whose house 
Dr. Beattie frequently resided when in London. While 
these children were very young, Mrs. Beattie was seized 
with an indisposition, which, in spite of all care and skill, 
terminated in the painful necessity of separation from her 
husband *. The care of the children now entirely devolved 

! on the father, whose sensibility received such a shock from 

the melancholy circumstance alluded to, as could only be 
aggravated by an apprehension that the consequences of 
Mrs. Beattie' s disorder might not be confined to herself* 
This alarm, which often preyed on his spirits, proved 
happily without foundation. His children grew up with- 

I out the smallest appearance of thp hereditary evil ; but 

when they had just begun to repay his care by a display 
of early genius, sweetness of temper, and filial affection, 
he was compelled to resign them both to an untimely grave,. 
His eldest son died November 19, 1790, in bis twenty, 
second year ; and his youngest on March 14, 1796, in his 
eighteenth year. 

Soon after the death of James Hay, his father drew up 
an account of his " Life and « Character; to which were 
added, " Essays and Fragments," written by this extraor- 
dinary youth. Of this volume a few copies only were 
printed, and were given as " presents to those friends with 
whom the author was particularly acquainted or connected. 79 
Dr. Beattie was afterwards induced to permit the Life and 
some of the Essays and Fragments to be printed for publi- 

i qation. The life is perhaps one of the most interesting 

and affecting narratives in our language. 

After the loss of this amiable youth, who, in 1737, had 

< •• 

* Sir Wm. Forbes intimites that her marriage, it skewed itself in caprices 

symptoms of insanity were of an ear- that embittered every hour of hfs life, 

i Iter date. " Although it did not, for a till, at last, it unquestionably eaniri- 

considerable time, break out into open buled to bring him to his grare," 
iasauity, yej in a few years after tneir 


been appointed successor to his father, and had occa- 
sionally lectured in the professors chair, Dr. Beattie re- 
sumed that employment himself, and continued it, although 
with intervals of sickness and depression, until the unex- 
pected death of his second and last child , in 1796. Hi* 
hopes of a successor, of his name and family, had pro* 
bably been revived in this youth, who exhibited many 
proofs of early genius, and for some time before his death 
bad prosecuted his studies with great assiduity. But here 
too he was compelled again to subscribe to the uncertainty 
of all human prospects. From this period he began to 
withdraw from society, and brooded over the sorrows of 
his family, until they overpowered his feelings, and ab- 
stracted him from all the comforts of friendship and all 
power of consolation. Of the state of his -mind, sit Wil- 
liam Forbes has given an instance so extremely affecting, 
that no apology can be necessary 'for introducing it here. 

i€ The death of hi$ only surviving, child completely un- 
hinged the mind of Dr. Beattie, the first symptom of which, 
ere many days had elapsed, was a temporary but almost 
total loss of memory respecting his son. . Many times he 
could not recollect what had become of him ; and after 
searching in every room of the house, he would say to his 
niece, Mrs. Glennie, ' You may think it strange, but I 
must ask you if I have a son, and where he is ?' She then 
felt herself under the painful necessity of bringing to his 
recollection his son Montagu's sufferings, which always 
restored him to reason. And he would often, with many 
tears, express his thankfulness that he had no child, say- 
ing, ' How could I have o#rne to see their elegant minds 
mangled with madness !' When be looked for the last time 
on the dead body of his son, he said, ' I have now done 
with the world :' and he ever after seemed to act as if he 
thought so." 

The last three years of his life were passed in hopeless 
solitude, and he even dropt his correspondence with many 
of those remote friends with whom he had long enjoyed the 
soothing interchange of elegant sentiment and friendly at- 
tachment. His health, in this voluntary confinement, gra- 
dually decayed, and extreme and premature debility, oc- 
casioned by two paralytic strokes^ terminated his life, on 
the 18th of August, 1803., His reputation was so well 
founded and so extensive, that he was universally lamented 
as a loss to the republic of letters, &nd particularly to the 

B E A T T I E. aey 

university to which he had been so long 3, public benefactor 
and an honour. 

Of his general character a fair estimate may be formed 
from his works, and it is no small praise that his life and 
writings were in strict conformity. No jnan.ever felt more 
strong impressions of the value of the virtues he recom- 
mended than Dr. Beattie. Although he disdained the 
affectation of feeling, and the ostentation of extraordinary 
purity, he yet more abhorred the character of those writers 
whose professions and practice are at variance. His zeal 
for religious and moral truth, however censured* by those 
to whom religion and truth are adverse, originated in a 
mind. fully convinced of the importance of what he pre-, 
scribed to others, and anxious to display, where such. a 
display was neither obtrusive nor boastful, that his convic- 
tion was sincere, and his practice resolute. * 



BEAU (Charles Le), first professor of. rhetoric in the 
college of the Grassins, and afterwards professor in the 
college-royal, secretary to the duke of Orleans, perpetual 
secretary and pensionary of the academy of inscriptions,- 
was born at Paris, Oct. 19, 1701 (Saxius, .says 17Q9), and: 
died* in that city, March 13, 1778. He was married, and 
left only one daughter. This honest and laborious acade- 
mician, the rival of Rollin in the art of teaching, idolized 
by bis scholars, as that famous professor was, had perhaps 
a more extensive fund of learning, and particularly in 
Greek and Latin literature. His history of the Lower Em- 
pire, in 22 vols. 12mo, 1757, forming a continuation of 
Crevier's History of the Emjjerors, is the more esteemed, 
as in the composition of it he had many difficulties to. over- 
come, in reconciling contradictory writers, filling' up 
chasms, and forming a regular body out of a heap of. 
mishapen ruins. It is strongly characterized by a judicious, 
series of criticism, couched in a polished and elegant style.' 
The logician sometimes appears too conspicuously; but 
in general it is read with pleasure and profit. The first, 
volume of au English translation of this work was published 

1 Life prefixed to his poems, in the late edition of the " English Poets." The' 
Aore copious and minute life of Dr. Beattie lately published by sir William 
Forbes exhibits him in the character of an epistolary writer. His letters em- 
brace a ve$y large portion of the literary history of his time, but it may be 
doubted whether they have always the ease and vivacity which are expected in 
this species of composition. They are valuable, however, as exhibiting many 
lesser traits of his character, and as disclosing its lesser infirmities. 

*64 BEAU. 

iii 1770, but, we believe, not continued. The memoirs 
of the academy of belles lettres are enriched with several 
learned dissertations by the same author, particularly on 
medals, on the Roman legion, on the Roman art of war, 
and thirty-four biographical eloges, distinguished for truth 
and impartiality. The religious sentiments, the sound 
principles, the sweetness of manners, and the inviolable 
integrity of M. le Beau, which inspired his friends and dis- 
ciples with so much attachment to him when alive, occa- 
sioned them. to feel a loug and lasting regret at his depar- 
ture. Several little anecdotes might here be related that 
do honour to his heart. A place in the academy of belles 
lettres bad been designed for him. Bougainville, the 
* translator of the Anti-Lucretius, who applied for it, with 
fewer pretensions, and a less consummate knowledge, 
dreaded such a formidable competitor as M. le Beau, to 
whom, however, from his known character, he was not 
deterred from making his wishes known* The professor 
felt for his embarrassment, and hastened to the friends who 
had promised him their votes, .desiring they might be 
transferred to the young student, "it is one of the 
smallest sacrifices," said he, " I should be ready to make 
in order to oblige a. man of merit.'* M. le Beau was re- 
ceived at the election following ; and JVL Capperonier, 
surprised at bis extensive erudition, and affected hy his 
generosity, exclaimed, " He is our master in all things !'* 
On another occasion, when highly praised for his acquisi-c 
tions, he said, " I know enough to be ashamed that I ^now 
no more. 19 Thierrat published Le Beau's Latin works, 
Paris, 17S2, 2 vols. 8vp, consisting of orations, poetry, and 
fables ^ the last inferior to his other productions. 1 

BEAU (John Lewis le), younger brother to the above, 
professor of rhetoric in the college qf the Grassins, and 
member qf the academy of inscriptions, was bom at Paris, 
March*, 1721, and died March 12, 1766. He filled 
with distinguished merit the functions of academician and 
professor. He is author of a discourse in which, after, hav- 
ihg shewn the pernicious effects of poverty to .men of let- 
ters, pnd what dangers they have to dread from riches, he 
concludes, that the state of a happy mediocrity is the fittest 
for them. He published an edition of " Homer," Greek 
and Latin, 2 vols. 1746; and the " Orations of Cicero/ 9 

} pict. Hist. — Saxii OwiDasticoB. 

BEAU, £6* 

in 3 Vols. 1750.' To both he has subjoined copious anno- 
tations, and wrote several papers in the Memoirs of the 
academy. x 

• BEAU (John Baptiste le), a learned French Jesuit, 
and classical antiquary, was born in 1602, in the comtat 
Yenaissin, and entered among the Jesuits in 1619, He 
taught rhetoric for seven year* at Toulouse, and was after- 
wards rector of the college of lihodez. He died in the 
college of Montpellier, July 26, 1610. His works, which 
discover much valuable literary research, are, 1. " Dia- 
tribe duae, prima de partibus templi Auguralis ; altera, de 
ftiense et die victorias Pharsalicre," Toulouse, 1637, 8vo t 
and inserted in Gravius's Roman antiquities, voLV. and 
vol. VJIL 2. " Diatriba de Pharsalici conflictus meuse et 
die, cum accessionibus et prefatione Heurici Leouardi 
Schurzfieischii," Wirtemberg, 1705, 8vo. 3. " Brevi- 
culum expeditionis Hispaniensis Ludovici XJIL" Toulouse, 
16*2, 4to. 4. '.' Otia regia Ludovici XIV. regis Chris- 
lianissitni, sive Polyaenus GuJlicus de veterum et recerituitn 
Gal brum stratagemattbus," Clermont, 1658, 8vo, I'Yanc- 
fort, 1661, 8vo. 5. " ik Vie de M. Francis P'Estaing, 
' eveque de lihodez," Clermont, 1655, 4to f and an abridg- 
ment of the same in Latin, 1 2 mo. 6. " Historia de vita 
Bartholomaei de* Marty rib us," Paris, 4to. 7. f< Speculum 
veri antistitis in vita Alpbonsi Torribii arefciepiscopi Li- 
mensis in Peru via," Pans, 4to.* 

BEAUCAIRE DE PEGU1LON (Francis), in Latin 
Belgarius Pkguilio, bishop of ftletz, a man of some note 
in the sixteenth century, was born April 15, 1514, of one 
of the most ancient families of the Bourbon nois. The pro- 
gress he made in polite literature induced Claude de Lor- 
raine, the first duke of Guise, to choose him to be pre- 
ceptor to cardinal de Lorraine, his second son, an appoint- 
ment which very naturally, we will not say very justly, at- 
tached him to the family of Guise, and made him too par- 
tial in his writings to their character. He attended his 
pupil to Rome, where he became acquainted with Paul 
Jovius, in whose history he afterwards pointed out some 
errors. On his return from Italy, the cardinal. of Lorraine 
procured him in 1555 the bishopric of Metz, but according 
to Beza, (Hist. Ecclesiast. lib. xvi. p. 439), this was littl$ 

1 Diet. Hist.— Saxii Onomasti<*on.> 
* Alorvri from a MS. of father Ouitin. 

t*6 - BE A U C A I B E. 

more than a titular preferment, the cardinal reserving the 
revenues, or the greater part of them, to himself. Ac-' 
cording to the same author, Beaucaire, with two other 
bishops, came to Metz, and occasioned an alarm among 
the inhabitants of the 'reformed religion, some of whom 
thought proper to retire for safety from the city. Beza, 
however, adds that Beaucaire only wrote a small tract in 
Latin on " Sanctification," and " The Baptism of In- 
fants," which was soon answered. Some time after his 
promotion, his patron, the cardinal, carried him with him 
to the council, on the day that the fathers of the council 
had appointed as a thanksgiving for the battle of Dreux, 
fought Jan. 3, 1563, and here Beaucaire pronounced an 
oration, which was much applauded, and is inserted at the 
end of the thirtieth book of his " History of his own times*" 
This work he began in 1568, when he, resigned his 
bishopric to his patron, and retired tp his castle of la Chrete 
in Bourbonnois. He died Feb. 14, 1591. His history, 
which extends from 1461 to 1580, or according to Bayle 
from 1462 to 1567, according to either account is not 
very properly called a history of Jus own times. The title 
of the publication, however, is " Rerurn Gallicarum Cona- 
mentaria, ab. A. 1462 usque ad A. 1-566," Lyons, 1625, fol. 
Saxius doubts whether he be the same Francis Bellicarius, 
who translated the first book of the Greek Anthology into 
Latin, as asserted by Fabrlcius, and which was published 
at Paris, 1543, 4to. His other works are so differently and 
confusedly spoken of, that we shall refer our readers to his 
biographers, rather than attempt to reconcile tbem. His 
tract on the baptism of infants, above alluded to by Beza, 
may perhaps be " Traifc6 des enfans mom dans le sein de 
leurs meres," 1567, Svo, the question being, whether chil- 
dren dying in the womb, and consequently without baptism, 
are s&ved, which he was disposed to answer in the nega- 
tive. The Calvinists held that children dying in infancy 
are saved, an opinion, we presume, that will seldom be 
denied. 1 

BEAUCHAMPS (Joseph), a member of the national 
Institute of France, and an astronomer of considerable fame, 
was born at Vesoul, June 29, 1752. He was originally in- 
tended for the church, and in 1767, entered the order of 
the Bernardines, but his turn for astronomy induced him 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Diet Hist.— Saxii Onomasticoa. ' 

B E A U C H A M P 8. sf67 


to become the pupil of Lalande, and one of the ablest of 
his scholars. His uncle Miroudat, bishop of Babylonia, 
having appointed him his vicar-general, he left France in 
1781, to exercise the functions of that office in the Le- 
vant, and at the same time to tafce astronomical observa- 
tions. He went first to Aleppo, thence to Bagdad, Bas- 
sora, and Persia. On the eve of the revolution, he re- 
turned to France, after having contributed very essentially, 
to the promotion of the sciences of astronomy and geography, 
as may appear by his communications in the "Journal des 
Savans" for 1782, 1784, 1785, 1787, 1788, and 1790. Hs 
remained with his family until 1795, when the then French 
government appointed him consul at Mascate, a Portuguese 
settlement in Arabia; but in 1797, we find him at Coqstan- 
tinople, whence he sailed along the Black Sea, making 
many observations, and rectifying many errors in the 
charts of that sea. When Bonaparte was appointed com- 
mander of the expedition to Egypt, he recalled Beau- 
champs from Mascate, and added him to the number of 
scientific men attached to the army. In 1799, Bonaparte 
sent him on a secret mission to Constantinople, but before 
he h%d proceeded far from the port of Alexandria, he was 
taken by the English, and delivered up to the grand Turk 
as a spy. By the intercession, however, of the ambassa- 
dors of Spain a#d Russia, his punishment was mitigated to 
imprisonment in a strong castle on the borders of the Black 
Sea, and in 1801 he was released. Bonaparte;* then first 
consul, appointed him mercantile commissary at Lisbon, 
but before he could reach this place, he died at Nice, 
Nov. 19, 1801, to the great regret of his friends, and parti- 
cularly of the learned world. l 

BEAUCHAMPS (Pierre Francois Godard de), a 
French miscellaneous writer, was born at Paris in. 1689, 
and died in that metropolis in 1761. • He wrote, 1. " The 
Loves of Ismene & lsm6nias," 1743, *8vo, a free transla- 
tion of a Greek romance by Eustathius, or rather Euma- 
thius, who must not be confounded with Eustathius the 
grammarian, and author of the commentary on Homer. It 
contains interesting adventures, in that species of epic 
poetry in prose which partakes at once of the tragic and 
comic vein. A beautiful edition of it was published at 
Paris in 1797, 4to, with illuminated prints. 2. "The 

» Diet. Hist. 




loves of Rhodantes & Docicles," another Greek romance 
by Theodoras Prodromus, translated into French, 1746; 
12mo. 3. " Recherches sur les Theatres de France, " 
1735, 4to, and 8vo, 3 vols. Beauchamps did not confine 
himself to the titles of the dramatical pieces: he has added 

Particulars of the lives of some of the French comedians ; 
ut he has omitted a number of interesting anecdotes, with 
which he might have embellished his work. It were to be 
wished that he had developed the taste of the former ages 
of the French for dramatic representations, the art and the 
progress of tragedy and comedy from the time of Jodelle ; 
the genius of the French poets, and their manner of imi- 
tating the ancients. But Beauchamps, in this work, is 
little more than a compiler, and that from well-known 
materials. 4. " Lettres d'H£loi*e & d'Abailard," in French 
verse, fluent enough, but prosaic, 1737, 8vo. 5. " Se- 
veral theatrical performances." 6. The romance of "Fu- 
nestine," 1757. l 

BEAUCHATEAU (Francois Matthieu Chatelet de), 
born at Paris in 1643, was the son of a player, and was 
considered as a poet when no more than eight years old. 
The queen, mother of Louis XIV. cardinal Mazarin, the 
chancellor Seguier, and the first personages of the court, 
took pleasure in conversing with this child, and in exer- 
cising his talents. He was only twelve ytfars old when he 
published a collection of his poetical pieces, in 4to, under 
the title of " La Lyre de jeune Apollon, 1 * or, " La Muse 
naissant du petit de Beauchateau," with copper-plate por- 
traits of the persons he celebrates. About two years after- 
wards he went over to England with an ecclesiastic. Crom- 
well and the most considerable persons of the then govern- 
jnent admired the young poet. It is thought that he tra- 
velled afterwards into Persia, where perhaps he died, as 
no farther tidings were ever heard of him. He had a bro- . 
ther, Hypolite Chastelet de Beauchateau, an impostor, who 
pretended to abjure the Roman Catholic religion, and came 
over to England under the disguised name of Lusancy. 
Moreri and Anth. Wood in Ath. Ox. vol. II. give an ac- 
count of this adventurer. 2 

BEAVER (John), otherwise named Bever, and in Latin 
Fiber, Fiberius, Castor, and Castorius, was a Benedictine 
monk in Westminster-abbey, and flourished about the be- 

i Diet. Hi»t. 2 Moreri.~Attv Ox. 


BEAVER. ' 269 

ginning of the fourteenth century. He was a man of quick 
parts* and of great diligence and ingenuity : and applied 
himself particularly to the study of the history and anti- 
quities of England. Among other things, he wrote a 
" Chronicle of the British and English Affaire," from the 
coming in of Brute to his own time, now among the Cot- 
ton ian MSS. Hearne issued proposals for publishing it in 
1735, which his death prevented. He also wrote a book 
H De Rebus coenobii Westmonasteriensis," of Westminster-* 
abbey, and the several transactions relating thereto. Ice- 
land commends him, as an historian of good credit; and he 
is also cited with respect by Stowe in his Survey of London 
and Westminster. Baje says he does not give a slight or 
superficial account, but a full and judicious relation, of 
things ; and takes proper notice of the virtues and vices of 
the persons mentioned in his history. 

There w? > another of the same name, a monk of Su 
Alban's : who left behind him a collection of some treatises 
that are of no great value. They are extant in the king's 
library. l 

BEAUFILS (Willjam), a Jesuit, was bom at St Flour 
in Auvergne in 1674, and died at Toulouse at a very ad- 
vanced age in 1758. Preaching, the composition of some 
literary works, and the direction of a number of pious vo- 
taries, for which he had uncommon attractions and a pe- 
culiar talent, took up almost the whole of his life. The 
pieces be published are, I. " Several funeral discourses.'* 
2..Tbe " Life of Madame de Lestonac." 3. The life of 
" Madame de Chantal ;" and, 4. " Letters on the govern* 
ment of Religious Houses," Paris, 1740, 12mo. • 

BEAUFORT (Henry), bishop of Winchester, and 
cardinal priest of the church of Rome, was the son of 
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by his third wife, Ca- 
therine Swinford. He studied for some years both at Cam- 
bridge and at Oxford, in the latter in Queen's college, and 
was afterwards a benefactor to University and Lincoln col- 
leges, but he received the principal part of his education at 
Aix> la Chapelle, where he was instructed in civil and com* 
jnon law. Being of royal extraction, he was very young when 
advanced to the prelacy, and was made bishop of Lincoln 
in 1397* by an arbitrary act of Boniface IX. John Becking* 
ham, bishop of that see, being, contrary to his wishes, trans* 

* Bi©£. Brit,— Leland, &o. * Diet. Hist* 


lated to Lichfield, to make room for Beaufort, but Beck- 
in gham, with becoming spirit, refused the proffered dio- 
cese, and chose to become a private monk of Canterbury. 
In 1399 Beaufort was chancellor of the university of Ox- 
ford, and at the same time dean of Wells. He was lord 
high chancellor of England in 1404, and in some years af- 
terwards. The following year, upon the death of the cele- 
brated Wykeham, he was, at the recommendation of the 
king, translated to the see of Winchester. In 1414, the 
second of his nephew Henry V. he went to France, as one 
of the royal ambassadors, to demand in marriage Catherine* 
daughter of Charles VI. In 1 4 1 7 he lent the king twenty 
thousand pounds (a prodigious sum in those days), towards 
carrying on his expedition against France, but had the 
crown in pawn as a security for the money. This year also 
he took a journey to the Holy Land ; and in his way, being 
arrived at Constance, where a general council was held, he 
exhorted the prelates to union and agreement in the elec- 
tion of a pope ; and his remonstrances contributed not a 
little to hasten the preparations for the conclave, in which 
Martin III. was elected. We have no farther account of 
what happened to our prelate in this expedition. In 1421 
he had the honour to be godfather, jointly with John duke 
of Bedford, and Jacqueline, countess of Holland, to prince 
Henry, eldest son of his nephew Henry V. and Catherine 
of France, afterwards Henry VI. M. Aubery pretends, 
that James, king of Scots, who bad been several years a 
prisoner in England, owed his deliverance to the bishop of 
Winchester, who prevailed with the government to set him 
free, on condition of his marrying his niece, the grand- 
daughter of Thomas Beaufort, earl of Somerset. This prelate 
was one of king Henry Vlth's guardians during his mino- 
rity ; and in 1424, the third of the young king's reign, he 
was a fourth time lord -chancellor of England. There were 
perpetual jealousies and quarrels, the cause of which is not 
very clearly explained, between the bishop of Winchester, 
and the protector, Humphrey duke of Gloucester, which 
ended in the ruin and death of the latter. Their dissensions 
began to appear publicly in 1425, and to such* a height, 
that Beaufort thought it necessary to write a letter to his 
nephew the duke of Bedford, regent of France, which is 
extant in Holinshed, desiring his presence in England, 
to accommodate matters between them. TI19 regent ac- 
cordingly arriving in England the 20th of December, was 


* > 

met by the bishop of Winchester tyith a numerous train, 
and soon after convoked an assembly of the nobility at St. 
Alban's, to hear and determine the affair. But the ani- 
mosity on this occasion was so great on both sides, that it 
was thought proper to refer the decision to the parliament, 
which was to be held at Leicester, March 25, following. 
The parliament being met, the duke of Gloucester pro- 
duced six articles of accusation against the bishop, who 
answered them severally, and a committee appointed for 
the purpose, having examined the allegations, he was ac- 
quitted. The duke of Bedford, however, to give some sa- 
tisfactipn to the protector, took away the great seal from 
his uncle. Two years after, the duke of Bedford, return- 
ing into France, was accompanied to Calais by the bishop 
of Winchester, who, on the, 25th of March, received there 
with great solemnity, in the church of Our Lady, the car- 
dinal's hat, with the title of St. Eusebius, sent him by pope 
Martin V. In September 1428, the new cardinal returned 
into England, with the character of the pope's legate lately 
conferred on him; and in his way to London, he was met 
by the lord-mayor, aldermen, and the principal citizens 
on horseback, who conducted' him with great honour and re- 
spect to his lodgings in Southwark: but he was forced, for 
the present, to wave his legatine power, being forbidden 
the exercise of it by a proclamation published in the king's 
name. Cardinal Beaufort was appointed, by the pope's 
bull, bearing date March 25, 1427-8, his holiness' s legate 
in Germany, and general of the crusade against the Hus- 
sites, or Heretics of Bohemia, Having communicated the 
pope's intentions to the parliament, he obtained a gnant of 
money, and a considerable body of forces, under certain 
restrictions ; but just as he was preparing to embark, the 
duke of Bedford having sent to demand a supply of men 
for the French war, it was resolved in council, that car- 
dinal Beaufort should serve under the regent, with the 
troops of the crusade, to the end of the month of December, 
on condition that they should not be employed in any siege. 
The cardinal complied, though not without reluctance, and 
accordingly joined the duke of Bedford at Paris. After a 
stay of forty-five days in France, he marched into Bohe- 
mia, where he conducted the crusade till he was recalled 
by the pope, and cardinal Julian sent in his place with a 
larger army. The next year, 1430, the cardinal accom- 
panied king Henry into France, being invested with the 

272 . frEAUFQRT; 

title of the king's principal counsellor, and had the honouf 
to perform the ceremony of crowning the young monarch 
in the church of Notre Dame at Paris ; where he had some 
dispute with James du Chastellier, the archbishop, who 
claimed the right of officiating on that occasion. During, 
his stay in France he was present at the congress of Arras 
for concluding a peace between the kings of 'England and 
France, and had a conference for that purpose with the 
dutchess of Burgundy, between Calais and Gravclines, 
which had no effect, and was remarkable only for the car-* 
dtnal's magnificence, who came thither with a most splen- 
did train. In the mean time the duke of Gloucester took 
advantage in England of the cardinal's absence to give him 
fresh mortification. For, first, having represented to the 
council, that the bishop of Winchester intended to leave 
the king, and come back into England to resume his seat 
in council, in order to excite new troubles in the kingdom, 
and that his intentions were the more criminal, as he made 
use of the pope's authority to free himself from the obliga- 
tions of assisting the king in France ; he procured an order 
of council forbidding all the king's subjects, of what con-, 
dition soever, to accompany the cardinal, if he should leave 
the king-, without express permission. The next step the 
protector took against him, was an attempt to deprive him 
of his bishopric, as inconsistent with . the dignity of car- 
dinal; but the affair having been a long time debated in 
council, it was resolved that the cardinal should be heard, 
and the judges consulted, before any decision. Being re- 
turned into England, he thought it necessary to take some 
precaution against these repeated attacks, and prevailed 
with the king, through the intercession of the commons, 
to grant him letters of pardon for all offences by him com- 
mitted contrary to the statute of provisors, and other acts 
of praemunire. This pardon is dated $t Westminster, July 
19, 1432. Five years after, he procured another pardon 
under the great-seal for all sorts of crimes whatever, from 
the creation of the world to the 26th of July 1437. Not* 
withstanding these precautions, the duke of Gloucester, in 
1442, drew up articles of impeachment against the car- 
dinal, and presented them with his own hands to the king, 
but the council appointed to examine them deferred their 
report so long that the protector discontinued the prosecu- 
tion. The cardinal died June 14, 1447, having survived 
the duke of Gloucester npt above a month, of whose mux* 


4er he wa$ suspected to haVe been one of the coritrivers, 
-and it is said that he expressed great uneasiness at the ap- 
proach of death, and died in despair ; but for this there does 
not appear much foundation, and we suspect the commonly- 
received character of Beaufort is mostly credited by those / 
who have considered Shakspeare as an authentic historian. 
We rather agree with the historian of Winchester, that 
there is no solid ground for representing him as that am- 
bitious, covetous, and reprobate character which Shakspeare 
has represented, and who has robbed his memory, in order 
to enrich that of his adversary, popularly termed tJae cc good 
duke Humphrey'* of Gloucester. Being involved in the 
vortex of worldly politics, it is true, that he gave too much 
scope to the passions of the great, and did not allow him- 
self sufficient leisure to attend to the spiritual concerns of 
his diocese. He possessed, however, that munificent spirit, 
which has cast a lustre on the characters of many persons 
of past times, whom it would be difficult otherwise to pre- 
- sent as objects of admiration. If he was rich, it must be 
admitted that he did not squander away his money upou 
unworthy pursuits, but chiefly employed it in the public 
service, to the great relief of the subjects, with whom, and 
with the commons 9 house of . parliament, he was popular. 
He employed his wealth also in finishing the magnificent 
cathedral of Winchester, which was left incomplete by his 
predecessor, in repairing Hyde-abbey, relieving prisoners, 
and other works of charity. But what, Dr. Milner says, has 
chiefly redeemed the injured character of. cardinal Beau- 
fort, in Winchester and its neighbourhood, is the new foun- 
dation which he made df the celebrated hospital of St. Cross. 
Far the greater part of the present building was raised by 
him, and he added to the establishment of his predecessor, 
Henry de Blois, funds for the support of thirty-five more 
brethren, two chaplains, and three women, who appear to 
have been hospital nuns. It appears also, says the same 
writer, that he prepared himself with resignation and con* 
trition for his last end ; and the collected, judicious, and 
pious dispositions made in his testament, the codicil of 
which was signed but two days before his dissolution, may 
justly bring into discredit the opinion that he died in de- 
spair. He was buried at Winchester in the most elegant 
and finished chantry in the kingdom. l 

* Bk>g. Brit.— Milner*s Hist, of Winchester.— See also an elaborate life of 
Jteaufort, by Mr. Gotigfa, in Vetusta Monuments, yqI, II.— Nichols'* Royal Willi* 

Vol. IV. T 


BEAUFORT (Margaret); the foundress of Christ's ainl * 
St. John's colleges in Cambridge, was the only daughter 
and heir of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (grandson of 
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster), and of Margaret Beau-' 
champ his wife. She was born at Bletshoe in Bedfordshire^ 
in 1441. About the fifteenth year of her age, being a 
rich heiress, the great duke of Suffolk, minister to Henry 
the Vlth. solicited her in marriage for his son ; while the? 
king wooed her for his half-brother Edmund, then earl of. 
Richmond. On so nice a point the good young lady ad- 
vised with an elder gentlewoman; who, thinking it too: 
great a decision to take upon herself, recommended her to 
St. Nicholas, the patron of virgins. She followed her in- 
structions, and poured forth her supplications and prayers 
with such effect, that one morning, whether sleeping or 
waking she could not tell, there appeared unto her some-* 
body in the habit of a bishop,- and desired she would ac- 
cept of Edmund for her husband. Whereupon she mar-* 
lied Edmund earl of Richmond ; and by him had an only 
son, who was afterwards king Henry the Vllth* Edmund 
died, Nov. 3, 1456, leaving Henry his son and heir but 
fifteen weeks old : after which Margaret married sir Henry 
Stafford, knight, second sou to the duke of Buckingham, 
by whom she had no issue. Soon after the death of sir 
Henry Stafford, which happened about 1482, she was 
married again to Thomas lord Stanley, who was created 
earl of Derby, Oct. 27, 1485, which was the first year of 
her son's reign ; and this noble lord died also before her 
in 1504. 

The virtues of this lady are exceedingly celebrated. Her 
humility was such, that she would often say, " on condi- 
tion that the princes of Christendom would combine them- 
selves, and march against the common enemy the Turks, 
she would most willingly attend them, and be their laun- 
dress in the camp." For her chastity, the rev. Mr. Baker, 
who republished bishop Fisher's " Funeral Sermon" oit 
her, in 1708, informs us in a preface, that, as it was un- 
spotted in her marriage, so in her last husband's days, and 
long before his death, she obtained a licence of him to live 
chaste ; upon which she took upon her the vow of celibacy 
from Fisher's hands, in a form yet extant in the registers 
of St. John's-college in Cambridge ; and for this reason^ 
as Baker supposes, her portrait is usually taken in the ha- 
bit of a nun. All this for a lady who had had three hua r 


bands, and Was now advanced in life, will not, we are 
afraid, be considered as any very violent degree of con- 
straint. Her education, however, had qualified her for a 
studious and retired way of life., She understood the 
French language perfectly, and had some skill in the La- 
tin ; bat would often lament that in her youth she did n6t 
make herself a perfect mistress of /it. This affection for 
literature no doubt induced her mother-in-law, the duchess 
of Buckingham, to give her the following legacy in her 
last will : " To her daughter Richmond, a book of English, 
being a legend of saints; a book of French, called Lucun; 
another book of French, of the epistles and gospels ; and 
a primer with clasps of silver gilt, covered with purple vel- 
vet," This was a considerable legacy of its kind at that 
time, when few of her sex were taught letters ; for it has 
often been mentioned as an extraordinary accomplishment 
in Jane Shore, the darling mistress of Edward IV. that she 
could write and read. 

\ Lady Margaret, however, could do both; and there are 
4bme of her literary performances still extant. She pub- 
lished, c< The mirroure of golde for the sinfall soule," 
translated from a French translation of a book called, * Spe- 
culum aurenm peccatorum,' vqry scarce. She also trans-* 
lated out of French into English, the fourth book of Ger- 
son's treatise "Of the imitation and following the blessed 
life of our most merciful Saviour Christ," printed at the 
end of Dr. William Atkinson's English translation of the three 
first books, 1 504. A letter to her son is printed in Ho- 
ward's " Collection of Letters." ♦She also made, by her 
son's command and authority, the orders, yet extant, for 
great estates of ladies and noble women, for their prece-* 
dence, &c. She was not only a lover of learning, but a 
great patroness of learned men ; and did more acts of real 
goodness for the advancement of literature in general, than 
could reasonably have been expected from so much super-* 
etition. • Erasmus has spoken great things of her, for the 
munificence shewn in her foundations and donations of 
several kinds ; a large account of which is given by Mr. 
Baker, in the preface prefixed to the " Funeral Sermon." 
What adds greatly to the merit of these donations is, that 
some of the most considerable of them were performed in 
her life-time j as the foundation of two colleges in Cam* 

T 2 


- Her life was checquered with a variety of good and bad 
fortune : but she- bad a greatness of soul, which seems to 
have placed her above the reach of either ; so that she wa» 
. neither elated with the former, nor depressed with the 
latter. She was most affected with what regarded her 
only child, for whom she haa the most tender affection. 
She underwent some hardships on his account. She saw 
him from an exile, by a wonderful tuta of fortune, advanced 
to the crown of England, which yet he could not keep 
without many struggles and difficulties ; and when he had 
reigned twenty-three years, and lived fifty-two, she saw him 
carried to his grave. Whether this might not prove too great 
a shock for her, is uncertain ; but she survived him only 
three months, dying at Westminster on the 29th Of June, 
1509. She was buried in his chapel, and had a beaqtiful 
monument erected to her memory, adorned with gilded 
brass, arms, and an epitaph round the verge, drawn up by 
Erasmus, at the request of bishop Fisher, for which he had 
twenty shillings given him by the university of Cambridge. 
Upon this altar-tomb, which is enclosed with a grate,, is 
placed the statue of Margaret countess of Richniond and 
Derby, in her robes, all of solid brass, with two pillars on 
each side of her, and a Latin inscription, of which the foK 
lowing is a translation : "To Margaret of Richmond, the 
mother of Henry VII. and grandmother of Henry VI1L 
who founded salaries for three monks in this convent, for a 
grampiar-school at Wymborn, and a preacher of God's 
word throughout England; as also for two divinity-lec- 
turers, the one at Oxford, the other at Cambridge; in 
which last place she likewise built two colleges, in hopour 
of Christ and bis disciple St John. She died in the year 
of our Lord 1509, June the 29th." This lady was the 
daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort duke of Somer- 
set, who was grandson to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancas- 
ter, fourth son of Edward the Third. . Her mother, Mar- 
garet Beauch&mp, was daughter and heiress of the lord 
Beauchamp of Powick. Bishop Fisher observes, " that by 
her marriage with the earl of Richmond, and by her birth, 
she was allied to thirty kings and queens, within the fourth 
degree either of blood or affinity ; besides earls, mar- 
quisses, dukes, and princes: and since her death/' as Mr. 
Baker says, "she has been allied in her posterity to thirty 
more." Her will, which is remarkably curious, is printed 

B E A U F O R T. 2*7 

'ft length in the " Collection of Royal and Noble Wills," 
17*0, 4to, p. 376. * 

BE AULIEU de Pontault. See PONTAULT. 

BEAUMARCHAIS (Peter Auoustin Caron de), a 
French dramatic writer of modern celebrity, was born at 
Paris, Jan. 24, 1732. His father was a watchmaker, and 
at the age of twenty-one himself invented an improvement 
in watchmaking, which being contested by an eminent ar- 
tist, was decided in favour of young Beaumarchais by the 
academy of sciences. Being passionately fond of music, 
and especially of the harp, be introduced some improve- 
ments in this instrument, which, with his excellent per- 
formance, gained him admittance to Mesdamcs, the daugh- 
ters of Louis XV. to give them lessons, and this was the 
origin of his fortune. He lost two wives successively, and 
then, gained three considerable law-suits- The papers 
which he published concerning each of these causes, ex- 
cited great attention. He had also an aiffair of honour with 
a duke, in consequence of which he was sent to Fort 
UEv£que. He was afterwards employed in some political 
transactions by the ministers- Maurepas and Vergennes. 
He supported the scheme for the caisse d'escompte, or 
bank of discount, which he vainly thought to have made a 
rival to that of England: but he was more successful, al- 
though after much opposition, .in procuring the adoption 
of a scheme for a fire-pump to supply the city of Paris 
with water. A plan, also, concerning poor women, was 
executed at Lyons, and gained him the thanks of the mer- 
chants of that city. After the death of Voltarrd, he pur- 
chased the whole of his manuscripts, and not being able to 
print them in France, established a press at KeJJ, * where* 
they were printed in a very magnificent maimer with Bas- 
kerville's types. w . : " 

When the American war took place, Beaumarchais spe- 
culated in supplying the Americans with arms, ammuni- 
tion, &c. and although some of his ships were taken by the 
English, he was so successful with the rest as to realize a. 
considerable fortune, and built a magnificent house in the 
Faubourg St. Antoine. He was planning the construction 
of a bridge over the Seine, when the revolution intervened 
to oppose his projects, and although he was one of those • 

• « * * * 

1 Biog. Brit/-— Bp. Fishefs Sermon published by Baker.— -Park's edition of 
IValpole's Royal and Nobfe Authors. 

278 B E A U M A R C H A I S. 

ttho had contributed to the public stock of discontent, he 
never became popular with the revolutionists. In 1790, 
having signed sucontract with the war minister, to furnish 
60,000 musquets, which he was to procure from Holland, 
and not having delivered one, although he had received 
500,000 francs in advance, the people accused him of 
forming a depot of them in his house on the Boulevard, 
and he was imprisoned for a time, but released, after which 
lie took refuge in England. In 1794 he returned to Paris, 
and began to collect the remains of his fortune, but dissi- 
pated the principal part in a speculation on salt. In May 
1799, he died of an apoplectic stroke, after a life of bustle 
and intrigue, and divided between literature and business* 
His countrymen do not represent his character in the most 
amiable light : his morals were not of the purest species, 
and his more favourable personal accomplishments were 
obscured by a self-conceit, and a love of talking about and 
praising himself, which he could never repress* It was said 
that if he had been ordered to be hanged, he would have 
Requested a gallows as high as Hainan's, that he might be 
more conspicuous. 

- His works are, 1. " Memoires contre les sieurs de Goetz- 
man, La Blache, Marin d'Arnaud," 1774 and 1775. 2. 
€ * Memoire en reponse a cehii de Guillaume Kornmann," 
Paris, 1787. These relate to his law-suits above-mentioned, 
to which it is said that no man but himself could have at- 
tached such an importance as to render them objects of 
public curiosity and conversation. His dramatic career 
was more brilliant. It began with, 3. " Eugenie," a dra- 
ma in five acts, 1767, taken partly from theDiable Boiteux 
of Lfe 'Sage, and partly from some incidents in his own fa- 
mily. 4.. "Les deux amis," 1770. 5, " Le Barbier de 
Seville," 1775. 6. " Le Mariage de Figaro," 1784, two 
pieces since familiarized to the English stage, the former 
by Colman the elder, and the latter by Holcroft 7. " Ta- 
rare,' 9 an opera, (787, not of much poetical merit. 8. " La 
Mere coupable," 1792. 9. " Memoire en reponse au ma- 
nifeste du roi d'Angleterre," afterwards suppressed. 10. 
'* Memoires a Lecointre de Versailles, ou mes six Epoques," 
Paris, 1795. These and other pieces have been since col- 
lected into an edition of his works published in 1 809, 7 
vols. 8vo. In 1802, a life of him was published, which ^e 
have not seen. * 


* Biog . Modern*— Diet. Hist 

3 E AUMELLR «7t 

. BEAUMELLE (Laurence Angliviel be la), a French 
writer of some note, was born at Valleraugues, in the dio- 
cese of Allais, in 1727, and diqd at Pahs Nov. 1773. Being 
invited to Denmark as professor of the French belles-lettres, 
he opened this course of literature by a discourse that was 
printed in 1751, and well received. Having always lived 
in the south of France, a residence in the north could 
hardly agree with him, but he was held in such esteem, 
that he quitted Denmark with the title of privy-counsellor 
and a pension. Stopping at Berlin, he was desirous of 
forming an intimacy with Voltaire, with whose writings be 
was much captivated ; but, both being of irritable and im- 
petuous characters, they, had no sooner seen each other 
than they quarrelled, without hope of reconciliation. The 
history of this quarrel, /which, gave rise to so many per* 
sonalities and invectives, is characteristic of both parties* 
A reflection in a publication of la Beaumelle, entitled " Mes 
Pens6es," was the first cause of it. This work, very stu- 
diously composed, but written with too much boldness* 
procured the author many enemies \ and, on his arrival at 
Paris in 1753,. he was imprisoned in the Bastille. No sooner 
was he let out, than he published his " Memoirs of Main* 
tenon," which drew on him a fresh detention in .that royal 
prison. La Beaumelle, having obtained his liberty, re- 
tired into the country, where he put in practice the lesson* 
he had given to Voltaire, in the following letter : " Well, 
then, tare afle once more at liberty ; let us revenge our* 
selves on these misfortunes by rendering them of use to 
us. Let us lay aside all those literary infirmities whiclu. 
iiave spread so many clouds, over the course of your life* 
bo much bitterness over my youthful years. A little more 
glory, a little more opulence; What does it all signify i 
Let us seek the reality of happiness, and not its shadow, 
The most shining reputation is never worth what it costs. 
Charles V. sighs after retirement ; Ovid wishes to be a fool. 
We are once more free* I am out of the Bastille ; you are 
no longer at court. Let us make the best use of a benefit 
that may be snatched from us at every moment. Let us 
entertain a distant respect for that greatness which is so 
dangerous to those that came near it, and that authority, 
so terrible even to them that exercise it ; and, if it be true 
that we cannot venture to think without risk, let us think 
Do more. Do the pleasures of reflection counterbalance 
those of safety ? ' Let us be persuaded, you, after sixty 

i , 

*S0 B E A XJ U E L L*E: 

years of experience ; me, after six months of annihilation* 
Let us be wiser, or at least more prudent ; ami the wrinkles 
of age, and the remembrance of bolts and bars, those in- 
juries of time and power, will prove real benefits to us." 

He now cultivated literature in peace, and settled him- 
self in the comforts of domestic life by marrying the 
daughter of M. Lavaisse, an advocate of great -practice at 
Thoulouse. A lady of the court called hitn to Paris about 
the year 1772, and wished to fix him there, by procuring 
turn the place of librarian to the king ; but he did not long 
enjoy this promotion ; a dropsy in the chest proved fatal 
the following year. He left a ion and a daughter. His 
works are : 1. " A Defence of Montesquieu's ' Esprit des 
Loix," against the author of the " Nouvelles Ecclesias- 
tiques," which is inferior to that which the president de 
Montesquieu published himself, but for which that writer 
expressed his thanks. 2. " Mes Pens^es, ou, Le Qu'eti 
dira-t-on?" 1751, 12mo; a book which has not kept up, 
its reputation, though containing a great deal of wit? 
but the' author in his politics is often wide of the truth,, 
and allows himself too decisive a style in literature and 
morals. The passage in this book which embroiled him 
with t Voltaire is this : " There have been better poets than 
Voltaire; but none have been ever so well rewarded. The 
king of Prussia heaps his bounty on men of talents exactly 
from the same motives as induce a petty prince of Ger- 
many to heap his bounty on a buffoon or a dwarf.'* 3. "The 
" Memoirs of Madame de Maintenon," 1756, 6 vols. 12mo. 
^which were followed by 9 vols. 1 of letters. In this work 
many facts are given on conjecture, and others disfigured ; 
nor is Madame de Maintenon made to think and speak as 
she either thought or spoke. The style has neither the 
propriety nor the dignity that is proper to history, but the 
author occasionally writes with great animation and energy, 
discovering at times the precision and the force of Ta- 
citus, of whose annals he left a translation in manuscript. 
He had bestowed much study on that philosophic historian, 
and sometimes is successful in the imitation of his manner. 
4» "Letters to M. de Voltaire," 1761, 12mo, containing sar- 
castic remarks oh Voltaire's " Age of Louis XIV." Voltaire 
refuted these remarks in a pamphlet entitled " Supplement 
to the age of Louis XIV." in which ho shews it to be an 
odious thing to seize upon a work on purpose to disfigure 
it La Beaumelle in 1754 gave out an " Answer to this 

^EA UM E L L E. 281 

Supplement," which he re-prt>duced in 1761, under the 
title of " Letters/' To this Voltaire made no reply ; but 
shortly after stigmatized it in company with several others, 
in his infamous poem the " Pucelle," where he describes 
la Beaumelle as mistaking the pockets of other men for 
his own. The writer, thus treated, endeavoured to cancel 
the cahramy by a decree of the parliament of Thoulouse ;» 
but other affairs prevented him from pursuing this. Vol- 
taire, however, bad some opinion of his talents ; and the 
writer of this article has seen a letter of his in which he 
says : " Ce pendard a bien de V esprit." — " The t rascal has 
a good, deal of wit. 9 ' La Beaumelle, on the other hand* 
*aid : " Personne n'gcrit mieux que Voltaire." — " No one 
writes better than Voltaire.*' Yet these mutual acknow- 
ledgments of merit did not prevent their passing a con- 
siderable part of their life in mutual abuse. The abbS 
Irail informs us, that la Beaumelle being one day asked 
why be was continually attacking Voltaire in his books ? 
" Because," returned he, "he never spares me in his * and 
my books sell the better fgr it." It is said, however, that 
la Beaumelle would have left off writing against the author 
of the Henriade ; and even would have been reconciled 
with him, had he not imagined that it would be impossible 
to disarm his wrath, and therefore he preferred war to ah 
insecure peace: 5.^ " Pens6es de Seneque,". in Latin and 
French, in 1 2mo, after the manner of the " PensSes de 
Cic^ron," by the abb6 d'Olivet, whom he has rather imi- 
tated than equalled. 6. " Commentaire sur la Henriade," 
Paris, 1775, 2 vols. 8vo. Justice and taste are sometimes 
discernible in this performance, but too much severity and 
too many miriute remarks. 7. A manuscript translation 
of the Odes of Horace. 8. " Miscellanies," also in MS, 
among which are some striking pieces. The author h&d 
a natural bent towards satire. His temper was frank and 
honest, but ardent and restless. Though his conversation 
was instructive, it had not that liveliness which we perceive 
in his writings. ' 

BEAUMONT (Sir John), w English poet, was the 
son of Francis Beaumont one of the judges of the common 
pleas in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and brother of 
Francis, the dramatic colleague of Fletcher. He was born 
in 1582, at Grace- Dieu, the family seat in Leicestershire, 

J Diet Hi»t 


and admitted a gentleman Commoner of BroadgateVhal!, 
(how Pembroke college) Oxford, the beginning of Lent 
term, 1596. After three years study here, during which 
he seems to have attached himself most to the poetical 
classics* he became a member of ode of the inns of court, 
but soon quitted that situation, and returned to Leices- 
tershire, where he married Elizabeth daughter of John 
Fortescue, esq. 

In 1626, king Charles conferred on him the dignity of 
a baronet, which sir John survived only two years, dying 
in the winter of 1628. He is said by Anthony Wood to 
have been buried at Grace-Dieu, but this is a mistake for 
Belton, as the priory church was not then existing. The 
cause of his death is obscurely hinted at in the following 
lines by Drayton : 

** Thy care for that, which was not worth thy breath, 
Brought on too soon thy much-lamented death. 
But Heav'n was kind, and. would not let thee see 
The plagues.that must upon this nation be, 
By whom the Mu$es have neglected been, 
Which shall add weight and measure to their sin." 

What these lines imply it is not easy to conjecture. 
Sir John died at the age of forty-six, almost in the prime 
of life, and his poetical attempts were the amusement of 
his young days, which he had relinquished for more se- 
rious studies. 

He had seven sons and four daughters. Of his sons, the 
most noticeable were, John, his successor, the editor of 
his father's poems, and himself a minor poet ; Francis, 
the author of some verses on his father's poems, who be- 
came afterwards a Jesuit ; Gervase, who died at seven 
years old, and was lamented by his father in sojne very 
pathetic verses, in the late edition of the English poets ; 
and Thomas, the third baronet. Sir John, who succeeded 
bis father, is recorded as a man of prodigious bodily 
strength. He was killed in 1644 at the siege of Glou- 
cester, and dying unmarried, was succeeded in title by 
his brother Thomas, who, like him, was plundered by the 

Besides his works, in the " English poets," Wood as- 
cribes to our author a poem in eight hooks, entitled " The 
Crpwn of Thorns ;" and a work under this title is alluded 
to in Hawkins's commendatory verses, but it has escaped 
the researches of the poetical collectors. 

I^EAU MO-NT. 2» 

: His other poems were published in 1629, uhder the 
title of " Bos worth -field, with a taste of the variety of othei^ 
poems, left by sir John Beaumont, baronet, deceased; set 
forth by his sonne, sir John Beaumont, baronet, and de- 
dicated to the king's most excellent majestie." They a«e 
prefixed, not only by this loyal dedication to the king, 
but by commendatory verses by Thomas Hawkins ; the 
author's sons John and Francis; George Forteseue, the 
brother of his lady ; Ben Jonson, Drayton, &c. 

Bosworth Field is the most considerable of this collec- 
tion, and certainly contains many original specimens of the 
heroic style, not exceeded by any of his contemporaries, 
and the imagery is frequently just and striking. The line* 
describing the death of the tyrant may be submitted with 
confidence to the admirers of Shakspeare. Among his 
lesser poems, a few sparklings of invention may now and 
then be discovered, and his translations are in general 
spirited and correct. His verses on the true form of Eng- 
lish poetry, addressed to king James 1. entitle him to a. 
place among the most judicious critics of his time, and 
the chaste complexion of the whole shews that to genius, 
he added virtue and delicfecy. > 

BEAUMONT (Francis), third son of Francis, the 
judge, was born at Grace- Dieu, in Leicestershire, 1586 ; 
and in the beginning- of Lent term 1596, was admitted 
(with his two brothers Henry and John) a gentleman com- 
moner of Broad gate's-hail, now Pembroke-college,. Oxford. 
Anthony Wood, who refers his education to Cambridge, 
mistakes him for his cousin Francis, master of the Charter* 
house, who died in 1624. It is remarkable, that there 
were four Francis Beaumonts of this family, all living in 
1615, and of these at least three were poetical ; the master 
of the Charter-house, the dramatic writer, and Francis 
Beaumont, a Jesuit. 

Our poet studied for some time in the Inner Temple, and 
his "Mask of the Inner Temple and Gray's -inn," wasacted 
and printed in 1612-13, when he was in bis twenty-sixth 
year. His application to the law was probably not very 
intense, nor indeed is it possible to conceive that be could 
have been preparing for the practice of the bar, and pro-r 
ducing his poems and plays within the limits of a life not 
exceeding thirty years. He appears to have devoted him*. 

\ 1 Eftgiifh Poets, 21 vols. 1 8a 0.— Nichols's Hist, of Leifettershirt. 


self »to the dramatic muse from a very early period ; but 
at what time he commenced a partnership with Fletcher, 
who was ten years older, is not known. The date of their 
first play is 1607, when Beaumont was in his twenty-first 
year ; and it was probably acted some time before. He 
brought, however, into this firm a genius uncommonly 
fertile and commanding. In all the editions of their plays, 
and in 'every notice of their joint productions, notwith- 
standing Fletcher's seniority, the name of Beaumont always 
stands first. 

Their connection, from similarity of taste and studies, 
was very intimate, and it would appear, at one time, very 
(economical* Aubrey informs us, that "There was a won- 
derful consimility of fancy between Mr. Francis Beaumont 
and Mr. John Fletcher, which caused that dearness of 
friendship between them. I have heard Dr. John Earl, 
since bishop of Sarum, say, who knew them,-' that • his 
(Beaumont's) main business was to correct the super-over- 
Sowings of Mr. Fletcher's wit. They lived • together on 
the Bankside, not far from the play-house, both bachelors; 
had one bench in the' house between them, which they 
did so admire; the same fcloaths, cloak, &c. between 
them." With respect to the specific share he had . in the 
plays which have been published as the joint production of 
Beaumont and Fletcher,, the reader may find much in-* 
formation, and perhaps all that can now be ascertained on 
this subject, in the preliminary matter of the edition pub- 
lished in 1778, 10. vols. 8vo, or more briefly in a note in 
Mr. Malone's life of Dryden, vol. II. p. 100—101. Sir 
Egerton Brydges, whose judgment, is <of sterling value in 
matters of literary antiquity, suspects that great injustice 
has been generally done to Beaumont; by the supposition 
of Larigbaine and others that his merit was principally 
confined to lopping the redundancies of Fletcher. He ac- 
quits, however, the editors of the Biographia Dramatica 
of this blame. They say, " It is probable that the forming 
of the plots, and contriving the conduct of the fable, the 
writing of the mere serious and pathetic parts, and lopping 
the redundant branches of Fletcher's wit, whose luxurian- 
ces, we are told frequently, stood in need of castigation, might 
be, in general, Beaumont's portion of. the work. " This, 9 * 
adds Mr. Brydges, " is to afford him very high praise,? 1 
and the authorities of sir John Birkenhead, Jasper Mayne, 
sir George Lisle, and others, amount to strong proof that 

BE A U MO NTT. > 2*3 

he fcr&s considered by his contemporaries in a superior 
light, (and by none more than, by Jonson), and that this 
estimation of his talents was common in the life-time of 
his colleague, who, from candour or friendship, appears 
to have acquiesced in every respect paid to the memory of 

How his life was spent, his works show. The produc- 
tion of so n^iy plays, and the interest he took in their 
success, were sufficient to occupy his mind, during his short 
span, which cannot be supposed to have be«n diversified 
by any other events than those that are incident to candi- 
dates for. theatrical fame and profit. Although his ambi- 
tion was confined to one object, his life probably abounded 
in those .little varieties of hope and fear, perplexity and sa- 
tisfaction, jealousy and rivalsbip, friendship and caprice, 
which are. to be experienced within the watts of a theatre, 
and compose the history of a dramatic writer. 

He appears' a satirist on women in some of his poems, 
but he was more influenced by wit than disappointment 
and probably only versified the common-place raillery of 
the times. He married Ursula, daughter and co-heir of 
Henry Isley of Sundridge in Keut, by whom he had two 
daughters. One of these, Frances* was living at a great 
age in Leicestershire, in 1700, and at that time enjoy e^. a 
pension of 100/. a-year from the duke of Ormond, in whose 
family she had resided for some time as a domestic. She 
had once in her possession several poems of her father's 
writing, which were lost at sea during her voyage from Ire- 
land. Mr. Beaumont died e?rly in March, 1615-16,- and 
was buried on the 9th, at the. entrance of St. Benedict's 
chapel near the earl of Middlesex's monument, in the col* 
legiate church of St. Peter, Westminster, without apy in- 

The first edition of. his poems appeared in 1640, 4to, 
and the second in 1653, but neither so correct as could be 
wished. The editor of both was the bookseller, Laurence 
Blaiklock, whom Anthony Wood characterises as a " Pres- 
byterian bookbinder near Temple-bar, afterwards an in- 
former to the committee of sequestration at Haberdashers* 
and. Goldsmiths' hall, and a beggar defunct in prison." 
Whoever he was, he put together. what he could find in 
circulation, without much discernment or inquiry, and has. 
mixed with Beaumont's several pieces that belong to other 
authors, The oply poem printed in Beaumont's life-time 


was " Salmaeis and Hermaphroditus" from Ovid> which he 
published in 1602, when he was only sixteen years of age* 
a circumstance no^ necessary to prove it the production of 
a very young man. 

His original poems give him very superior claims to 4 
place in our collections. Although we find some of the 
metaphysical conceits so common in his day, particularly in 
the elegy on lady Markham, he is in general more free 
from them than his contemporaries. His sentiments are 
elegant and refined, and his versification is unusually har-» 
monious. Where have we more lively imagery, or in such 
profusion, as in the sonnet " Like a ring without a finger ?^ 
His amatory poems are sprightly and original, and some of 
his lyrics rise to the impassioned spirit of Shakspeare and 
Milton. Sir E. Brydges is of opinion that the third song 
in the play of " Nice Valour" afforded the first hint of the 
II Penseroso.  

BEAUMONT (Joseph), D. D. roaster of Peter-bouse, 

Cambridge, and king's professor of divinity, was a descend* 

ant of the ancient family of Beaumont in Leicestershire* 

His father, who died in 16 53, had been a woollen manufacturer 

at Hadleigh in Suffolk, where our author, his eldest son, was < 

born March 13, 1615. His father, who discovered in him 

a turn for letters, placed him at the grammar school of his 

native place, where he made uncommon proficiency in 

classical learning, and in his sixteenth year was removed to 

Peteihouse in Cambridge, and distinguished himself, not 

more by his literary acquirements than by his pious and 

orderly department, acquiring the high esteem of Dr. Co* 

sins, then master of that college, and afterwards bishop of 

Durham. After taking his degree of A. B. he was elected 

fellow, and afterwards tutor and moderator. In 1643, as 

he adhered loyally to his sovereign, he was obliged to leav£ 

the university, then in possession of the usurping 'powers, 

and being ejected from his fellowship, he -retired to Had* 

leigh, where he associated with some other persons of his 

own sentiments, chiefly his former pupils and the sons of 

his friend and patron bisbop Wren ; and here he appears 

to have amused himself in writing his " Psyche," which 

was begun in April 1647, finished before the 'end of March 

1648, and published the same year; an allegorical poem, 

displaying the " Intercourse between Christ, and the Soul," 


4 £a|liih feet* SI vols, 1S10.— NieMs'i Hift of Uk*tte«hire, . - 


which was mucli admired hi his time, but has not preserved 
its popularity. Pope is reported to have said of it, that 
" there are in it a great many flowers well worth gathering, 
and a man who has the art of stealing wisely will And his 
account in reading it." His biographer, however, confes- 
ses that he has generally preferred the effusions of fancy td 
the corrections of judgment, and is often florid and affected, 
obscure and perplexed. His Latin poems, although 
perhaps superior in style, are yet below the purity of 
the Augustan age. All his poetical efforts were the 
amusement of his leisure hours during the rebellion, by 
which he lost, besides his fellowship, some preferment* 
which bishop Wren had bestowed on him, as the rectory of 
KelshaU in Hertfordshire in 1643, that of Elm with the 
chapel of Emneth in 1646, and the seventh canonry and 
prebend in the cathedral of Ely in 1647. And so zealous 
was bishop Wren for his interest and happiness, that he 
took him into bis house as his domestic chapjain, and mar* 
ried him to his step-daughter in 1650. With her Mr. 
Beaumont retired to Tatingston-place, where they lived in 
a private manner until the restoration. On that event he 
took possession of his former livings, and was also admitted 
into the first list Qf his majesty's chaplains, and by his ma* 
jesty's mandamus was created D. D. in 1660. In 1661 he 
removed, at bishop Wren's desire, to Ely, where he had the 
misfortune to lose his wife in 1662. • In April of that year, 
on the resignation of Dr. Pearson, master of Jesus 9 college, 
Cambridge, the bishop of Ely appointed him successor, 
and in 1663, on the death of Dr. Hale, master of Peter* 
house, he was removed to the headship of that college, 
which he governed with great care and liberality. The 
same year he was instituted to the rectory of Teversham 
near Cambridge, and* in 1664 to that of Barley in Hert- 
fordshire, where he alternately resided in the vacation 
months every summer, feeding the poor, instructing the 
ignorant, and faithfully discharging his pastoral charge. In 
1665 he was drawn into a controversy with Dr. Henry 
More, who bad advanced some doctrines in bis " Mystery 
of Godliness," which our author thought subversive of our 
constitution ift church and state, and productive of many 
evils to the Christian religion; Dr. More replied t6 
this charge, but Dr. Beaumont received the thanks of the 
university for his services on this occasion. In 1670 he 
was elected to the divinity chain In the course of his lee* 


tares, which he read for twenty-nine years, he went through 
the two epistles to the Romans and Colossians, with a view 
to explain the difficulties and controversies occasioned by 
some passages in them. In 1689, when the Comprehen- 
sion was attempted, in order to unite the church and dis- 
senters, he was one of the commissioners appointed for that 
purpose, but never took his place at the board, convinced 
of the little probability that such a scheme should succeed. 
He continued to discharge the several duties of his office, 
even when advanced to his eighty- fourth year, and preached 
before the university in turn, Nov. 5, 1699; but a high fe- 
ver came on the same evening, which, with the addition of 
the gout in his stomach, proved fatal on the 23d of the same 
month. His biographer sums up his character in these 
words : " He was religious without bigotry, devout with- 
out superstition, learned without pedantry, judicious with- 
out censoriousness, eloquent without • vanity, charitable 
without ostentation, generous without profusion, friendly 
without dissimulation, courteous without flattery, prudent 
without cunning, and humble without meanness." Mr. 
Cole informs us, that in 1662 he obtained, from the .vice-' 
chancellor of Cambridge, a dispensation to eat flesh in Lent, 
as fish did not agree with his constitution ; probably this 
was among the last instances of such a scruple in .the Pro- 
testant church. His " Psyche" was reprinted, with many 
of the author's corrections, and the addition of four cantos, 
in 1702, by his son Charles Beaumont, A. M. of Peter- 
house, who informs us that his father left all his works, cri- 
tical and polemical, to the college, strictly forbidding the 
printing of any of them. In 1749 was published his lesser 
" Poems in English and Latin, with an appendix, contain- 
ing some dissertations and remarks on the Epistle to the 
Colossians," 4to. To this is prefixed an account of his 
life, from which the present sketch has been taken. * 

BEAUMONT de Perefjx. See PEREFIX. 

BEAUNE (Florimond de), the son of Florimond de 
Beaune, seigneur of Goulieux, was born at Blois in 1601, 
and having studied law, became counsellor of the presidial 
of Blois. He was most celebrated, however, for his skill 
in mathematics, which induced Descartes to pay him a visit, 
which de Beaune returned afterwards, and they frequently 
consulted one another on their pursuits. De Beaune in- 

1 I4fe ubi supra,— Cole's MS Athens in Brit Mu*.— Jacob's Lives, &c. 

fe E A U N E. 699 

rented many astronomical instruments, and some telescope* 
of great utility. He is also famous for a problem that bears 
his name ; it consists in the construction of a curve, with 
conditions that render it extremely difficult. Descartes 
solved this problem; and de Beaune, animated by the 
praises of a man so celebrated, discovered a method of de- 
termining the nature of curves by the properties of their 
tangents. De Beaune died in 1652, in his fifty-first year. * 

BEAURAIN (John de), an accurate military geogra-* 
pher, the descendant of an ancient family, was born at Aix 
m Issart in 1697, and at the age of nineteen went to Paris, 
where he studied geography under the celebrated Sanson, 
geographer to. the king. His progress was so rapid, and 
his reputation so high, that at the age of twenty-five he 
was honoured with the same title. A perpetual almanac 
which he invented, and with which Louis XV. was much 
pleased, procured him the patronage of that prince, for 
whom he drew a great number of plans and charts. But hi* 
principal reputation rests on his topographical plans of the 
military kind, particularly his " Description topographique 
et militaire des canipagnes de Flandre, depuis 1690 jus- 
qu'en 1694," Paris, 1756, 3 vols, folio, drawn up from the 
memoirs of Vaultier and the marshal Luxembourg. He 
had also the honour of contributing to the education of the 
dauphin, for which a pension was conferred on him in 
|756, and, as he had talents of the political kind, he was 
pot unfrequently employed in negociations by cardinal de 
Fleury and Amelot. He died at Paris, Feb. 11, 1771. His 
son, the chevalier de Beaurain, who appears to have inhe- 
rited his father's talents as a military draftsman, published 
" Cartes des campagnes de grande Cond£ en Flandre," 
Paris, fol. 1774; and in 1781, those of Turenne, with the 
descriptions of Grimoard, compiled from Turenne's original 
papers, the correspondence of Louis XIV. that of his mi- 
nisters, and several other authentic memoirs, a most splen- 
did folio, enriched with a great number of charts and plans, 
executed with uncommon fidelity, precision, and minute- 
ness, so as to describe every motion of the armies in the 
most distinct manner. • 

BEURIEU (Gaspard Guillard^de), a French miscel- 
laneous writer, entitled to some notice, was born at St. Paul 

* Moreri.— Wet Hist. 

* Dicu Hist fl t e tfaii lAfUnentknted volume described in Monthly Review, 
IXVI1. p. 510. 

Vol. IV. U 


\ » 

290 BE URIE U. 


in Artois, July 9, 1728, and became noted at Paris for hi* 
oddities and his numerous writings. He affected great 
singularity in dress, and was not less remarkable for his bona 
mots and tart replies. When asked why he followed no 
profession, he said, " I have been too long enamoured of 
goodness and honour, to fix my affections on fortune.'* 
He used to say that " life was a continual epigram, to which 
death furnished the point/* There is' perhaps not much in 
these, and probably the other witticisms we have seen at- 
tributed to him derived their principal effect from his man- 
ner, or from the person or occasion when applied. He was, 
however, a man of great humanity, and particularly attached 
to Children, employing himself for many years in instruct- 
ing them, and at last he procured admission to the Normal 
school, that he might contribute his share to the general 
plan of public education. His writings are, 1. " L'Heu- 
reux citoyen," 1759, 12 mo. 2. " Cours d'dHistoire sacree 
et profane," 1763 and 1766, 2 vols. 12mo. 3. " Abr6g6 
de Fhistoire des Insectes," Paris, 1764, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. 
** L'Heureux viellard," a pastoral drama, 1 769. 5. '? Cours 
d l histoire naturelle," Paris, 1770, 7 vols. 12mo. 6. " Va- 
rietes Litteraires," 1775, 12rno. 7. " De 1'alaitement et 
de la premiere Education des Enfans," 1782, 12mo. 8, 
€€ L'Eleve de la Nature," Geneva, 1790, 2 vols. 8vo, often 
reprinted. It contains an ingenious sketch, but not very 
happily filled up. 9. u L'Accord parfait, ou PEquilibre 
physique et morale," Paris, 1793. 10. " Le Port-feuiUe* 
Francais," &c. By all these literary labours, however, thg 
Author appears to have profited little, as he died in an hos- 
pital at Paris, Oct. 5, 1795. 

BEAUSOBRE (Isaac), an eminent Calvimst divine and 
ecclesiastical writer, was born at Niort in Upper Poitou, 
March 8, 1659, of a family originally of Provence, whose 
name was Bossart, which one of his ancestors changed to Beau- 
sobre, on taking refuge in Swisserland from the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew's day. In his youth he had some favour- 
able opportunities for rising in the world. M. de Vieux- 
fburnaux, cousin-german to his father, strongly solicited 
him not to change his religion, but to study law, because in 
that case he had sufficient interest with Madame de Main- 
tenon to recommend him to her, who would have made his 
fortune. J8ut as he probably foresaw that the sacrifice pf 
his religion must ultimately be the consequence, in order 
to secure him patronage of this kind, he withstood his rela- 

1EAUSOBR E. 291 

tion's solicitations, and pursued his original intention, that 
of qualifying himself for the church. Having finished his 
studies at Saumur, he was ofdained, by imposition of hands, 
at the age of twenty-one, in the last synod of Loudon; and 
had a congregation intrusted to him, to whom he officiated 
for three or four years, during which he married Claude 
Louisa Arnaudeau, whose father was pastor of the church 
of Lusignan. The days of persecution approaching, M. de 
Beausobre's church was shut up, and having been so rash 
as to break it open, contrary to the orders of the court, he 
found it necessary to make his escape. At first he intend- 
ed to have gone to England, but for some reasons, not men- 
tioned in our authority, he preferred Holland, where he 
recommended himself to the favour of the princess of 
Orange, who appointed him chaplain to her daughter the 
princess of A nhalt- Dessau, and accordingly he went to 
Dessau in 1686. Here his situation was rendered pecu- 
liarly agreeable by the kindness of the princess, the esteem 
she conceived for, and the confidence she reposed in him ; 
and here he appears to have applied himself to those studies; 
the produce of which appeared soon afterwards. 

The first occasion of his becoming an author was the 
conduct of the duke of x Saxe-Barby, who quitted the Lu- 
theran communion, and printed a confession of his faith in 
1688. A year after appeared, under the name of the the- 
ological faculty of Leipsic, a work in German, purporting 
to be " An inquiry into the motives which induced the 
duke of Saxe to separate from the Lutherans ;" and a Latin: 
translation of it having been submitted to M. Beausobre, 
he perceived its weakness, and conceived it an act of jus- 
tice in behalf of the more moderate part of the Lutherans, 
to make a public declaration of the doctrines of the reform- 
ers. Accordingly this his first work was entitled " Defense* 
de la doctrine des Reformes," on the subjects of providence, 
predestination, grace, the Lord's supper, &c. printed at 
Magdeburgh, 1693. In this, while he speaks favourably of 
the moderate winters among the Lutherans, he censures thte 
others for their bigotry against the Calvinists, or against 
any who differ from them in the least degree. His work 
tvas extremely well received, although this edition is full 
of typographical errors. 

. In 1693, on the death of John-George II. prince of An r 
halt-Dessau, he pronounced a funeral oration, which was 
printed at Berlin, 1695, 4 to, in the form of a " Sermon 

• • v % 


Funebre," tlie subject of which (John xvii. 3.) was pointed 
out by the prince himself. After residing eight years at 
Dessau, Beausobre, in 1694, removed to Berlin*, where the 
refugees for the cause of religion, many of them his parti- 
cular friends, had formed an asylum, and where he might 
enjoy the means of educating his family. Hers he passed 
the rest of his life, and exercised his ministry for the space 
of forty-six years, not only as one of the pastors appointed 
to supply the churches of the French refugees, but as chap- 
lain to their majesties, an office he had the honour to fill 
until the death of the queen Sophia-Charlotte. He was 
besides, counsellor of the royal consisttny, inspector of the 
French college, and a year before his death was appointed 
inspector of the French churches in Berlin, and of the oth^r 
churches comprised within the inspection of that city. 
As every church had its separate pastor, Basnage be- 
longed first to that of Ville-Neuve, but on the death of 
his friend Mr. Lenfant in 1728, he succeeded him in the 
church of Werder, where he officiated through the remain- 
der of his life. 

As soon as Beausobre became settled at Berlin, he re- 
sumed his favourite studies, and particularly his " History 
of the Reformation," which he carried down to the Augs- 
burgh confession, and left it in manuscript. In this state 
it remained until 1784, when it was published at Berlin in 
4 vols. 8vo. Its principal object is the origin and progress 
of Lutheran ism, in treating of which the author has availed 
himself of Seckendorff's history, but has added many valu- 
able materials. It contains also very curious and ample 
details relative to the progress of the reformation in France 
and Swisserland ; but it nevertheless is not free from ob- 
jections, both on the score of impartiality and accuracy. 
In the mean time, the Prussian court having desired M. 
Beausobre and his friend M. Lenfant to prepare a transla- 
tion of the New Testament, they shared the labour between 
them, M. Lenfant taking the Evangelists, Acts, Catholic 
epistle?, and the Apocalypse, and M. Beausobre the epistles 
of St. Paul. The whole was published in 2 vols. 4to, Amst. 
1718, with prefaces, notes, &c. A second edition ap^ 
peared in 1741, with considerable additions and corrections. 
Their " Introduction" was published separately at Cam- 
bridge (translated into English) in 1779; and t)r. Watson, 
bishop of LlandafT, who inserted it in the third volume of 
his " Theological Tracts,*' pronounces it a work of extra- 
ordinary merit, the authors having left scarcely any topic 


« • 

untouched, on which the young student in divinity may be 
supposed to want information* Their only opponent, at 
the time of publication, was a Mr. Dartis, formerly a mi- 
nister at Berlin, from which he had retired, and who pub- 
lished a pamphlet, to which Beausobre and Lenfant made 
separate replies. Beausobre was one of the principal mem- 
bers of a society of literary men of Berlin, who called them 
the " Anonymi," and this connection led him to be a con- 
tributor to the " Bibliotheque Germanique," of which he 
was editor from vol. IV. to the time of his death, except- 
ing yoI. XL. One of the pieces he wrote for. this journal 
was translated into English, and published at London, 
1735, 8vo, under the title of " St. Jatzko, or a com- 
mentary on a passage in the plea for the Jesuits of Thorn." 
But his most celebrated work was his " Histoire critique 
de Manicheisme," Amst. 1734, 1739, 2 vols. 4to. Of the 
merit of this work it may, perhaps, be sufficient to give the 
opinion of a man of no religion, Gibbon, who says that " it 
is a treasure of ancient philosophy and theology. The 
learned historian spins, with incomparable art, the system- 
atic thread of opinion, and transforms himself by turns' in- 
to the person of a saint, a sage, or an heretic. Yet his re- 
finement is sometimes excessive: he betrays an amiable 
partiality in favour of the weaker side, and while he guards 
against calumny, he does not allow sufficient scope for su- 
perstition and fanaticism," things, or rather words, which 
Gibbon is accustomed to use without much meaning. The 
journalists of Trevoux having attacked this work, gave Mr. 
Beausobre an opportunity of showing his superiority in ec- 
clesiastical history, by an answer published in the Bibl. 
Germanique, which perhaps is too long. He wrote also a 
curious preface to the ** Memoirs of Frederick-Henry, 
prince of Orange," Amst. 1733. These are all the works 
which appeared in the life-time of our author, but he left a 
great many manuscripts, dissertations on points of ecclesi- 
astical history, and sermons, none of which, we believe, 
have been published, except the " History of the Reform- 
ation,' 9 already noticed, M. Beausobre reached the period 
of old age, without experiencing much of its influence. 
He preached at the age of eighty with vigour and spirit. 
His last illness appears to have come on in October 1737, 
and although it had many favourable intermissions, he died 
June 5, 1738, in the full possession of his faculties and re- 
collection, and universally regretted by his flock, as well as 

^ i 


by the literary world. The most remarkable encomium 
bestowed on him, is that of the prince, afterwards Frede- 
xick king" of Prussia, in a letter to Voltaire, published in 
the works of the latter,. " We are about to lose one of the 
greatest men of Germany. , This is the famous M. de Beau- 
sabre, a man of honour andprobity, of great genius, a taste 
exquisite and delicate, a great orator, learned in the his- 
tory of the church and in general literature, an implacable 
enemy of the Jesuits, the best writer in Berlin, a man full 
of 6re and vivacity, which eighty years of life have ,not 
chilled; has a little of the weakness of superstition, a fault 
common enough with peopip of his stamp, and is conscious 
enough of his abilities to be afftcted by applause. This 
loss is irreparable. We have no one who can replace M, 
de Beausobre ; men of merit are rare, and when nature 
sows them they do not always come to maturity." The 
applause of such a man as Beausobre,. from Frederick of 
Prussia ta Voltaire, is a curiosity. 

.. Beausobre left,, by his first wife, two sons and a daugh- 
ter, and by his second, whom be married in his seventieth 
year, two infant sons. His second son by the first mar- 
riage, Charles Louis Beausobre,. was born at Dessau in 
16^0, and became a pastor of a church at Berlfn, where he 
died in 1753. He published " Disconrs sur le Nouv. 
Test," as a sequel to that of Saurin ; " Apologie des Pro- 
testans*" and contributed to the completion of his father's 
History of the Reformation, which he did not, however, live 
to see published. l • . 

B£ AUSOBtlE (Lewis), perhaps of the same family with 
the preceding, was born at Berlin in 1730, where he also 
died, Dec. 3, 1784, in consequence of an apoplectic stroke. 
He was privy counsellor to the king of Prussia in the 
French department, counsellor of revision or*he supreme 
fconsistory, and member of the royal academy of sciences 
and belles lettres at Berlin. He published, 1. " Des dis- 
sertations phjlosophiques sur la nature de Feu," 1753, 
12mo, containing many accurate observations, with some 
of a more doubtful kind. 2. " Le Pyrrhonisme du sage, 1 * 
1754, 12mo. 3. " Les songes d' Epicure/' 1756, 12mo» 
4. " Introduction generale a Tetude de la Politique, des 
finances, et du Commerce," Berlin, 1771, 3 vols. 12mo. 

I Cha»fepie'« Diet Hist.— Diet. Hirt> 


6. u Essai sur le Bonheur," and 7. " Introduction i la 
§tatistique." * 

BEAUVAIS (Vincent of). See VINCENT. 

BEAUZEE (Nicholas), one of the French academy, 
and professor of grammar in the military school, was Born 
at Verdun, May 9, 1717, and died at Paris, Jan. 25, 1789. 
Of his early life we have no account, but he appears to 
have been selected by the encyclopedists to furnish the 
artiches on grammar in their celebrated undertaking. The 
abb£ Barruel, who says he was a layman much to be resjiected 
for bis piety, once asked him, how a man of his principles 
came to be associated with the encyclopedists, who were 
notoriously infidels. " The very same question," answered 
Beauzee, " have I put to d'Alembert. At one of the sit- 
tings, seeing that I was almost the only person who believed 
in God, I asked him how he possibly could ever have 
thought of me for a member, when he knew that my senti- 
ments and opinions differed so widely from those of his 
brethren ? D'Alembert without hesitation answered, " I 
am sensible of your amazement, but we were in want of a 
skilful grammarian, and among our party not one had ac- 
quired a reputation in that study. We knew that you be* 
lieved in God, but being a good sort of a man, we cast our 
eyes on you, for want of a philosopher to supply your 
place." About the same time, probably, Beauzee- pub- 
lished his " Gratnmaire generate, ou exposition rai&onnee 
des eleftiens necessaires du L&ngage, pour servir de fonde- 
meiit a Petude de toutes les Langues," Paris, 1767V 2 vols, 
a work which, although it falls short of its title, contains 
much valuable instruction, especially respecting the French 
language. The chief fault is, that the author wants preci- 
sion, and is frequently too metaphysical to be intelligible. 
He published also a new edition of the abb6 Girard's 
.** Synonymes," with great additions, 2 vols. }2mo; trans-* 
lations of Sallust, often reprinted, and much admired ; 
ofQuintus Curtius, which likewise* became popular ; and 
of Thomas & K'empis. He promoted the publication 
of the translation of sir Isaac Newton's Optics by Marat, 
2 vols. 8vo, 1787, which is thought to be very cor* 
rect. The Diet. Hist, mentions another work by Beauzee, 
but without date, " Exposition abreg6e des preuves his- 
torique de le religion," 12mo.* 

* Diet. Hist * Diet* Hist.— -Barruel's Memoirs of Jacobinism, vol. !• 

20* B1FELE. 

. BEBELE (Balthazar), a Lutheran divine, was bom 
at Strasburg, in 1632, where he was first pastor and pro- 
fessor of divinity and ecclesiastical history, and afterwards 
professor of divinity, pastor and superintendant general 
at Wittemberg, where he died of an apoplexy, Oct; 
2 9 1686. When very young, he wrote " Theses Philo- 
logics de re nummaria veterum," and " Djsputationes 
Philological de Theologia Gentili ex antiquis nummis 
eruta," Wittemberg, 1658, 4to. He afterwards pub- 
lished " Dissertatio de aris et mensis Eucharisticis ve- 
terum," Strasb. 1666, 4to; " Antiquitates Ecclesiae," ibid. 
1669-^1680, 3 vols. 4to. And after his death, appeared 
u Ecclesia Antediluviana vera et falsa," ibid. 1 706. u Me- 
morabilia Hist Ecclesiastic® recentioris," Dresden, 1731, 
' 4to. Witte, in his Diarium, gives a longer list of his 
writings, but without specifying whether they are col- 
lected dissertations or separate volumes ; a neglect very 
common with tbe biographers of the sixteenth and seven* 
teenth centuries. l 

BEBELE (Henry), a native of Justingen, in Suabia, 
where bis father was a labourer, was educated at home, 
and in 1495 went to Cracow, where, and at Tubingen, 
he studied the languages, jurisprudence, and particularly 
poetry. In 1501, the emperor Maximilian I. honoured 
him with the poetical crown. Before this, in 1497, be 
was professor at Tubingen, and lectured on the ancient 
orators and historians, and is said to have been the first 
who introduced into Germany a relish for the purity of the 
Latin tongue, in which his works show that he had attained 
considerable excellence. His Latin dissertations of the 
historical kind, relating to Germany, are inserted in the 
first volume of Scharde's Scrip. Rer. Germanicarunn It 
is less to his credit that he wrote some tales of a very li<- 
centious kind. He formed, also, a collection of German 
proverbs, which with his poems were published at Stras- 
burgh, in 1512, 4to, under the title " Opuscula Bebe- 
liapa." A posthumous work of . bis, " JDe necessitate 
linguae Latins," was published at Augsburgh, in 180J, 
with his life in German, by Zapf, Saxius fixes his death 
in 1514. • 

BECAN (Martin), an eminent Jesuit, born in 1561, 
at Hilvarenbec, a small village of Brabant, entered the 

* Morari.— Savii Onomasticon. 

• JHoreri.— Diet, Hist— Saxii Oaomastioon.— Cave, vol. II* 

. * B E C A N. 491 

society of Jesuits in 1583. He taught philosophy four 
years, and divinity twenty-two years, at Mentz, Wirtz- 
burgh, and Vienna, and was reckoned one of the ablest 
professors of his time. The emperor Matthias maintained 
him at Vienna, and he was made confessor to the emperor 
Ferdinand II. The popish historians say he was happy in 
a clear conception, and could express himself so intel- 
ligibly to his scholars, even upon the most intricate points, 
that several universities contended which should receive 
him. He published a tract upon scholastic divinity, which 
Dupin says is short and clear, and has been much esteemed, 
and several treatises of controversy. He was the friend 
and follower of Bellarmin, and supported him in his con- 
troversy with king James I. and bishop Andrews (see An- 
Diikws). It may supply a small defect in bishop Andrews** 
life, to note here that Becan wrote : 1. " Refutatio Apo- 
logise et Monitorial prefationis Jacobi regis Angliae,'* 
Mentz, 1610, 8vo. 2. " Refutatio Torturae Torti (bishop* 
Andrews^ book. See his life, p. 219.) ibid. 1610, 8vo; 
This was answered by Robert Burhill, in " Responsio pro 
Tortura Torti, contra M. Becanum," Lond. 1611, 8vo. 
8. " Controversia Anglicana de potestate regis et pon- 
tificis, contra Lancelotum Andream," Mentz, 1612, 8vo. 
All Becan's works were published at Mentz, 1630, 2 vols, 
fol. ; and at Doway, 1641, but in this collection his " Ana- 
logy of the Old and New Testament," one of the most 
esteemed of his productions, is omitted. He died at Vi- 
enna, Jan. 24, according to Dupin, but iii May,, accord- 
ing to others, 1624. The fate of his works has been some- 
what singular. In his opposition to king James and the 
bishop of Ely, he carried the power of the pope so far, H 
that Paul V. was obliged to have his book condemned at 
Rome, Jan. 3, 1613 ; and a century and a half after this, 
in 1762, the parliament of Paris ordered the whole of his 
works to be burnt. 1 

BECANUS (John.) See BEKA. 

named Panormita, from his native country, Palermo, in 
Latin Parwrmus, was born there in 1394, and at the age 
of six was sent to the university of Bologna, to study law, 
after which he was taken into the court of the duke of Mi- 
lag, Philip-Maria-Visconti. He was afterwards professor 

> Dupin.— IJpdd's C*. History, vol II.—Foppc* Bibl. Bel*. 


of the belles-lettres at Pavia, but without leaving the court, 
in which he enjoyed a revenue of eight hundred crowns of 
gold. The emperor Sigismond, when on a tour in Loui- 
bardy in 1432, honoured him with the poetic crown at 
Parma. Beccadelli then went to the court of Naples, 
where he passed the remainder of his life, always accom- 
panying Alphonso, thS king, in his expeditious and travels, 
who loaded him with favours, gave him a beautiful country 
house, enrolled him among the Neapolitan nobility, in- 
trusted him with political commissions of great importance, 
and sent him as ambassador to Geneva, Venice, to the 
emperor Frederic III. and to some other princes. And 
after the death of Alphonso, he was not less a favourite 
with king Ferdinand, who made him his secretary, and 
admitted him of his council. He died at Naples, in 1471, 
While in the service of Alphonso, he wrote his history 
u De dictis et factis Alphonsi regis, lib. IV." Pisa, l-f85, 
4to, and often reprinted. He was rewarded by his, so- 
vereign with a thousand crowns of gold for this performance. 
His five books of letters, orations, poems, tragedies, &c. 
were published at Venice, 1553, 4to, under the title 
u Epistolarum lib. V. Orationes II. Carmina praeterea 
quaedam, &c."~ But the most extraordinary of his produc- 
tions was his " Hermaphrodite," which long remained in 
obscurity. This is a collection, divided, into two bopks of 
small poems, ^grossly indecent, and yet dedicated to Cosmo 
de Medicis, who is not said to have resented the insult. 
,What renders this production the more extraordinary, is, 
that it was written when the author was. advanced in life, 
and at a time when his character seemed to derive dignity 
from the honourable employments he held, and his repu- 
tation in the learned world. Of this work, written,, with 
great purity of Latin style, some copies got abroad, and 
excited the just indignation of the. age. Filelfo and, Lau- 
ren tius Valla attacked it in their writings; the clergy 
preached against it, and caused it to be burnt; and the 
author was burnt in effigy at Ferrara and Milan, Valla 
even goes so far as to wish that he had been burnt in per- 
son. Even Poggio, not the most chaste of Italian writers, 
reproached his friend with having gone too far. Becca- 
delli defended himself by the example of the ancients, and 
Guarino of Verona quotes the example of St. Jerome, but 
sense and decency went against them,, and these poems 
were confined to the Laurentian library strictly, as Mr. 


B.oscoe; says, but surely a more certain method might.have 
been devised to consign them to perpetual oblivion. A copy, 
however, was by some means preserved, and printed at 
Paris in 1791, when the revolution had brought on a ge- 
neral dissolution of morals and public decency,. " The 
editor," says Giuguen6, <? no doubt thought, that our 
morals were so confirmed as to have nothing to fear, and 
the book is now in every shop-" 1 

, BECCADELL1 (Lewis), was born at Bologna in 1502, 
of a noble family. Having gone through a course of study 
at Padua, he applied himself to business, without how- 
ever entirely quitting literature.. He attached himself to 
cardinal Pole, whom he followed in the legation to Spain, 
and was soon appointed himself to those of Venice and 
Augsburg, after having assisted at the council of Trent, 
and the archbishopric of Ragusa was the reward of his la- 
bours, Cosmo I. grand duke of Tuscany, having en- 
trusted him in 1563 with the education of his son,, prince 
Ferdinand, he gave up his archbishopric, in the hope that 
was held out to hira of- obtaining that of Pisa ; but, being 
deceived in his expectations, he was obliged to content 
himself with the provostship of the cathedral of Prato, 
where he ended his days in 1572. His principal works 
are: " The life of cardinal Pole," in Italian, translated 
by Duditius into Latin, and thenqe by Maucroix into 
French; and that of Petrarch, in Italian, more exact than 
any that had appeared before- This prelate was in cor- 
respondence with almost all the learned, his contemporaries, 
Sadolet, Benibo, the Manuciuses, Varehi, &c. It remains 
to be noticed that his life of cardinal Pole was published 
in 1766, in English, by the Rev. Benjamin Pye, LL.B« 
Of this, and other lives of that celebrated cardinal, notice 
will be taken in his article. * 

BECCAWA (Bonesana Makuuis Cesar), a political 
writer of considerable note, was born at Milan in 1735, 
and diedin. the same place in 1 793 or 1794. In his first 
publication, which appeared at Lucca in 1762, be pointed 
out several abuses, with their remedies, in the system of 
coinage adopted in the state of Milan. A short time after, 
some literary gentlemen of Milan projected a periodical 

* Gmgnene Hist. Litt d'ltalie, vol. III. — Roscoe's Lorenzo,- — DicU Hist.— <• 
Sax it Ouomasticon. 

* Diet. Hitt.— Saxii Ouoma6ti#m«--Pye't Preface to the English translation. 

$00 B E C C A R I A. 

work, which was to contain essays on various subjects of 
philosophy, morals, and politics, calculated to enlighten 
the public mind. It was accordingly published in the 
years 1764 and 1765, under the title of <« The Coffee- 
bouse," and when collected, the papers formed 2 vols. 
4to, of which the most interesting and original were from 
the pen of Beccaria. It was likewise in 1764, that her 
published his celebrated treatise on " crimes and punish* 
merits,** " Dei Delitti e delle Pene," 12mo, a work to 
which some objections may be made, and in which ther$ 
are some inconsistencies, yet few works were read with 
more avidity, or more directly tended to introduce a hu- 
mane and wise system in the criminal law. . Within eighteen 
months of its publication, six editions of the Italian were 
eagerly bought up, and it is computed that it has since 
gone through above fifty editions and translations. The 
English translation published in 1766 contained also a 
commentary attributed to Voltaire, but contributing more 
to amuse than instruct the reader. Much, however, as 
the author was applauded by the enlightened part of the 
world, he was likely to have been brought into trouble 
by the bigotry of his countrymen, had he not met with 
very powerful protection. In 1768 the Austrian govern-* 
ment founded a professorship of political economy for him, 
and his lectures on that subject were published in 1804, 
2 vols. Svo, under the title of " Elemens d'economie pub- 
lique." In 1770 he published the first part of his " Re- 
cherches sur la nature du style,*' Milan, Svo. There are 
some shrewd remarks in this, but he appears to have got 
into the paradoxical way of writing, and endeavours to 
prove that every individual has an equal degree of genius 
for poetry and eloquence. 1 

BECCARIA (James Bartholomew), a very eminent 
physician, was born in 1682 at Bononia. He received "the 
first rudiments of education among the Jesuits. He then 
proceeded to the study of philosophy, in which he made 
great progress ; but cultivated that branch of it particu- 
larly which consists in the contemplation and investigation 
of nature. Having gone through a course of philosophy 
and mathematics, he applied himself to medicine. Being 
appointed teacher of natural philosophy at an academy in 
Bononia, in consequence of his ardent pursuits in philo- 

i Diet. Hi«t 


spphy, his fellow citizens conferred on him the office of 
public professor. His first step in this chair was the in- 
terpretation of the Dialectics. He kept his house open 
to students, who found there a kind of philosophical so- 
ciety* Here it was his practice to deliver his sentiments 
on the different branches of science, or to explain such 
metaphysical subjects as had been treated of by Des- 
cartes, Malebranche, Leibnitz, and others of the moderns. 
Among the frequenters of this little society we find the 
names of John Baptist Morgagni, Eustathius Manfred, and 
Victorius Franciscus Stancarius, who, in concurrence with 
Beccaria, succeeded in shaking oft the old scholastic yoke, 
and formed themselves into an academy, adopting a new 
and more useful method of reasoning. In this institution 
it was thought fit to elect twelve of their body, who were 
called ordinarii, to read the several lectures tn natural his- 
tory, chemistry, anatomy, medicine, physics, and ma-* 
thematics, in which partition the illustration of natural 
history fell to the share of Betccaria ; who gave such sa- 
tisfaction, that it was difficult to determine which was most 
admired, his diligence or bis ingenuity. In 1712 he was 
called to give lectures in medicine, in which he acquired 
so great a reputation, that he found it scarcely practicable 
to answer the desires of the incredible number of those 
who applied to him for instruction. At the beginning of 
the year 1718, while entirely occupied in this station, and 
in collecting numberless anatomical subjects to exhibit 
and to explain to his auditors, he was attacked by a putrid 
fever,' which brought his life in imminent danger, and 
from which he did not recover till after a confinement of 
eight months ; and even then it left him subject to inter- 
mitting attacks, and a violent pain in his side. But the 
vigour of his mind triumphed over the weakness of his 
body. Having undertaken to demonstrate and explain his 
anatomical preparations, he would not desist; and went 
on patiently instructing the students that frequented his 
house. On the death of Antonio Maria Valsalva, who was 
president of the institution, Beccaria, already vice-presi- 
dent, was unanimously chosen by the academicians to suc- 
ceed him, in which post he did the academy much signal 
service ; and to this day it adheres to the rule's prescribed 
by Beccaria. He now practised as well as taught the art 
of medicine, and in this he acquired an unbounded fame ; 
for it was not confined to his own countrymen, but was 


302 beccAri a. 

spread throughout Europe. He communicated! to ther 
royal society of London several barometrical and meteo- 
rological observations ; with others on the ignis fatuus, 
and on the spots that appear in stones, and in acknow- 
ledgement he was chosen a member of that learned body 
in 1728. He confesses that in his constitution he was not 
without some igneous sparks, which were easily kindled 
into anger and other vehement emotions ; yet he was re- 
solved to evince by example what he had constantly taught, 
that the medicine of the mind is more to be studied than 
that of the body ; and that they are truly wise and happy 
who have learut to heal their distorted and bad affections* 
He had brought himself to such an equal temper of mind, 
that but a few hours before his death he wanted to mark 
the heights of the barometer and thermometer, which was 
his usual practice three times every day. Thus, after 
many and various labours, died this learned and ingenious 
man, the 30th of Jan. 1766, and was buried in the church 
of St. Maria ad Baracanum, where an inscription is carved 
on his monument. He published the following works : 
1. " Lettere al cavaliere Tommaso Derham, intorno la 
meteora chiamata fuoco fatuo. Edita primum in sdcietatis 
Lond. transact." 1720. 2. " Dtssertatio metheorologica- 
medica, in qua aeris temperies et morbi Bononioe gras- 
santes annis 1729, et sequent! describe ntur." 3. "Parere 
intorno al taglio della macchia di Viareggio," Lucca, 1739, 
4to. 4. u De longis jejuniis dissertatio." Patavii, 1743, 
fol. 5. « De quamplurimis phosphoris nunc primum de- 
tectis commentarius," Bononiae," 1744, 4to. 6. u De 
quamplurim. &c. commentarius alter." 7. " De motu 
intestino corporum fluidorum." 8. " De medicatis Re*- 
cobarii aquis." 9. " De lacte." 10. " Epistolae tres 
medical ad Franciscum Roncalium Parolinum," Brixiac, 
1747, fol. 11. " Scriptura medico-legalis," 1749; and 
some others. He left behind him several manuscripts. * 

BECCARIA (John Baptist), a monk of the Ecoles- 
Pies, or Pious Schools, was born at Mondovi, and died at 
Turin, May 22, 1781. He was professor of mathematics 
and philosophy, first at Palermo, then at Rome ; and by 
his experiments and discoveries was so successful as to 
throw great light on natural knowledge, and especially on 
that of electricity. He was afterwards called to Turin to 
take upon him the professorship of experimental philoso- 

5 Fabroqi vit» lulorum toI. V.— Diet. Hist. 


phy. Being appointed preceptor to the two princes, Be- 
nedict dnke of Chablais, and Victor Amadseus duke ofCa- 
lignan, neither the life of a court, nor the allurements of 
pleasure, were ahle to draw him aside from study. Loaded 
with benefits and honours, he spared nothing to augment 
his library, and to procure the instruments necessary for 
his philosophical pursuits. His dissertations on electricity 
would have been more useful, if h6 had been less strongly 
attached to some particular systems, and especially that of 
Mr. Franklin. He published, 1. " Experimenta quibus 
Electricitas Vindex late constituitur, &c." Turin, 1771, 4to. 
2. " Electricismo artificiale," 1772, 4to, an English transla- 
tion of which was published at Lond. 1776, 4to. We have 
also by him, an " Essay on the cause of Storms and Tem- 
pests," where we meet with nothing more satisfactory than 
what has appeared in other works on that subject ; several 
pieces on the meridian of Turin, and other objects of astro- 
nomy and physics. Father Beccaria was no less respecta- 
ble for bis virtues than his knowledge. * 

BECHER (John Joachim), born in 1645, at Spires, was 
at first professor of medicine, and then first physician to 
the elector of Mentz, and afterwards to him of Bavaria. 
He went to London, where his reputation had got before 
him, and where the malice of his rivals had forced him to 
seek an asylum, and here he died in 1685. His works are 
various, among which we may distinguish the following : 
1. " Physica subterranea," Frankfort, 1669, 8vo, reprinted 
at Leipsic, 1703, and in 1759, 8vo. 2. " Experimentum 
Chymicum novum," Frankfort, 1671, 8vo. 3. " Charac- 
ter pro notitia linguarum universali ;" a universal lan- 
guage, by means whereof all nations might easily under- 
stand each other ; the fanciful idea of a man pf genius. 4. 
"InstitutionesChymicse, seu manuductio ad philosophiam 
hermeticam," Mentz, 1662, 8vo. 5. " Institutiones Chy- 
micae prodrome?," Frankfort, 1664, and Amsterdam, 1665, 
I2mo. 6. " Experimentum novum ac curiosum de Minera 
frrenaria perpetuil," Frankfort, 1680, 8vo. 7. " Epistolse 
Chymicee," Amsterdam, 1673, 8vo. Becher was reputed 
to be a very able machinist and a good chymist. He was 
ft man of a lively temper, impetuous and headstrong, and 
therefore indulged in a thousand chymical reveries. He 
was the first who applied the art of xhymistry, in all its 

* Diet Hist. 

*o* . BECHEH 

extent, to philosophy, and shewed what use might ha 
made of it in explaining the structure, the combinations, 
and the mutual relations of bodies, . He pretended to hava 
found out a sort of perpetual motion. However, it is be* 
yond a doubt that the world is indebted to him for some 
useful discoveries, and he attempted to make some im- 
provements in the art of printing. * 

BECKER (Daniel) was born at Konigsbergin 1621, the 
son of a father of the same names, who was doctor and pro- 
fessor of medicine, and first physician to the elector of 
Brandenburgh. He also followed his father's profession, 
and took his doctor's degree at Strasburgh in 1 652. Next 
year he was appointed public professor at Konigsberg, and 
in 1663 the elector of Brandenburgh admitted him a coun- 
sellor, and to be his first physician. He died at Konigs- 
berg in 1673, almost in the prime of life. His works were, 
1. " Medicus Microcosmus," Rostock, Leyden, and Lond. 
.1660. 2. " De Cultrivoro Prussiaco," Konigsberg, 1636, 
Leyden, 1638. 3. " Hist* morbi academici Regiomon- 
tani," Leyden, 1649. 4. " De unguento armario," in the 
"Theatrum Sympatheticum," Nuremberg, 1662. 5. "Cpm* 
mentarius de Theriaca," Konigsberg, 1649.* 

BECKET (Thomas), archbishop of Canterbury in the 
reign of Henry 1L was born in London 1119, the son of 
Gilbert, a merchant, and Matilda, a Saracen lady, who 
is said to have fallen in love with him, when he was a 
prisoner to her father in Jerusalem. Thomas received the 
first part of his education at Merton-abbey in Surrey, 
whence he went to Oxford, and afterwards studied at Paris, 
fie became in high favour with Theobald archbishop of 
.Canterbury, who sent him to study the civil law at Bononia 
in Italy, and at his return made him archdeacon of Can- 
terbury, and provost of Beverley. Before this he had dis- 
covered such superior talents for negociation, that arch- 
bishop Theobald dispatched him as his agent to the pope, 
on a point he thought of great moment, which was to get 
the legantine power restored to the see of Canterbury. 'This 
commission was performed with such dexterity and suc- 
cess, that the archbishop entrusted to him all his most se- 
cret intrigues with the court of Rome, and particularly a 
matter of the highest importance to England, the soliciting 

> Moreri.— Mapget.— Halle*— Diet Hist - * Manget and Moreri. 

BECKET; 305 

from the pope thdse prohibitory letters against the crown- 
ing of prince Eustace, by which that design was defeated. 
This service, which raised Becket's merit not only with the 
prelate by whom he was employed, but also with king 
Henry, was the original foundation of bis high fortune. It 
is remarkable, that be was the first Englishman, since the 
latter years of the reign of William the Conqueror, oil 
whom any great office, either in church or state, had been 
conferred by the kings of the Norman race ; the exclusion 
of the English from all dignities having been a maxim o{ 
policy, which had been delivered down by that monarch 
to his sons. This maxim Henry the Second wisely and 
liberally discarded, though the first instance in which he 
deviated from it happened to be singularly unfortunate. 

Theobald also recommended him to king Henry II. in so 
effectual- a manner, that in 1158 he was appointed high 
chancellor, and preceptor to the prince. Becket now laid 
aside the churchman, and affected the courtier ; he con* 
formed himself in every thing to the king's humour ; ha 
partook of all his diversions, and observed the same hours 
of eating and going to bed. He kept splendid levees, and 
Courted popular applause ; and the expences of his table 
exceeded those of the first nobility. In 1 159 he made a 
campaign with king Henry into Toulouse, having in hid 
own pay 1 200 horse, besides a retinue of 700 knights or 
gentlemen. While here he gave a piece of advice which 
marked the spirit and fire of his character. This was, to 
seize the person of Lewis, king of France, who had im- 
prudently thrown himself into the city of Toulouse without 
an army. But the counsel was deemed too bold. Be- 
sides several political reasons against complying with it, it 
was thought an enormous and criminal violation of the 
feudal allegiance, for a vassal to take and hold in captivity 
the person of his lord. We need not inform our historical 
readers, that Henry, though a very' powerful monarch, 
did, by the large possessions he held in. France, stand in 
the relation of a vassal to the king of that country. In the 
war against the earl of Toulouse, Becket, besides his other 
military exploits, engaged, in single combat, Engelvan 
de Trie, a French knight, famous for his valour, dismounted 
him with his lance, and gained his horse, which he led oft 
in great triumph. 

In 1 160, he was sent by the king to Paris, to treat of a 
itiarriage between prince Henry and the, king of France's 

Voj.. IV. X 


305 'BECKET, 

eldest daughter, in which he succeeded, and returned with 
the young princess to England. He had not enjoyed the 
chancellorship above four years, when archbishop Theo- 
bald died ; and the king, who was then in Normandy, im- 
tnediately sent over some trusty persons to England, who 
managed matters so well with the monks and clergy, that 
Becket was almost unanimously elected archbishop. 

It has been said that it was with the utmost difficulty 
Becket could be prevailed upon to accept of this dignity, 
and that he even predicted it would be the cause of a 
breach between the king and him. But this is greatly 
doubted by lord Lyttelton in his History of Henry II. and 
it stands contradicted by the affirmation of Foliot, bishop 
of London, and ill agrees with the measures which were 
taken to procure Becket's election. His biographers them- 
selves acknowledge, that one reason which induced Henry 
to promote him to Canterbury, was, " because he hoped, 
that, by his means, he should manage ecclesiastical, as 
well as secular affairs, to his own satisfaction. 97 Indeed, 
no other reasonable motive can be found. Nothing could 
incline that prince to make so extraordinary and so excep- 
tionable a choice, but a firm confidence, that he should be 
most usefully assisted by Becket, in the important re- 
formation he meant to undertake, of subjecting the clergy 
to the authority of the civil government. Nor is it credible 
that he should not have revealed his intention, concerning 
that affair, to a favourite minister, whom he had accus- 
tomed to trust, without reserve, in his most secret counsels,. 
But if such a declaration had been made by that minister, 
as is related by .the. historians, it is scarcely to be supposed, 
that a king so prudent as Henry would have forced him into 
a station, in which he certainly might have it in his power 
to be exceedingly troublesome, instead of being serviceable 
to his royal master. It was by a different language that the 
usual sagacity of this prince could have been deceived.. 
Nor, indeed, could the most jealous and penetrating ey<* 
have discovered in Becket, after he was elected archbishop 
of Canterbury, any marks of an enthusiastic or bigotted 
zeal. That several indications of a contrary temper, and 
different principles, had appeared in his conduct, is shewn 
by lord Lyttelton, who produces two remarkable instances 
in support of his assertion. The same noble writer hath I 

brought, likewise, satisfactory evidence, to prove that 
Becket .was almost as eager for procuring the archbishopric, 

B ECK E T. 307 

as his master could be to raise him to that dignity. 
After he ha<J received his pall from pope Alexander III. 
then residing in France, he immediately sent messengers 
to the king in Normandy, with his resignation of the seal 
and office of chancellor. This displeased the king ; so that 
upon his return to England, when he was met at his land- 
ing by the archbishop, he received him in a cold and in- 
different xfranner. 

Becket now betook himself to a quite different manner 
of life, and put on all the gravity and austerity of a monk. 
.He began likewise to exert himself with great zeal, in de- 
fence of the rights and privileges of the church of Canter- 
bury ; and in many cases proceeded with so much warmth 
and obstinacy, as raised him many enemies. Pope Alex- 
ander III. held a general council of his prelates at Tours in 
April 1163, at which Becket was present, and was probably 
animated by the pope in his design of becomingthe cham- 
pion for the liberties of the church and the immunities of 
the clergy. It is certain that on his return he prosecuted 
this design with such zeal that the king and he came to an 
open rupture : Henry endeavoured to recall certain pri- 
vileges of the clergy, who had greatly abused their exemp- 
tion frbm the civil courts, concerning which the king had 
received several complaints; while the archbishop stood 
up for the immunities of the clergy. The king convened 
a synod of the bishops at Westminster, and here demanded 
that the clergy, when accused of x any capital offence, might 
take their trials in the usual courts of justice. The question 
put to the bishops was, Whether, in consideration of their 
duty and allegiance to the king, and of the interest and 
peace of the kingdom, they were willing to promise a sub* 
mission to the laws of his grandfather, king Henry ? To 
this the arbhhishop replied, in the name of the whole body, 
that they wer£ willing to be bound by the ancient laws of 
the kingdom, as far as the privileges of the order would 
permit, salvo online suo. The king was highly displeased 
with this answer, and insisted on having an absolute com- 
pliance, without any reservation whatever ; but the arch* 
bishop would by no means submit, and the rest of the 
bishops adhered for some time to their primate. Several 
of the bishops being at length gained over, and the pope 
interposing in the quarrel, Becket was prevailed on to ac- 
qutesee ; .and soon after the king summoned a convention 
or parliament at Clarendon, in US4> where several law* 

x 2 

308 BECKET. 

were passed relating to the privileges of the clergy, <&ll£& 
from thence, the Constitutions of Clarendon. But before 
the meeting of this assembly, Becket had again changed 
his mind, and when he appeared before the council, he 
obstinately refused to obey the laws as he had before agreed. 
This equally disappointed and enraged the king, and it was 
not until after some days debate, and the personal en* 
treaties, and even tears, of some of his particular friends, 
that Becket was again softened, and appearing before the 
council, solemnly promised and swore, in the words of 
truth and without any reserve, to obey all the royal laws 
and customs which had been established in England in the 
reign of his majesty's grandfather Henry L The constitu- 
tions of Clarendon were then put in writing, read in the 
council, and one copy of them delivered to the primate, 
another to the archbishop of York, and a third deposited 
among the records of the kingdom. By them ecclesiastics 
of all denominations were reduced to a due subjection to 
the laws of their country; they also limited the jurisdic- 
tion of spiritual courts, guarded against appeals to Rome, 
and the pronouncing of interdicts and excommunications, 
without the consent of the king or his judiciary. 

As it was with visible reluctance that Becket bad sworn 
to obey these constitutions, he soon began to give indica- 
tions of his repentance, by extraordinary acts of mortifi- 
cation, and by refraining from performing the sacred of- 
fices of his function. He also dispatched a special mes- 
senger, with an account of what had happened, to the 
pope, who sent him a bull, releasing him from the obli- 
gation of his oath, and enjoining him to resume the duties 
of his sacred office. But though this bull reconciled his 
conscience to the breach of his oath, it did not dispel bis 
fears of the royal indignation, to avoid which he determined 
to retire privately out of the kingdom. Accordingly he went 
nboard a ship, in order to make his escape beyond sea ; but 
before he could reach the coast of France, the wind shifting 
about, he was driven back. to England, and, conscious that 
he had done amiss, he waited upon the king at Woodstock, 
who received him without any other expression of displea- 
sure than asking him if he had left England because he 
thought it too little to contain both ? Notwithstanding the 
mildness of this rebuke, Becket persisted insetting the cler- 
gy above the laws ; and therefore the king summoned a par- 
Lament at Northampton, U65, where the archbishop bar- 

BECKET. 30* 

fag been accused of failure of duty and allegiance to the 
king, was sentenced to forfeit all his goods and chattels? 
Becket made an appeal to the pope ; but this having availed 
nothing, and finding himself deserted by his brethren, he 
withdrew privately from Northampton, and went aboard a 
ship for Graveline in Holland, from whence he retired to 
the monastery of St. Bertin in Flanders. 

The king seized upon the revenues of the archbishopric, 
and sent an ambassador to the French king, desiring him 
not to give shelter to Becket : but the French court es- 
poused his cause, in hopes that the misunderstanding be- 
twixt him and Henry might embarrass the affairs of Eng- 
land ; and accordingly when Becket came from St Bertin 
to Soissons, the French king paid him a visit, and offered, 
him his protection. Soon after the archbishop went to 
Sens ; where he was honourably received by the pope, into 
whose hands he in form resigned the archbishopric of Can- 
terbury, and was presently re-instated in his dignity by the 
pope, who promised to espouse his interest. The arch- 
bishop removed from Sens to the abbey of Pontigny in 
Normandy, from whence he wrote a letter to the bishops 
of England, informing them, that the pope had annulled 
the Constitutions of Clarendon. From hence too he issued 
out excommunications against several persons, who bad 
violated the rights of the church. This conduct of his 
raised him many enemies. The king was so enraged 
against him for excommunicating several of his officers of 
state, that he banished all Becket's relations, and com- 
peted them to take an oath, that they would travel directly 
to Pontigny, and shew themselves to the archbishop. An 
order was likewise published, forbidding all persons to 
correspond with him by letters, to send him any money, or 
so much as to pray for him in the churches. He wrote also 
to the general chapter of the Cistertians, threatening to 
sjeizp all their estates in England, if they allowed Becket 
to continue in the abbey of Pontigny. The archbishop 
thereupon removed to Sens ; and from thence, upon the 
king of France's recommendation, to the abbey of St, Co- 
lumba, where he remained four years. In the mean time, 
the bishops of the province of Canterbury wrote a letter to 
the archbishop, entreating him to alter his behaviour, and 
not to .widen' the breach, so as to render an accommodation 
impracticable betwixt him and the king. This, however, 
h^d no effect on the archbishop. The pope also^eut two 

* 10 BECKE T. 

cardinals to try to reconcile matters ; but the legates find- 
ing both parties inflexible, gave over the attempt, and re- 
turned to Rome, 

. The beginning of 1 167, Becket was at length so far pre* 
vailed upon as to have an interview with Henry and the 
king of France, at Mont-MiraJ in Champaigne. He made 
a speech to tienry in very submissive terms ; and concluded 
with leaving him the umpire of the difference between 
them, saving the honour of God. Henry was provoked at 
this clause of reservation, and said, that whatever Becket 
did nqt relish, he would pronounce contrary to the honour 
of God. " However," added the king, " to shew my in- 
clination to accommodate matters, I will make him this 
{proposition : I have had many predecessors, kings of Eng- 
?uid, some greater and some inferior to myself; there have 
been likewise many >great and holy men in the see of Can- 
terbury. Let Becket therefore but pay me the same re- 
gard, and own my authority so far, as the greatest of his 
predecessors owned that of the least of mine, and I am 
satisfied. And, as I never forced him out of England, I 
give him leave to return at his pleasure ; and am willing he 
should enjoy his archbishopric, with as ample privileges as 
any of his predecessors." All who were present declared 
that Henry had shewn sufficient condescension. The king' 
of France, surprised at the archbishop's silence, asked bim 
why he hesitated to accept such reasonable conditions ? 
Becket replied, he was willing to receive his see upon the 
terms his predecessors held it ; but as for those customs* 
which broke in upon the canons, he could not admit them; 
for he looked upon this as betraying the cause of religion. 
And thus the interview ended without any effect. 

In 1169, endeavours were again used to accommodate 
matters, but they proved ineffectual. The archbishop re- 
fused to comply, because Henry would not give him the 
customary salute, or kiss of peace, which bis majesty would 
have granted, had he not once swore in a passion never to * 
salute the archbishop on the cheek ; but he declared that he 
would hear him no ill will for the omission of this ceremony. 
Henry became at length so irritated against this prelate, 
that he ordered all his English subjects to take an oath, 
whereby they renounced the authority of Becket and pope- 
Alexander : most of the laity complied with this order, but 
few of the clergy acquiesced. The foll6wing year king 
Henry, upon bis return to England, ordered his son, prince* 

B E C K E T. 311 

Henry, to be crowned at Westminster, and the ceremony 
was performed by the archbishop of York : this office be- 
longed to the see of Canterbury ; and Becket complained 
of it to the pope, who suspended the archbishop pf York, 
and excommunicated the bishops who assisted him. 

This year, however, an accommodation was at length 
Concluded betwixt Henry and Becket, upon the confines of 
Normandy, where the king held the bridle of. Becket's 
horse, while he mounted and dismounted twice. Soon 
after the archbishop embarked for England ; and upon hid 
arrival, received an order from the young king to absolve 
the suspended and excommunicated bishops ; but refusing 
to comply, the archbishop of York, and the bishops of 
London and Salisbury, carried their complaint to the king 
in Normandy, who was highly provoked at this fresh in- 
stance of obstinacy in Becket, and said on the occasion, 
* l That he was an unhappy prince, who maintained a great 
number of lazy, insignificant persons about him, none of 
whom had gratitude or spirit enough to revenge him on a 
single, insolent prelate, who gave him so much disturb- 
ance," or as some report his words, "Shall this fellow, 
who came to court on a lame horse, with all his estate in a 
wallet behind him, trample upon his king, the royal family, 
and the whole kingdom ? Will none of all these lazy 
cowardly knights whom I maintain, deliver me from this 
turbulent priest ?" This passionate exclamation made too 
deep an impression on some of those -who heard it, particu- 
larly on the four following barons, Reginald Fitz-Urse,^ 
William de Tracy, Hugh de Morville, and Richard Breto, 
who formed a resolution, either to terrify the archbishop 
into submission, or to put him to death. 

Having laid their plan, they left the court at different 
times, and took different routes, to prevent suspicion ; but 
being conducted by the devil, as some monkish historians 
tell us, they all arrived at the castle of Ranulph de Broc, 
about six miles from Canterbury, oh the same day, Dec. 
28, 1 170, and almost at the same hour. Here they settled 
the whole scheme of their proceedings, and next morning 
early set out for Canterbury, accompanied by a body of 
resolute men, with arms concealed under their clothes. 
These men they placed in different parts of the city, to 
prevent any interruption from the citizens. The four 
barons above-named then went unarmed with twelve of their 
company, to the archiepiscopal palace, about eleven o'clock 

812 B E C K E T. 

in the forenoon * and were admitted into the apartment where 
the archbishop sat conversing with some of his clergy. After 
their admission a long silence ensued, which was at length 
broken by Reginald Fitz-Urse, who told the archbishop 
that they were sent by the king to command him to ab- 
solve the prelates, and others, whom he had excommuni- 
cated ; and* then to go to Winchester, and make satisfac-. 
tion to the young king, whom he had endeavoured to de- 
throne. On this a very long and violent altercation fail-* 
lowed, in the course of which they gave several hints, that 
his life was in danger if he did not comply. But he re- 
mained undaunted in his refusal. At their departure they 
, charged his servants not to allow him to flee ; on which he 
cried out with great vehemence, " Flee ! I will never flee 
from any man living ; I am not come to flee, but to defy 
the rage of impious assassins. 9 ' When they were gone, 
his friends blamed him for the roughness of his answers^ 
which had inflamed the fury of his enemies, and earnestly 
pressed him to make his escape ; but he only answered, 
-"I have no need of your advice — I know what I ought to 
do." The barons, with ^ their accomplices, finding their 
threats were ineffectual, put on their coats of mail ; and 
taking each a sword in his right band, and an axe in his 
left, returned to the palace, but found the gate shut. When 
they were preparing to break it open, Robert de Broc con- 
ducted them up a back stair-case, arid let them in at a 
window. A cry then arose, " they are armed ! they are 
armed !" on which the clergy hurried the archbishop almost 
t>y force into the church, hoping that the sacredness of the 

J 4ace woukl protect him from violence. They would also 
ave shut the door, but he cried out, " Begone, ye cowards ! 
I charge you on your obedience, do not shut the door. 
What ! will you make a castle of a church ?" The conspi- 
rators having searched the palace, came to the church, and 
one of them crying, " Where is the traitor ? where is the 
archbishop ?" Becket advanced boldly and said, " Here I 
am, an archbishop', but no traitpr." "Flee," cried the 
conspirator, " or you are a dead man." " 1 will never 
flee," replied Becket. William de Tracy then took hold 
of his robe, and said, " You are my prisoner ; come along 
with me." But Becket seizing him by the 'collar, shook 
bini with so much force, that he almost threw him down. 
De Tracy, enraged at this resistance, aimed a blow with 
his sword, which almost cut off the arm of one Edward 

B E C K E T. 315 

Grim, a priest, and slightly wounded the archbishop oit 
the, head. By three other blows given by the other con* 
spifators, his skull was cloven almost in two, and his brains 
scattered about the pavement of the church. 

The assassins, conscious of their crime, and dreading its 
consequences, durst not return to the king's court at Nor* 
mandy, but retired to Knaresburgh in Yorkshire ; where 
every body avoided their company, hardly any person evea 
choosing to eat or drink with them. They at length took 
a voyage to Rome, and being admitted to penance by pope 
Alexander IIL they went to Jerusalem; where, according 
to the pope's order, they spent their lives in penitential 
austerities, and died in the Black Mountain. They were 
buried at Jerusalem, without the church door belonging to 
the Templars, and this inscription was put over them : 

Hie jacent miseri, qui martyrizaverunt beatum Archiepiscopum 


King Henry was much disturbed at the news of BecketY 
death, and immediately dispatched an embassy to Rome to 
clear himself from the imputation of being the cause of it. 
Immediately all divine offices ceased in the church of Can- 
terbury ; and this for a year, excepting nine days, at the 
end of which, by order of the pope, it was re-consecrated. 
Two years after, Becket was canonized ; and the follow- 
ing year, Henry, returning to England, went to Canter- 
bury, where he did penance as a testimony of his regret 
for thje murder of Becket. When he came within sight of 
the church, where the archbishop was buried, he alighted 
off his horse, and walked barefoot, in the habit of a pil- 
grim, till he came to Becket' s tomb ; where, after he had 
prostrated himself, and prayed for a considerable time, he 
submitted to be scourged by the monks, and passed all 
that day and night without any refreshment, and kneeling 
upon the bare stone. In 1221, Becket's body was taken 
up, in the presence of king Henry III. and several nobility, 
and deposited in a rich shrine on the east side of the church. 
The miracles said to be wrought at his tomb were so nu- 
merous, that we are told two large volumes of them were 
kept in that church. His shrine was visited frpm all parts, 
and enriched with the most costly gifts and offerings. 

According to lord Lyttelton, who appears to have studied 
the character of this turbulent prelate with great care, 
Becket was " a man of great talents, of elevated thoughts, 

314 B E C K E T. 

and of invincible courage ; but of a most violent and tar** 
bulent spirit ; excessively passionate, haughty, and vain- 
glorious ; in bis resolutions inflexible, in bis resentments 
implacable. It cannot be denied that he was guilty of a 
wilful and premeditated perjury ; that he opposed the ne- 
cessary course of public justice, and acted in defiance of 
the laws of his country ; laws which he had most solemnly 
acknowledged and confirmed : nor is it less evident, that, 
during the heat of this dispute, he was in the highest de- 
gree ungrateful to a very kind master, whose confidence in 
him had been boundless, and who from a private condition 
bad advanced him to be the second man in his kingdom. 
On what motives he acted, can be certainly judged of by 
Him alone, ' to whom all hearts are open.' He might be 
misled by the prejudices of a bigotted age, and think he 
was doing an acceptable service to God, in contending, 
even to death, for the utmost excess of ecclesiastical and 
papal authority. Yet the strength of .his understanding, 
his conversation in courts and camps, among persons whose 
notions were more free and enlarged, the different colour 
of his former life, and the suddenness of the change which 
seemed to be wrought in him upon his election to Canter- 
bury, would make one suspect, as many did in the times 
wherein he lived, that he only became the champion of 
the church from an ambitious desire of sharing its power ; 
a power more independent on the favour of the king, and 
therefore more agreeable to the haughtiness of his mind, 
than that which he had enjoyed as a minister of the crown. 
And this suspicion is increased by the marks of cunuingj 
and falseness, which are evidently seen in his conduct on 
some occasions. , Neither is it impossible, that, when first 
be assumed his new character, he might act the part of a 
zealot, merely or principally from motives of arrogance 
and ambition; yet, afterwards, being engaged,, and in* 
flamed by the contest, work himself up into a real enthu- 
siasm. The continual praises of those with whom he acted, 
the honours done him in his exile by all the clergy of 
France, and the vanity which appears so predominant in 
his mind, may have conduced to operate such a change. 
He certainly shewed in the latter part of his life a spirit as 
fervent as the warmest enthusiast's ; such a spirit indeed 
as constitutes heroism, when it exerts itself in a cause bene- 
ficial to mankind. Had he defended the established laws 
of his country, and the fundamental rules of civil justice, 

BECKET. 315 

with as much zeal and intrepidity as he opposed them, he 
would have deserved to he ranked with those great men, 
whose virtues make one easily forget the allay of some na- 
tural imperfections: but, unhappily, his good qualities 
were so misapplied, that they became no less hurtful to the 
public weal of the kingdom, than the worst of his vices.' 9 

On the other hand, Mr. Berington, in his " History of 
the reign of Henry II." has attempted a .vindication of 
Becket, in which he differs considerably from lord Lyttel^ 
ton and other protestant historians, but for this we must 
refer to the book itself. Few men have had more bio- 
graphers, if reliance could be placed on them, than Becket, 
but unfortunately the greater part of them were bis pane* 
gyrists, and not his historians, and too much under the 
influence of the monkish principles of their days, to de- 
serve much credit. The following list, however, of hi* 
biographers may afford some information to the curious 
inquirer, taken from* Leland, Bale, Pits, and others. 
1* Herbert Bosenham, or Bosscham, or de Hoscham, who 
was this archbishop's secretary, and also present at the 
slaughter of him. 2. Edward, a monk of Canterbury, the 
martyr's most intimate friend. 3. Johannes Sarisburiensis, 
who accompanied Becket in his exilej but never counte- 
nanced his behaviour towards the king, being as sharp at 
writer against the encroachments of the papal see, as any 
man of his time. 4. Bartholomaeus Iscanus, or Exonensis, 
bishop of Exeter, where he died in 1 1 8*4. 5. E. a monk 
of Evesham, who dedicated his book, or wrote it by way 
of epistle, to Henry, abbot of Croyland. 6. William Ste- 
phens, or Fitz- Stephen, a monk of Canterbury, and, for 
that reason, usually called Gulielmus Cantuariensis. He 
is said to have written three several treatises of the life, 
martyrdom, and miracles of St Thomas Becket; which 
are now in the Cotton library: But that, which there carries 
his name, seems to have been penned by Johannes Car* 
r^otensis, who is the same person with Sarisburiensis above 
mentioned, since, in the Quadripartite History, what we 4 
have from him is often to be found, in the same words, in 
the life there ascribed to Fitz-Stephen. 7. Benedictus 
Pefroburgensis, abbot of Peterborough, who died in 1200. 
8* Alanus Teukeshuriensis, abbot of Tewkesbury, who* died' 
about the same time. 9. Roger, a monk of Croyland, who 
Jived about 1214. It is observed, that St. Thomas's mira- 
cles were become so numerous in this writer's time, that 

310 B E C KuE T. : 

lie bad matter for seven large volumes, in composing 
of which he spent no less than fifteen years. 10. Stephen 
Langton, a famous successor of Becket' s in the see of Can- 
terbury, whose work on this subject is said to be in the 
library of Bene't college. 11. Alexander de Hales, so 
called from the monastery of Hales in Gloucestershire, 
where he was educated, one of the most eminent school- 
men of his age, and master to Thomas Aquinas, Bonaven- 
ture, &c. 12. John Grandison, or Graunston, who died 
in 1369, 13. Quadrilogus, or the author of a book, en- 
titled "De vitaet processu S. Thorns Cantuariensis et Mar- 
tyris super Libertate Ecclesiastica." It is collected out of 
four historians, who were contemporary and conversant 
with Becket, viz* Herbert de Hoscham, Johannes Carno- 
tensis, Gulielmus Ganterburiensis, and Alanus Teukes- 
huriensis, who are introduced as so many relaters of facts 
interchangeably. This book was first printed at Paris in 
1495, and is often quoted by our historians, in the reign 
of Henry II. by the name of Quadripartita Historia. 
14. Thomas Stapleton, the translator of Bede, in whose 
book De tribus Thomis, or Of the three Thomas's, our 
saint makes as considerable a figure as either Thomas the 
Apostle, or Thomas Aquinas. 15. Laurence Vade, or 
Wade, & Benedictine monk of Canterbury, who lived and 
died we know not when, or where ; unless perhaps he be 
the same person with 1 6. An anonymous writer of Becket* s 
life, who appears to have been a monk of that church, and 
whose book is said to be in the library at Lambeth. 17. 
Richard James, nephew of Dr. Thomas James, some time 
keeper of the Bodleian library ; a very industrious and 
eminent antiquary, who endeavoured to overthrow the 
great design of all the above-mentioned authors, in his "De* 
canonizatio Thomse Cantuariensis et suorum," which, with 
other manuscript pieces by the same hand, is in the public 
library at Oxford. These are the principal writers of our 
archbishop's life ; besides whom, several other historians 
have spoken largely of him ; as John Bromton, Matthew 
Paris, Gervase^ &e. l 

BECKINGHAM (Charles), a dramatic writer, born in 
1699, was the son of a linen-draper in Fleet-street, Lon- 
don, and educated at Merchant Taylors' school, under the 

v ' 1 Biog. Brit—Henry's History of Great Britain, vol. V.— LyUeJton!* Hist, qC 
Henry II«— -Beriogton't ditto.-— &c. 

B E C K I N G It A M. ill 


rev. Dr. Smith* where be made very great proficiency in all 
his studies, and gave proofs of extraordinary talents. To 
dramatic poetry he appears to have been very early attached, 
two pieces of bis ? " Scipio Africanus," and " Henry IV. 
of France," both tragedies, being represented on the stage 
before he had completed his twentieth year. He wrote 
several other poems, but his genius was limited to a short 
career, as he died Feb. 19, 1730-1, in the thirty -second 
year of his age. l 

(Thomas), an English prelate, was born in the parish of 
Beckington, in Somersetshire, or according to Di*. Chand- 
ler at Wallingford in Berkshire, towards the close of the 
fourteenth century. 'He was educated in grammar learn- 
ing at Wykeham's school near Winchester, while that 
great prelate was living, and proceeded to his college (New 
College) in Oxford in 1403, the year before Wykehatn 
died, and there became doctor of laws, and continued in 
his fellowship about twelve years. Within this period, 
most probably, he was presented to the rectory of St Leo- 
nard's, near Hastings in Sussex, and to the vicarage of 
Sutton Courtney in Berkshire. He was also prebendary of 
Bedwin, York, and Lichfield, archdeacon of Buckingham, 
3nd master of St. Catherine's hospital near the Tower in 
London. About 1429, he was dean of the court of arches, 
and a synod being then held in St. Paul's church, London, 
which continued above six months, Beckington was one of 
three appointed to draw up a form of law, according to 
which tie Wickliffites were to be proceeded against. Hav- 
ing been once tutor to Henry VI. and written a book, in 
which, in opposition to the Salique law, he strenuously 
asserted the right of the kings of England to the crown of 
France, he arrived to high favour with that prince, and 
was made secretary of state, keeper of the privy seal, and 
bishop of Bath and Wells. On Sunday, Oct. 13, 1443, he 
was consecrated by the bishop of Lincoln iiythe old colle- 
giate church of St. Mary of Eton ; and after the ceremony, 
celebrated his first mass in his pontificals in the new church 
of St. Mary, then erecting, and not half finished, under a 
pavilion provided for the purpose at the altar, directly over 
the spot where king Henry had laid the first stone. . 
Bishop Beckington was well skilled in polite learning and 

1 BRg. Dramaiica.— Jacob's Liret. 


history, and very conversant in the holy Scriptures; a gdod 
preacher, and so generous a patron and favourer of all 
learned and ingenious men, that he was called the Maece- 
nas of his age. His , works of munificence and charity were 
numerous. He contributed to the completion of Lincoln^ 
college, which had been left imperfect by its founder, 
Richard Flemming, bishop of Lincoln, and got the manor of 
Newton-Longueville settled upon New college, Oxford, in 
1440. He also laid out six thousand marks upon the houses 
belonging to his see ; built an edifice, called New-buildings, 
and the west side of the cloisters at Wells ; and erected a 
conduit in the market-place of that city. By his will, 
dated Nov. 3, 1464, and procured to be confirmed under 
the great seal, he left several charitable legacies. He died 
at Wells, Jan. 14, 1464-5, and was buried in his cathe- 
dral, where his monument is still to be seen. His pane-i 
gyric was written by Thomas Chandler, warden of New 
college, who had been preferred by him to the chancellor- 
ship of Wells. He does not appear to h^ve ever been 
chancellor of the university of Oxford. His book on the 
right of the kings of England to the crown of France is in 
the Cottonian library, with some other of his pieces, and a 
large collection of his letters is in the Lambeth library. 1 

BECKWITH (Thomas), an ingenious artist and anti- 
quary, was the sou of a respectable attorney in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, He was early apprenticed as a house* 
painter to Mr. George Fleming of Wakefield, from whom 
be derived his skill in drawing and limning, as well as im- 
bibed a love for the study of antiquities. To these he 
added heraldic and genealogical knowledge, to all which 
he applied himself, in his leisure hours, with such un- 
wearied diligence, that his collection, together with the 
works of his own bands, became at length very consider* 
able. Scarcely any object arrested his curiosity, particu- 
cularly if an antique, of which he did not make a drawing, 
and scarcely a church or a ruin in the vicinities of the places 
of his abode, that he did not preserve either in pencil or 
water-colours. Some years before his death he obtained a 
patent for a species of hardened crayons, which would 
bear the knife, and carry a .point like a pencil ; and about 
the same time he was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London. But what contributed most to make 

* Biog. Brit.— Chaadier's life of WajmActe,— Chalmers Hist, of Oxford. 

B E C K W I T H. 319 

him known to those who were unacquainted with him in 
any other branch, was his extensive information respecting 
genealogical subjects, in consequence of which he fre- 
quently had the arrangement of the pedigrees of some of 
the first families, which he was enabled to execute from 
visitation books, and other authentic documents, which 
fell into his hands. Few men possessed more intelligence 
respecting the antiquity and descents of the principal fa- 
milies in the inland adjacent counties, and of various others 
more remote from him. It is much to his credit, likewise, 
that his industry in collecting could only be exceeded by 
his willingness to impart any information which he had re- 
ceived. Mr.Beckwith died Feb. 17, 1786. Previous to 
his death, he had compiled " A Walk in and about the 
city of York," on the plan of Mr. Gostling's " Walk in and 
about the city of Canterbury," but we have not heard that 
it has been published. * 

BECQUET (Anthony), a native of Paris, where he 
was born in 1654, became a monk of the Celestine order, 
and was for forty years their librarian at Paris. He was a 
man of considerable taste, well acquainted with books and 
authors, and wrote Latin and French with great purity. He 
died at Paris, Jan. 20, 1730. His principal work is a his- 
tory of the congregation of the Celestines, with the lives of 
the most distinguished men among them. This work, writ- 
ten in Latin, was published at Paris, 1719, 4to, la 1721 
he published in French, a pamphlet, entitled " Supplement 
et remarques critiques sur le vingt-troisieme chapitre du vi« 
tome de 1'histoire des ordres monastiques et militaires, par 
le P. Heliot." Where he speaks of the Celestines, Becquet 
corrects his errors, and throws considerable light on. the 
history of St.Celestin and the order. In the Trevoux me- 
moirs, where this piece is inserted, Becket wrote also 
some remarks on Baillet's lives of the saints, and on the 
abbe Fleuri's Ecclesiastical History. He. is said to have 
employed some years on a " Roman Martyrology,? with 
notes biographical, critical, and astronomical, but this haft 
pot been published, nor is it certain it was completed. * 

BECTOZ (Claude de), daughter of a gentleman of 
J)auphin6, abbess of St. Honore* de Tarascon, where she 
was honoured with the name of Scholastica, made great 
progress in the Latin language, and in several branches ot 

» Gent. M^g, JL78#, * Moreri. 

820 B E C f O t. 

science, urtder Denys Faucher, monk of Lerins and almoner* 
of his monastery. Francis I. was so charnYed with the let* 
ters of this abbess, that he carried them, as it is said, about 
him, and shewed them to the ladies of his court, as models 
for their imitation. He went from Avignon to Taras- 
con, with queen Margaret of Navarre, for the sake of con- 
Tersing with this learned lady. She died in 1547, after 
haying published several works, Latin and French, in verse 
and in prose. Two Italian writers, Louis Domenichi and 
Augustin della C hies a, have published eloges on this lady 
in their respective works. * 

BEDA, or BEDE, the brightest ornament of the eighth 
century, and one of the most eminent fathers of the Eng- 
lish church, whose talents and virtues have procured him 
the name of the Venerable Bede, was born in the year 
€72, or according to some in the year 673, on the estates 
belonging afterwards to the abbies of St. Peter arid St. Paul, 
in the bishopric of Durham, at WermoUth and Jarrow, 
near the mouth of the river Tvtle. Much difference of 
opinion prevails among those who have treated of this illus- 
trious character, respecting the place of his birth, some 
even contending that he was a native of Italy ; but we shall 
confine ourselves to such facts as seem to be clearly ascef- 
certained by the majority of historians. These are indeed 
but few, for the life of a studious, recluse, and conscien- 
tious ecclesiastic, cannot be supposed to admit of many of 
the striking varieties of biographical narrative. At the age 
of seven years, or about the year €79, he was brought to 
the monastery of St. Peter, and committed to the care of 
abbot Benedict, under whom and his successor Ceolfrid, 
he was carefully educated for twelve years, a favour which 
he afterwards repaid by writing the lives of these his pre- 
ceptors, which were first published by sir James Ware at 
Dublin in 1664, 8vo. At the age of nineteen he was or- 
dained deacon, and in the year 702, being then thirty, he 
was ordained priest by John of Beverley, bishop of Hagul- 
stad or Hexham, who had been formerly one of his pre- 
ceptors. It was probably from Beverley, a person of high 
character for piety and learning, that Bede imbibed his 
opinions concerning the monastic state, and the duties of 
such as embraced it. The bishop thought that in all pro- 
fessions men ought to labour for their own maintenance, and* 

1 Moreri.— Diet, Hist. 


for the benefit of the society. He was consequently averse 
to the great errors of this institution, ease and indolence. 
He inculcated upon Beda's mind, that the duties of this 
life consisted in a fervent and edifying devotion, a strict 
adherence to the discipline of the house, an absolute self- 
denial with respect to the things of this world, an obedience 
to the will of his abbot, and a constant prosecution of his 
studies in such a way as might most conduce to the benefit 
of bis brethren, and the general advantage of the Christian 

Nor were these lessons thrown away. Beda became so 
exemplary for his great diligence and application, and his 
extensive and various learning, that his fame reached the 
continent, and particularly Rome, where pope Sergius 
made earnest applications to the abbot Ceolfrid, that Beda 
might be sent to him ; but Beda, enamoured of his studies, 
remained in his monastery, exerting his pious labours only 
in the Northumbrian kingdom, although tradition, and 
nothing but tradition, insinuates that he at one time re- ' 
sided at the university of Cambridge, a place which in his 
day probably had no existence, or certainly none that de- 
served the name of university. Remaining thus in his own 
country, and improving his knowledge by all the learning 
his age afforded, animated at the same time with a wish to 
contribute to the improvement of his brethren and country- 
men, he concentrated his attentions to that point in which 
he could be most useful. The collections he made for his 
** Ecclesiastical History" were the labour of many years, a 
labour scarcely conceivable by modern writers in the am-* 
plitude and facilities they possess for acquiring information. 
This history was in some respects a new work, for although, 
as he owns, there were civil histories from which he could 
Tborrow some documents, yet ecclesiastical affairs entered 
so little into their plan, that he was obliged to seek for 
materials adapted to his object, in the lives of particular 
persons, which frequently included contemporary history : 
in the annals of .their convents, and in such chronicles as 
were written before his time. He also availed himself of 
the high character in which he stood with many of the pre- 
lates, who procured for him such information as they pos- 
sessed or could command. They foresaw, probably, what 
has happened, that this would form a lasting record of 
ecclesiastical affairs, and making allowance for the le- 
gendary matter it contains, without a mixture of which it 

Vol. IV. Y 

i2* Beda. 

is in vain to look back to the times of Beda, few works 
have supported thteir credit so long, or been so generally 
known, and Consulted by the learned world/ He published 
-this history in the year 73 1, when as he informs us, he was 
fifty-nine years of age, but before this he had written many 
other books on various subjects, a catalogue of which he 
subjoined to this history. By these he obtained such repu- 
tation as to be consulted by the most eminent churchmen 
of his age, and particularly by Egbert bishop of York, who 
was himself a very learned man. To him Beda wrote an 
epistle, which illustrates the state of the church at that 
time. It was one of the last, and. indeed probably the very 
last of Beda's writings, and in it he expresses himself with 
much freedom, both in the advice he gave to Egbert, and 
With respect to the inconveniencies which he wisely fore- 
saw would arise from the multiplication of religious houses, 
to the prejudice both of church and state. 

As this epistle throws much light on the state of eccle- 
siastical affairs at the time, and, what is more important for 
our present purpose, affords many proofs of the superior 
wisdom and good sense of Beda, we shall avail ourselves 
of the following sketch of it.- Amongst other heads of ad- 
vice, he recommends the finishing St. Gregory's model to 
this prelate, by virtue of which York was to have been a 
metropolis with twelve Suffragans. He insists upon this 
plan, the rather, because in some woody, and almost im- 
passable, parts of the countiy, there were seldom any 
bishops came either to confirm, or any priests to instruct 
the people; and, therefore, he is of opinion that the erect- 
ing new sees would be of great service to the church. For 
this purpose he suggests the expedient of a synod to form 
the project, and adjust the measures ; and that an order of 
court should be procured to pitch upon some monastery, 
and turn it into a bishop's see: and to prevent opposition 
from the religious of that house, they should be softened 
with some" concessions, and allowed to choose the bishop 
out of their own society, and that the joint government of 
the monastery and diocese should be put into his hands. 
And if the' altering the property of the house should make 
the increasing the revenues necessary, he tells him there 
are monasteries enough that ought to spare part of their 
estates for such uses ; and, therefore, he thinks it reason- 
able that some of their lands should be taken from them 
and laid to the bishopric, especially since many of them 

B E D A. $22 

fell short of the rules of their institution.. And since' it is 
commonly said, that several of these places are neither 
serviceable to God nor the commonwealth, because neither 
the exercises of piety and discipline are practised, nor the 
estates possessed by men in a condition to defend the 
country ; therefore if the houses were some of them turned 
into bishoprics, it would be a seasonable provision for the 
church, and prove a very commendable alteration: A little 
after he intreats Egbert to use his interest with king Ceol- 
wulf, to reverse the charters of former kings for the pur- 
poses above-mentioned : For it has sometimes happened, 
says he, that the piety of princes has been over-lavish, and 
directed amiss. He complains farther, that the monas- 
teries were frequently filled with people of unsuitable prac* 
tices ; that the country seemed over-stocked with those 
foundations ; that there were scarcely estates enough left 
for the laity of condition; and that, if this humour in« 
creased, the country would grow disfurnished of troops to 
defend their frontiers. He mentions another abuse crept 
in of a higher nature : that some persons of quality of the 
laity, who had neither fancy nor experience for this way of 
living, used to purchase some of the crown-lands, under 
pretence of founding a monastery, and then get a charter 
of privileges signed by the king, the bishops, and other 
rgreat men in church and state ; and by these expedients 
they worked up a great estate, and made themselves lords 
of several villages. And thus getting discharged from the 
service of the commonwealth, they retired for liberty, took 
the range of their fancy, seized the character of abbots, 
and governed the monks without any title to such author 
rity ; and, which is still more irregular, they sometimes 
do not stock these places with religious, properly so called, 
but rake together a company of strolling monks, expelled 
for their misbehaviour ; and sometimes they persuade, their 
owr> retinue to take the tonsure, and promise a monastic 
obedience. And having furnished their religious houses 
with such ill-chosen company, they live a life perfectly 
secular under a monastic character, bring their wives into 
the monasteries, and are husbands and abbots at the same 
time. Thus for about thirty years, ever since the death 
of king Alfred, the country has run riot in this manner ; 
insomuch, that there are very few of the lord-lieutenants, 
or governors of towns, who have not seized the religious 
jurisdiction of a monastery, and put their ladies in the 


32* BED A. 

same post of guilt, by making them abbesses without pagf-> 
ing through those stages of discipline and retirement that 
should qualify them for it ; and as ill customs are apt to 
fcpread, the king's menial servants have taken up the same 
fashion : and thus we find a great many inconsistent offices 
and titles incorporated ; the same persons are abbots and 
ministers of state, and the court and cloister are unsuit- 
ably tacked together ; and men are trusted with the govern- 
ment of religious houses, before they have practised any 
part of obedience to them. To stop the growth of this 
disorder, Beda advises the convening of a synod ; that a 
visitation might be set on foot, and all such unqualified 
persons thrown out of their usurpation. In short, he puts 
the bishop in mind, that it is part of the episcopal office 
to inspect the monasteries of his diocese, to reform what is 
amiss both in head and members, and not to suffer a breach 
of the rules of the institution. It is your province, says he* 
to take eare that the devil does not get the ascendant in 
places consecrated to God Almighty 5 that we may not have 
discord instead of quietness, and libertinism instead of so- 
briety. * 

It appears from this epistle that he was very much 
indisposed when he wrote it, and probably he began now 
to fall into that declining state of health, from which he 
never recovered. The last stage of his distemper was an 
asthma, which he supported with great firmness of mind, 
although in much weakness and pain for six weeks, during 
which he continued his usual pious labours among the 
youth in the monastery, and occasionally prosecuted some 
of his writings, that he might be able to leave them com- 
plete. In all the nights of his sickness, in which, from the 
nature of the disease, he had little sleep, he sung hymns 
and praises. His last days were partly employed on his 
translation of the Gospel of St. John into the Saxon lan- 
guage, and some passages he was extracting from the works 
of £t. Isidore. The day before his death, he passed the 
night as usual, and continued dictating to the person who 
wrote for him, who observing his weakness, said, " There 
remains now only one chapter, but it seems very irksome 
for you to speak," to which he answered, ts It is easy, take 
another pen, dip it in the ink, and write as fast as you can." 
About nine o'clock he sent for some of his brethren, to di- 
vide among them some incense, and other things of little 
value, which were in his chest. While he was speaking tt 

BED A, 326 

them, the young man, Wilbercb, who wrote for him, said, 
" There is now, master, but one sentence wanting," upoa 
which he bid him write quick, and soon after the young 
man said, "It is now done," to which he replied, " Well i 
thou hast said the truth, it is now done. Take up my head 
between your bands, and lift me, because it pleases me 
much to sit over against the place where I was wont to 
pray, and where now sitting I may yet invoke my Father." 
Being thus seated according to his desire, upon the floor 
of his cell, he said, " Glory be to the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost," find as he pronounced the last word, ex- 
pired. This, according to the best opinion, for the date 
is contested, happened May 26, 735. His body was in- 
terred in the church of his own monastery at JTarrow, but, 
long afterwards, was removed to Durham, and placed in the 
same coffin or chest with that of St. Cuthbert, as appears 
by a very ancient Saxon poem on the relics preserved in 
the cathedral of Durham, printed at the end of the " De- 
cern Scriptores," 

Mr. Warton justly observes, that Beda's knowledge, if 
we consider his age, was extensive and profound : and it is 
amazing, in so rude a period, and during a life of no con- 
siderable length, he should have made so successful a pro- 
gress, and such rapid improvements, in scientifical and 
philological studies, and have composed so many elaborate, 
treatises on different subjects. It is diverting to sea the 
French critics censuring Beda for credulity ; they might 
as well have accused him of superstition. There is much 
perspicuity and facility in his Latin style :. but it is void 
of elegance, and often of purity ; -it shews with what grace 
and propriety he would have written, had his mind been 
formed on better models. Whoever looks for digestion of 
materials, disposition of parts, and accuracy of narration, 
in this writer's historical works, expects what could not 
exist at that time. He has recorded but few -civil transac- 
tions : but, besides that his history professedly considers 
ecclesiastical affairs, we should remember, that the build- 
ing of a church, the preferment of an abbot, the canoniza- 
tion qf a martyr, and the importation into England of the 
shin-bone of an apostle, were necessarily matters of much 
more importance in Bede's conceptions than victories or 
revolutions. He is fond of minute description ; but parti- 
cularities are the fault and often the merit of early historians. 

The first catalogue of Beda's works, as we have before* 


826 BED A. 

observed, we have from himself, at the end of his Eccle* 
siastical history, which contains all he had written before 
the year 731. This we find copied by Leland, who also 
mentions some other pieces he had met with of Beda's, and 
points out likewise several that passed under his name, 
though in his judgment spurious. John Bale, in the first 
edition of his book, which he finished in 1548, mentions 
ninety-six treatises written by Beda ; and in his last edition 
he swells these to one hundred and forty-five tracts ; and 
declares at the close of both his catalogues, that there were 
numberless pieces of our author's besides, which he had 
not seen. Pits, according to his usual custom, has much 
enlarged even this catalogue; though, to do him justice, 
he appears to have taken great pains in drawing up this ar- 
ticle, and mentions the libraries in which many of these 
treatises were to be found. The catalogues given by Tri- 
themius, Dempster, and others, are much inferior to these. 
Several of Beda's books were printed very early, and, for 
the most part, very incorrectly ; but the first general col- 
lection of his works appeared at Paris in 1544, in three vo- 
lumes in folio. They were printed again in 1554, at the 
same place, in eight volumes. They were published in the 
same size and number of volumes, at Basil, in 1563, re- 
printed at Cologne in 1612, and lastly at the same place 
in 1688. A very clear and distinct account of the con- 
tents of these volumes, the reader may find in the very 
learned and useful collection of Casimir Oudin. But the 
snost exact and satisfactory detail of Beda's life and writ- . 
ings, we owe to that accurate, judicious, and candid Be- 
nedictine, John Mabillon. Neither has any critic exerted 
his skill more effectually than he, though largely, and with 
copious extracts interspersed. But, perhaps, the easiest, 
plainest, and most concise representation of Beda's writ- 
ings, occurs in the learned Dr. Cave's " Hist. Literaria," 
which has been followed by the editors of the Biog. Bri- 
tannica. * 

Those treatises of Beda, which are mentioned in his own 
catalogue of his works, were published by the learned and 
industrious Mr. Wharton from three MSS. in the famous 
library in the archiepiscopal palace at Lambeth, under the 
title of " Beds Venerabilis Opera qusedam Theologica, 
nunc prim&m edita, necnon Historica antea semel edita. 
Accesserunt Egberti Archiepiscopi Eboracensis Dialogus 
de Ecclesiastic^ Institutioue, et Adhelmi Episcopi Scire- 

BEDA, 927 

burnensis Liber de Virginitate, ex codice antiquissimo 
emendatus," Lond. 1693, 4to. The worthy editor gives 
a large account of these (and other pieces added to them) 
in an epistolary discourse addressed to the Rev. Mr. arch- 
deacon Batteley, dated Aug, 30, 1693; wherein he takes 
notice, amongst other things, that he published these Opus- 
cula of Venerable Bede, to remove th^ complaint of our 
negligence in this respect, and that foreign writers might 
not boast, as they had hitherto done, of being the sole, 
publishers of the works of Beda. He added to these the 
small treatises that had been before published by sir James 
Ware, and which it seems were at that time become ex- 
tremely scarce. But at the. same time he shews that he 
was not transported, as some editors are, with such an af- 
fection for his author,, as to conceive better of his works 
than they deserved ; since he confesses that the divines of 
the middle ages are by no means to be compared with the 
ancient fathers in point of authority, or to the moderns in 
respect to acuteness ; but nevertheless they have their uses, 
and therefore such collections had been well received by 
the learned world, and amongst them none better than such 
of the works of Beda as had been before published. J 

BEDA (Noel), a French divine of the sixteenth century, 
principal of the college of Montaigu in 1507, and syndic* 
of the faculty of theology at Paris, was born in Picardy. 
He published a violent attack on the paraphrases of Eras- 
mus. That illustrious scholar condescended to take the 
trouble to refute it with great minuteness, averring that he 
had convicted his ceusurer of having advanced 181 lies, 
2 JO calumnies, and 47 blasphemies. The doctor, having 
po reasonable answer to make, took extracts from the works 
of Erasmus, denounced him as a heretic to the faculty, and 
succeeded in getting him censured. It was he who pre- 
vented the Sorborine from deciding in favour of the divorce 
of Henry VIII. of England, an opinion not discreditable to 
him, although he is said to have carried it by his vehe- 
fnence. " As Beda (says pere Berthier) could neither 
bridle his pen nor his tongue, he dared to preach against 
the king himself, under pretext, perhaps, that the court 
did not prosecute heretics with as much vigour as his bold 
and extravagant temper would have wished. His intolerant 

* Bios;. Brit.— Cave, vol. I.r*-Warton's Hist, of Poetry.— >Henry'f mid Hume'* 
Hist, of Great Britain, fco. - 

326 BEDA. 

spirit drew upon him twice successively a sentence of ba* 
hishment. Recalled for the third time, and continuing 
incorrigible, he was condemned by the parliament of Paris, 
in 1536, to make the amende-honorable before the church 
of Notre-Dame, for having spoken against the king, and 
against truth." He was afterwards exiled to the abbey of 
Mont St. Michel, where he died Feb. S, 1537, with the 
reputation (adds pere Berthier) of being a violent declaimer 
and a vexatious adversary. Beda wrote, l."A treatise 
" De unica Magdalena, Paris," 1519, 4to, against the 
publications of Faber Stapulensis. 2. Twelve books against 
the Commentary of Faber. 3. One against the Paraphrases 
of Erasmus, 1526, folio; and several other works, which 
are all marked with barbarism and rancour. His Latin is 
neither pure nor correct. Henry Stephens has preserved 
a circumstance of him, which sufficiently marks his charac- 
ter. He undertook to dissuade Francis I. from employing 
professors of languages in the university of Paris, and main-p 
tained before that prince, in the presence of Budaeus, that 
the Greek tongue was the cause of heresies. l 

BEDDOES (Thomas), M. D. a gentleman of Welch ex- 
traction, was born at Shiffnall in Shropshire, April 15,1760, 
where he received the first rudiments of his education, but; 
was soon removed to the school of Brewood in Staffordshire. 
He very early displayed a thirst for knowledge, and, as i$ 
frequently the case, appears to have been determined ra- 
ther by accident than design to that pursuit in which he 
was afterwards most distinguished. From Brewood he was 
removed to the grammar-school at Bridgenorth, which h$ 
quitted at the age of thirteen. His manners and habits at 
school were particular, but study and the desire of know- 
ledge were predominant. He seemed early to give way to 
deep thought and reflection ; and this, added to a natural 
shyness of disposition, gave him an air of reserve, which 
distinguished him from his young associates. In May 1773, 
he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. Sam. Dicken- 
son, rector of Blym-hill in Staffordshire, who supplied his 
biographer with some particulars of his character highly 
creditable to him. In 1776 he was entered of Pembroke 
college, Oxford, where he applied himself with remarkable 
industry and diligence to the study of modern languages, 
chemistry, mineralogy, and botany, In 1781, he visited 

* Cfoft. Diet. — Moreri. — Dupin.— Collier's Church History, 

B E D D O E S, 12* 

the metropolis, and studied anatomy ; and in the course 
of these studies he undertook to translate the works of Spal- 
lanzani, which appeared in 1784. It is also thbught that 
he supplied the notes to Dr. Cullen's edition of Bergman's 
Physical and Chemical Essays. In 1783, he tool the de- 
gree of M. A. and the following year went to Edinburgh, 
where he distinguished himself, hot only as a member, but 
for some time as president of the royal medical and natural 
history societies. In 1786 he returned to Oxford, and took 
his doctor's degree ; and the same year he visited the con- 
tinent, on his return from which he was appointed to the 
chemical lectureship' at Oxford, in which situation he dis- 
tinguished himself much, and was generally attended by 
a numerous auditory. Mineralogy at this time appears to 
have occupied much of his attention: his theory of the 
earth being, according to his biographer, conformable to 
that of Hutton ; but at this time he was rather hasty in Iris 
conclusions, and would frequently acknowledge that he 
had been misled in the judgment he had formed of certain 
fossils, especially in regard to the operations of fire.' Of 
this a singular instance has been given* A gentleman had 
brought to Oxford, from the summit of one of the mountains 
surrounding Coniston lake in Lancashire, some specimens 
which had evidently undergone the operation of fire, but 
which happened to abound near a hollow on the top of the 
mountain, which -some Italian gentlemen had not long be- 
fore pronounced to be the crater of an extinct volcano. Upon 
shewing them to Di\ Beddoes, he was so persuaded of the 
fact, that he even summoned a particular assembly of the 
members of the university by an extraordinary notice, be- 
fore whom he delivered a long lecture on the specimens 
supplied, as indicative of the natural operations of fire in 
those parts of England. A very short time after, he de- 
clared that they were evidently nothing better than mere 
slags from some old furnace, and that he had since 
discovered a criterion by which he could distinguish be- 
tween the productions of natural and artificial fire; but this 
discovery, and the consequent change of his sentiments, he 
could not be prevailed on to announce as publicly as he 
had delivered his former opinions. 

At this time nothing seemed to interest him more than 
the account of the two Giants Causeways, or groups of pris- 
matic basaltine columns, in the Venetian states, in Italy, in 
fhe LXVth. volume of the Philosophical Transactions, com- 


municated by Mr. Strange, long his majesty's resident at 
Venice. Dr.Beddoes's retirement from Oxford, about 
1792, was accelerated by his intemperance in politics, oc- 
casioned by the remarkable circumstances of the times. In 
the following year he removed to Bristol, where he began 
that career of medical and physiological researches, ex- 
periments, and lectures, which made him so generally con- 
spicuous, and which appear to have continued with the 
most striking zeal and perseverance to the last moment of 
bis short life, yaried according to circumstances, but never 
wholly abandoned. In 1798, his Pneumatic Institution 
was opened, which very much excited the attention of the 
public, although its practical effects were not correspondent 
io the high expectations entertained. Various publications 
.came from his pen in rapid succession, until 1808, when 
he was seized with a disorder which proved fatal, Dec. 24, of 
that year. This, which was a dropsy of the chest, he had 
mistaken for a hepatic disorder. His character, as given by 
his learned and affectionate biographer, is highly favour* 
able, but it presents two subjects of regret, the one that 
be should have thought it necessary to waste so much time 
on the fleeting politics of the day ; the other, that in his 
many schemes and experimental researches, he was pre- 
cipitate and unsteady. He was undoubtedly capable of 
great things, but too hurried, too sanguine, too uncon- 
scious of the lapse of time, and too little aware of the want 
of opportunity for any one man to accomplish any very 
numerous ends, either of invention' or reformation. The 
learned world had reason to lament his early death, because 
age migh,thave corrected those blemishes or eccentricities of 
his character, which prevented his doing justice, even to 
bis own designs and his own powers. Had he been less 
impetuous, less sanguine, and more capable of fixing and 
concentrating his views, he might have accomplished 
much more good, and left the world much more benefited 
by his extraordinary labours and indefatigable diligence. 
Of this labour and diligence, the reader may form a correct 
notion by the following list of his publications. 1.. " Trans- 
lation of Spallanzani's dissertations on Natural History," 
1784, reprinted 1790. 2. " Notes to a translation of Berg- 
man's Physical and Chemical Essays," 1784. 3. " Trans- 
lation of Bergman's essay on Elective Attractions, 1 ' 1785. 
4. "Translation of Scheele's Chemical Essays," edited and 
corrected by him, 1786. 5. " Chemical Experiments and 


Opinions extracted from a work published in the last cen- 
tury," 1790. 6. Three papers in the Philosophical Tran- 
sactions for 1791 and 1792, on "The affinity between Ba- 
saltes and Granite — the conversion of cast into malleable 
iron — and second part to ditto." 7. " Memorial addressed 
to the curators of the Bodleian Library/ 9 no date. 8. ° A 
letter to a Lady on the subject of early Instruction, parti- 
ticularly that of the poor/' 1792, printed but not published. 
9. " Alexander's Expedition to the Indian Ocean/' not 
published. 10. " Observations on the nature of demons- 
trative evidence, with reflections on Language/' 1792. 
11. "Observations on the nature and cure of Calculus, 
Sea-scurvy, Catarrh, and Fever," 1792. 12. " History of 
Isaac Jenkins," a moral fiction, 1793. 13. "Letters from 
Dr. Withering, Dr. Ewart, * Dr. Thornton, &c." 1794. 
14. " A Guide for self-preservation and parental affection, 
1794. 15. "A proposal for the improvement of Medicine, 
1794. 16. " Considerations on the medicinal use, and on 
the production of Factitious Airs :" parts I. and II. 1794, 
part III. 1795* and parte IV. and V. 1796. 17. "Brown's 
elements of Medicine, with a preface and notes," 1795. 
13. " Translation from the Spanish, of Gimbernat's new 
method of operating on Femoral Hernia," 1795. 19. 
" Outline of a plan for determining the medicinal powers 
of Factitious Airs," 1795. 20. " A word in defence of the 
Bill of Rights against Gagging-bills, 1795. 21. "Where 
would be the harm of a Speedy Peace ?" 1795. 22.' " An 
essay on the public merits of Mr. Pitt," 1796. 23. w A. 
letter to Mr. Pitt on the Scarcity," 1796. 24. u Alternatives 
compared, or, What shall the Rich do to be safe ?" 25. 
" Suggestions toVvards setting on foot the projected estab- 
lishment for Pneumatic Medicine," 1797. 26. "Reports 
relating to Nitrous Acid," 1797. 27. " A lecture intro- 
ductory to a popular course of Anatomy," 1797. 28. u A 
suggestion towards an essential improvement in the Bristol 
Infirmary," 1798. 29. " Contributions to medical and 
physical knowledge from the West of England," 1799. 
30. " Popular essay on Consumption," 1799. 31. " No- 
tice of some observations made at the Pneumatic Institu- 
tion," 1799. 32. "A second and third Report on Nitrous 
Acid," 1799, 1800. 33. " Essay on the medical and do- 
mestic management of the Consumptive ; on Digitalis and 
on Scrophula," 1801,. 34. " Hygeia ; or Essays, moral 
and medical, on the causes affecting the personal state of 

&** - BEDBOEi 

the middling and affluent classes," 1801-2. 35. "Rule* 
of the institution for the sick and drooping Poor." An edi- 
tion on larger paper was entitled " Instruction for people 
of all capacities respecting their own health and that of 
their children," 1*03. 36. " The manual of Health, or 
the Invalid conducted safely through the Seasons," 1806. 
27. " On Fever as connected with Inflammation," 1807* 
3&. " A letter to sir Joseph Banks, on the prevailing dis- 
contents, abuse, and imperfections in Medicine," 1808. 
.39. " Good advice for the Husbandman in Harvest, and for 
alt those who labour bard in hot births ; as also for others 
who will take it in warm weather," 1808. Besides these, 
Dr. Beddoes was a considerable contributor to several of 
the medical and literary journals. ' 

BEDELL (William), bishop of Kilmore in Ireland, and 
one of the most pious and exemplary prelates of the seven- 
teenth century, was descended from a good family, and 
born in the year 1570, at Black Notley in Essex, and be- 
ing designed for the church, wa& sent to Emanuel college 
in Cambridge, where he was matriculated pensioner, March 
12, 1584. He was placed under the care of Dr, Chadder- 
ton, who was for many years head of that house, made 
great progress in his studies, and went early into holy 
•orders. In 1593 he was chosen fellow of his college, and 
in. 1599 took his degree of bachelor in divinity. He then 
removed from the university to St. Edmundsbury in Suf- 
folk, where be had a church, and by an assiduous appli- 
cation to the duties of his function, was much noticed by 
many gentlemen who lived near that place. He continued 
there for some years, till an opportunity offered of his 
going as chaplain with sir Henry Wotton, whom king James 
had appointed his ambassador to the state of Venice, about 
the year 1604. While he resided in that city, he became ,. 
intimately acquainted with the famous father Paul Sarpi, 
who took him into his confidence, taught him the Italian 
language, of which he became a perfect master, and trans- 
lated into that tongue the English Common Prayer Book, 
which was extremely well received by many of the clergy 
there, especially by the seven divines appointed by the 
republic to preach against the pope, during the time of 
the interdict, and which they intended for their model, in 
case they had broken absolutely with Rome, which waa 

> Stock's Life of Dr. Bcddees, 1811, 4to.— Brit. Critic, vol. XXX VII. 


S E D E L L 33J 

what they then sincerely desired. In return for the fa- 
vours he received from father Paul, Mr. Bedell drew up 
an English grammar for his use, and in many other re- 
spects assisted him in his studies. He continued eight 
years in Venice, during which time he^greatly improved 
himself in the Hebrew language, by the assistance of the 
famous rabbi Leo, who taught him the Jewish pronuncia- 
tion, and other parts of rabbinical learning; and by his 
means it was that he purchased a very fair manuscript of 
the Old Testament, which he bequeathed, as a mark of 
respect, to Emanuel-college, and which, it is said, cost 
him its weight in silver. He became acquainted there 
likewise, with the celebrated Antonio de Dominis, arch- 
bishop of Spalata, who was so well pleased with his con- 
versation, that he communicated to him his secret, and 
shewed him his famous book " de Republica Ecclesiastical* 
which he afterwards printed at London. The original MS. 
is, if we mistake not, among bishop Tanner's collection* 
in the Bodleian. Bedell took the freedom which he al- 
lowed, him, and corrected many misapplications of texts 
of scripture, and quotations of fathers ; for that prelate, 
being utterly ignorant of the Greek tongile, committed 
many mistakes, both in the one and the other ; and some 
escaped Bedell's diligence. De Dominis took all this ia 
good part from him, and entered into such familiarity with 
him, and found his, assistance so useful, and indeed so ne- 
cessary to himself, that he used to say, he could do nothing 
without him. At Mr. Bedell's departure from Venice^ 
father Paul expressed great concern, and assured him, that 
himself and many others would most willingly have accom- 
panied him, if it had been in their power. He, likewise* 
gave him his picture, a Hebrew Bible without points, and 
a small' Hebrew Psalter, in which he wrote some sentences 
expressing the sincerity of his friendship. He gave him, 
also, the manuscript of his famous " History of the Coun- 
cil of Trent," with the Histories of the Interdict and In- 
quisition, all written by himself, with a large collection of 
letters, which were written to him weekly from Rome, 
during the dispute between the Jesuits and Dominican*, 
concerning the efficacy of grace, which it is supposed are 
lost. On his return to England, he immediately retired 
to his charge at, St. Edmundsbury, without aspiring to any 
preferment, and went on in his ministerial labours. It was 
here he employed himself in translating the Histories of 

*$* BEDELL. 

the Interdict and Inquisition (which he dedicated to tb4 
king) ; as also the two last books of the History of the 
Council of Trent into Latin, sir Adam Newton having 
translated the two first. At this time, he mixed so seldom 
with the world, that he was almost totally forgotten. So 
little was he remembered, that, some years after, when the 
celebrated Diodati, of Geneva, came over to England, he 
could not, though acquainted with many of the clergy, hear 
of Mr. Bedell from any person with whom he happened to 
converse. Diodati was greatly amazed, that so extraor- 
dinary a man, who was so much admired at Venice by the 
best judges of merit, should not be known in his own coun- 
try ; and he had given up all hopes of finding him out, 
when, to their no small joy, they accidentally met each 
other in the streets of London. Upon this occasion, Dio- 
dati presented his friend to Morton, the learned and an- 
cient bishop of Durham, and told him how highly he had 
been valued by father Paul, which engaged the bishop to 
treat Mr. Bedell with very particular respect. At length 
pir Thomas Jermyn taking notice of his abilities, presented 
Jiim to the living of Horingsheath, A. D. 1615: but he 
found difficulties in obtaining institution and induction from 
Dr. Jegon, bishop of Norwich, who demanded large fees 
upon this account. Mr. Bedell was so nice in his sentiments 
of simony, that he looked upon every payment as such, 
beyond a Competent gratification, for the writing; the wax, 
and the parchment; and, refusing to take out his title 
upon other terms, left the bishop and went home, but in a 
few days the bishop sent for him, and gave him his title 
without fees, and he removed to Horingsheath, where he 
.continued unnoticed' twelve years, although he gave a sin- 
gular evidence of his great capacity, in a book of contro- 
versy with the church of Roine, which he published and 
dedicated to king Charles I. then prince of Wales, in 1624. 
It is now annexed to Burnet's Life of our author. How- 
ever neglected he lived in England, yet his fame had reached 
Ireland, and he was, in 1627, unanimously elected provost 
of Trinity- college in Dublin, but this he declined, until 
the king laid his positive commands on him, which he 
obeyed, and on August 16th of that year, he was sworn 
provost; At his first entrance upon this scene, he resolved 
to act nothing until he became perfectly acquainted witb^ 
the statutes of the house, and the tempers of the people 
whom he was appointed to govern } and, therefore, car- 

B £ C :s t L. isS 

lied himself so abstractedly from all affairs, that he passed 
some time for a soft and weak man, and even primate 
Usher began to waver in his opinion of him. When he 
went to England some few months after, to bring over his 
family, he had thoughts of resigninghis new preferment* 
and returning to his benefice in Suffolk : but an encou- 
raging letter from primate Usher prevented him, and he 
applied himself to the government of the college, with 
a vigour of mind peculiar to him. 

His first business was to compose divisions among the 
fellows, to rectify disorders, and to restore discipline ; and 
as be was a great promoter of religion, he catechised the 
youth once a week, and divided the church catechism into 
fifty -two parts, one for every Sunday, and explained it in a 
way so mixed with speculative and practical matters, that 
his sermons were looked upon as lectures of divinity. He 
continued about two years in this employment, when, by 
the interest of sir Thomas Jermyn, and the application of 
Laud, bishop of London, he was advanced to the sees of 
Kilmore and Ardagh, and consecrated on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1629, at Drogheda, in St. Peter's church, in the 
fifty-ninth year of his age. In the letters for his promo-* 
tion, the king made honourable mention of the satisfaction 
he took in the services he had done, and the reformation he 
had wrought in the university. He found his dioceses 
under vast disorders, the revenues wasted by excessive di- 
lapidations, and all things exposed to sale in a sordid man- 
ner. The cathedral of Ardagh, and the bishop's houses, 
were all fiat to the ground, the parish churches in ruins, and 
the insolence of the Popish clergy insufferable ; the op- 
pressions of the ecclesiastical courts excessive ; and plurali- 
ties and non-residence shamefully prevailing. Yet he had 
the courage, notwithstanding these difficulties, to under- 
take a thorough reformation ; and the first step he took 
was, to recover part of the lands of which his sees had been 
despoiled by his predecessors, that he might be in a con- 
dition to subsist, while he laboured to reform other abuses. 
In this he met with such success, as encouraged him to 

{Proceed upon his own plan, and to be content with nothing 
ess than an absolute reformation of those which he esteemed 
capital and enormous abuses, particularly with regard to 
pluralities, showing an example in his own case by resign- 
ing tlfe bishopric of Ardagh, which he had the satis- 
faction to see followed in instances of a more flagrant 

J3d B E D E Jt t/. 

, nature. . Oa the arrival of the lord-deputy. Wentwortn> 
in 1633, our prelate had the misfortune to fall under 
bis displeasure, for setting his hand to a petition for re- 
dress of grievances ; and so high and open was the lord- 
deputy's testimony of this displeasure, that the bishop 
did not think fit to go in person to congratulate him (as 
others did) upon his entering into his . government. It 
is, however, very improbable, that he should write over to 
sir Thomas Jermyn and his friends in England, or procure, 
by their interest, injunctions to the lord-deputy, to receive 
him into favour, a report which suits very ill with the cha- 
racter either of the men or of the times. On the contrary, 
it appears from his. own letter to the lord deputy, that it 
was he, not the bishop, who had complained in England j 
that he meant to justify himself to the deputy, and expect- 
ed, on that justification, he should retract his complaints. 
One may safely affirm, from the perusal of this single 
epistle, that our prelate was as thorough a statesman as the 
deputy, and that he knew how to become all things to all 
men, without doing any thing beneath him, or inconsistent 
with his dignity. This conduct l?ad its effect, and in three, 
weeks it appears that he stood well with the deputy, and 
probably without any interposition but bis own letter before 
mentioned. He then went on cheerfully in doing his duty, 
and for the benefit of the church, aud was very successful. 
His own example did much: he loved the Christian power 
of a bishop, without affecting either political authority or 
pomp. Whatever he did was so visibly for the good of his 
Sock, that he seldom failed of being well supported by his 
clergy; and such as opposed him did it with visible reluc- 
- tance, for he had the esteem of the good men of all parties, 
and was as much reverenced as any bishop in Ireland. In 
1638 he convened a synod, and made some excellent ca- 
nons that are yet extant, and when offence was taken at 
this, the legality of the meeting questioned, and the bishop 
even threatened with the star-chamber, archbishop Usher, 
who was consulted, said, " You had better let hitn alone, 
for fear, if he, should be provoked, he should say much 
more for himself than any of his accusers can say against 
him." Amongst other extraordinary things he did, there 
was none more worthy of remembrance than his removing 
his lay-chancellor, sitting in his own courts, bearing causes, 
and retrieving thereby the jurisdiction which anciently be- 
longed to a bishop. The chancellor upon this filed bis bill 

B £ DELL. «7 

in equity, and obtained a decree in cbahcefy against the 
bishop, with one hundred pounds costs. But by this time 
(the chancellor saw so visibly the difference between the 
bishop's sitting in that seat and his own, that he never 
called for his costs, but appointed a surrogate, with orders 
to obey the bishop in every thing, and so his lordship went 
on in his own way. Our bishop was no persecutor of Pa- 
pists,' and yet the most successful enemy they ever had ; 
and if the other bishops had followed his example, the Pro- 
testant religion must have spread itself, through every part 
of the country. He. laboured to convert the better sort of 
the Popish clergy, and in this he had great success. He 
procured the Common-prayer, which had been translated 
into Irish, and caused it to be read in his cathedral, in his 
own presence, every Sunday, having himself learned that 
language perfectly, though he never attempted to speak it. 
The New Testament had been also translated by William 
Daniel, archbishop of Tuam, but our prelate first procured 
the Old Testament to be translated by one King ; and be* 
cause (the translator was ignorant of the original tongues, 
and did it from the English, the bishop himself revised and 
compared it with the Hebrew, and the best translations. 
He caused, likewise, some of Chrysostom's and Leo's ho- 
milies, in commendation of the scriptures, to be rendered 
both into English and Irish, that the common people might 
see, that in the opinion of the ancient fathers, they had not 
only a right to read the scriptures as well as the clergy, but 
it was their duty so to* do. He met with great opposition 
in this work, from a persecution against the translator, 
raised without reason, and carried on with much passion by 
those from whom he had no cause to expect it. But, how- 
ever, he got the translation finished, which he would have 
printed in his own house, and at his own charge, if the 
troubles in Ireland had not prevented it ; and as it was, his 
labours were not useless, for the translation escaped the 
hands of the rebels, and was afterwards printed at the ex- 
pence of the celebrated Robert Boyle. 

The bishop was very moderate in his sentiments, and in 
his methods of enforcing them ; he loved to bring men into 
the communion of the church of England, but he did hot 
like compelling them ; and it was his opinion, that Protest- 
ants would agree well enough if they could be brought to* 
understand each other. These principles induced him to 
promote Mr. Drury > s design, of endeavouring to reconcile 

VouIV. 2 


* - . » 


the Lutherans to the Calvijiists, a project which had bees 
encouraged by many other worthy, persons, and towards 
which he subscribed twenty pounds a year, to defravrthe 
expences of Mr, Drury's negotiations, The bishop him- 
self, it must be mentioned, was a Calvihist, which Burnet 
thinks was the cause of his having so little preferment in 
England. He gave another instance* not only of his cha- 
rity towards, but his ability in, reconciling those of other 
communions, to the churches of England and Ireland. 
There were some Lutherans at Dublin, who, for not com- 
ing to church and taking the sacrament, were cited into the 
archbishop's consistory, upon which they desired time to 
write to their divines in Germany, which was given them, 
.and when their answers came, they contained some excep- 
tions to the doctrine, of the church, as not explaining the 
presence of Christ in the sacrament, suitable to their senti- 
ments ; to which bishop Bedell gave so full and clear, and 
withal so moderate and charitable, an answer, as entirely 
satisfied their objections, insomuch that those divines ad- 
vised their countrymen to join in communion with the 
church, which they accordingly did. In this mild and pru- 
dent way our prelate conducted his charge, with great re- 
putation to himself, and with the general approbation of all 
good men, who were perfectly pleased with his doctrine, 
and edified by his example. When the bloody rebellion 
fcroke out in October 1641, the bishop did not at first feel 
the violence of its effects ; for even those rebels, who in 
their conduct testified so little of humanity, professed a 
great veneration for him, and openly declared he should be 
the last Englishman they would drive out of Ireland. His 
was the only English house in the county of Cavan that was 
unviolated r notwithstanding that it, and its out-buildings, 
the church, and the church-yard, were filled with people 
who fled to. him for shelter, whom, by his preaching and 
prayers, he encouraged to expect and endure the worst 
with patience. In the mean time, Dr. Swiney, the Popish 
titular bishop of Kilmore, came to Cavan, and pretended 
great concern and kindness for bishop Bedell. Our pre- 
iatje had converted his brother, and kept him in his house 
till he could otherwise provide for him; and Dr. Swiney 
desired likewise to lodge in his house,' assuring him in the 
strongest terms of his protection. But this bishop Bedell 
cteclined, in a very civil and well-written Latin letter, urg- 
ing the smallness of his house, the great number of people 

BEDELL. 339 

that had taken shelter with him, the sickness of some of his 
company, and of his son in particular, but above all, the 
difference in their ways of worship, which could not but be 
attended with great inconveniency. This had some effect 
for a time ; but about the middle of December, the rebels, 
pursuant to orders they had received from their 'council of 
state at Kilkenny, required him to dismiss the people that 
were with him, which he absolutely refused to do, declar- 
ing that he would share the same fate with the rest. They 
signified to him upon this, that they had orders to remove 
him; to which he answered, in the words of David, " Here 
I am, the Lord do unto me as seemeth good to him ; the 
will of the Lord be done." Upon this they seized him, his 
two sons, and Mr. Clogy, who had married his step-daugh- 
ter, and carried them prisoners to the castle of Ciough- 
boughter, surrounded by a deep water, were they put 
them all but the bishop in irons; They did not suffer any 
of them to carry any thing with them; and the moment the 
bishop was gone, Dr. Swiney took possession of his house 
and ail that belonged to it, and said mass in the church the 
Sunday following. After some time the rebels abated of 
their severity^ took the irons off the prisoners, and suffered 
them to be as much at their ease as they could be iu so 
wretched a place ; for the winter was very rigorous, and 
the castle being old and ruinous, they would have been ex- 
posed to all the severity of the weather, if it had not been 
for an honest carpenter who was imprisoned there before 
them, and who made use of a few old boards he found there, 
to mend a part of the roof, the better to defend them from 
the snow and sleet. While thus confined, the bishop, his 
sons, and Mr. Clogy, preached and prayed continually to 
their small and afflicted congregation, and upon Christmas 
day his lordship administered the sacrament to them. It is 
very remarkable, that rude and barbarous as the Irish were, 
they gave them no disturbance in the performance of divine 
service, and often told the bishop they had no personal 
quarrel to him, but that the sole cause of their confining 
him was, his being an Englishman. After being kept in 
this manner, for three weeks, the bishop, his two sons, an<J 
Mr. Clogy, were exchanged for two of the O'Rourkes ; but 
though it was agreed that they should be safely conducted 
to Dublin, yet the rebels would never suffer them to be 
carried out of the country, but sent them to the house of 
Dennis Sheridan, an Irish minister, and convert to the 

2 2 

340 BEDELL. 

Protestant religion, to which though tie steadily adhered, 
and relieved many who fled to him fdr protection, yet the 
Irish suffered him to live quietly among them, on account 
of the great family from which he was descended. While 
our prelate remained there, and enjoyed some degree of 
health, he every Sunday read the prayers and lessons, and 
preached himself, though there were three ministers with 
him. Thfe last Sunday he officiated was the 30th of Jan. 
and the day following he was taken ill. On the second day 
it appeared that his disease was an ague ; and on the fourth, 
apprehending a speedy change, he called for his sons and 
his sons 9 wives, spoke to them a considerable time, gave 
them much spiritual advice, and blessed them, after Which, 
he spoke little, but slumbered out most of his time, only 
by intervals he seemed to awake a little, and was then very 
cheerful. At length, on the 7th of February, 1641, about 
midnight, he breathed his last, in the seventy-first year of 
his age, his death being chiefly occasioned by his late im- 
prisonment, and the weight of sorrows which lay upon his 
mind. The only care now remaining to his friends was, to 
see him buried according to his desire ; and since that 
could not be obtained but by the new intruding bishop's 
leave, Mr. Clogy arid Mr. Sheridan went to ask it, and Mr. 
Dillon was prevailed with by his wife, to go and second 
their desire. They found the bishop in a state of beastly 
intoxication, and a melancholy change in that house, which 
was before a house of prayer. The bishop, when he was 
awakened out of his drunkenness, excepted a little to their 
request, and said the church-yard was holy ground, and 
was no more to be defiled with heretics* bodies ; yet he 
consented to it at last> Accordingly, February 9, he was 
buried next his wife's coffin. The Irish did him unusual 
honours at his burial, for the chief of the rebels gathered 
their forces together, and with them accompanied his body 
from Mr. Sheridan's house to the church-yard of Kilmore in 
great solemnity, and they desired Mr. Clogy to bury hirij 
according to the office prescribed by the church. But 
though the gentlemen were so civil as to offer it, yet it was 
not thought advisable to provoke the rabble so much, as 
perhaps that might have done ; so it was passed over. But 
the Irish discharged a volley of shot at bis interment, and 
cried out in Latin, " Requiescat in pace ultimus Anglo- 
rum," — c May the last of the English rest in peace ;' for 
they had often said, that as they esteemed him the best of 

BE 9 E I L. , 341 

the English bishops, bo he should be the last that jg^uld bte 
left among them. What came from Edmupd FariUy, a Po- 
pish priest, at the interment of the bishop, is too remark- 
able, and is too well attested, to be passed over, who cried 
out, " O sit anima mea cum Bedello," — 1 1 would to God 
4ny soul were with Bedell's.' Our prelate had long before 
.prepared for death, as appears by his will, dated the 15th of 
February, 1640, in which there are several legacies, that 
shew he had recollected all the memorable passages of his 
life before he made it, and seriously considered the several 
blessings which God had bestowed upon him. He married 
a lady of the ancient and honourable family of L' Estrange, 
who was the widow of the recorder of St. Edmundsbury, a x 
woman .exemplary in her life, humble and modest in her 
behaviour, and singular in many excellent qualities, parti- 
cularly in an extraordinary reverence to him. She bore 
him three sons and a daughter. One of the sons and the 
daughter died young ; only William and Ambrose survived, 
for whom he made no provision, but a benefice of eighty 
pounds a-year for the eldest and worthy son of such a fa- 
ther, and an estate of sixty pounds a-year for the youngest, 
who did not take to learning. This was the only purchase 
he made. His wife died three years before the rebellion 
broke out, and he preached her funeral sermon himself, 
with such a mixture both of tenderness and moderation, 
that he drew tears from all his auditors. He was an enemy 
to burying in the church, thinking thatf there was both su- 
perstition and pride in it, and believing it was a great an- 
noyance to the living, to have so much of the steam of dead 
bodies rising about them. One of the canons in his synod 
was against burying in churches, and he often wished that 
burying- places were removed out of all towns. He chose 
the lease frequented place of the church-yard of Kilmore 
for bis wife to lie in, and by his will ordered, that he should 
be placed nqptt to her, with this inscription : 

" Depositum Guliehni quondam Episcopi Kilmorensis." 

The character given of this amiable prelate in Burnet's 
life, drawn up partly by Burnet, and partly by his son-in- 
law Mr. Clogy, is highly interesting. Bishop Bedell was 
tall and graceful, and had something in his looks and car- 
riage that created a veneration for him. His deportment 
was grave without affectation ; his apparel decent with 
simplicity; }ie wore no silks, but plain stuffs; and had a 


, • r • 

long and broad beard, and grey and venerable hair. His 
strength continued firm to the last, so that the week before 
his last sickness, he walked as vigorously and nimbly as any 
of the company, and leaped over a broad ditch, insomuch 
that his sons,' who were amazed at it, had enough to do to 
follow him. He never used spectacles. By a fall in his 
childhood he had unhappily contracted a deafness in his, 
left ear. He had great strength and health of body, ex- 
cepting that a few years before his death he had some se- 
vere fits of the stone, occasioned by his sedentary life, 
which he bore with wonderful patience. The remedy he 
used for it was to dig in the garden (in which he much 
delighted) until he heated himself, and that mitigated the 
pain. His judgment and memory remained with him to 
the last. He always preached without notes, but often 
wrote down his meditations after he had preached them. 
He Shewed no other learning in his sermons but in clearing 
the difficulties of his text, by comparing the originals with 
the most ancient versions. 

His style was clear and full, but plain and simple. He 
read the Hebrew and Septuagint so much, that they were 
as familiar to him as the English translation. He had 
gathered a vast heap of critical expositions, which, with 
a trunk full of other manuscripts, fell into the hands of the 
Irish, and were all lost, except his great Hebrew manu- 
script, which was preserved by a converted Irishman, and 
is now in Emanuel college, in Cambridge. Every day 
after dinner and supper a chapter of the Bible was read at 
his table, whether Papists or Protestants were present ; 
and Bibles were laid before every one of the company, and 
before himself either the Hebrew or the Greek, but in his 
last years, the Irish translation ; and he usually explained 
the occurring difficulties. He wrote much in controversy, 
occasioned by his engagements to labour the conversion of 
those of the Roman communion, which he looked on as 
idolatrous and antichristian. He wrote a large treatise on 
these two questions : " Where was our religion before 
Luther? And what became of our ancestors who died in Po- 
pery ?" Archbishop Usher pressed him to have printed it, 
and he resolved to have done so ; but that and all his other 
works were swallowed up in the rebellion. He kept a 

f'tpat correspondence not only with the divines of E,ng- 
and, but with others over Europe. He observed a true 
hospitality in house-keeping ; and many poor Irish families 

BEDELL. 343 

t « 

about him were maintained out of his kitchen .; and in 
Christmas the poor always eat with him at his own table, 
and he had brought himself to endure both their rags and 
Tudeness/ At public tables he usually sat silent. Once 
at the earl of Strafford's table, one observed, that while 
they were alt talking, he said nothing. The primate an- 
swered, " Broach him, and you will find good liquor iti 
him." Upon which the person proposed a question in 
divinity, in answering which the bishop shewed his abilities 
so well, and puzzled the other so much, that all, at last, 
except the bishop, fell a laughing at the other. The 
greatness of his mind, and undauntedness of his spirit, 
evidently appeared in many passages of his life, and that 
without any mixture of pride, for he lived with his clergy 
as if they had been his brethren. In his visitation he would 
accept of no invitation from the gentlemen of the country, 
but would eat with his clergy in such poor inns, and of 
such coarse fare, as the places afforded. He avoided all 
affectation of state in his carriage, and, when in Dublin, 
always walked on "foot, attended by one servant, except 
on public occasions, which obliged him to ride in proces- 
sion among his brethren. He never kept a coach, his 
strength suffering him always to ride on horseback. He 
avoided the affectation of humility as well as pride ; the 
former often flowing from the greater pride of the two. 
He took an ingenious device to put him in mind of his 
obligations to purity : it was a flaming crucible, with this 
motto : " Take from me all my Tin," the word in Hebrew 
signifying Tin, being Bedil, which imported that he thought, 
everything in him but. base alloy, and therefore prayed 
God- would cleanse him from it. He never thought of 
changing* his see, but considered himself as under a tie to 
it that could not easily be dissolved ; so that when the 
translating him to a bishopric in England was proposed to 
him, he refused it ; and said, he should be as troublesome 
a bishop in England as he had been in Ireland. He had 
a true and gernerous notion of religion, and did not look 
upon it as a system of opinions, or a set of forms, but as a 
divine discipline that reforms the heart and life. It was 
not leaves, but fruit that he sought. This was the true 
principle of his great zeal against Popery. He considered 
the -corruptions of that church as an effectual course to 
enervate the true design of Christianity. He looked on 

ft* BEDUL 

the pblig^tipp of observing the Sfi&bfrtk, as mpraj »p4.pWT+ 
petual, and was most exact in the observation of it. * 

BEDERIC (He.\ry), a celebrated preacher in the four;-' 
teenth century * was a monk of the order of St. Augustip 
at Clare, and surnamed de Bury, because he was born at St. 
Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk. Having from his youth shewn 
^ quick capacity, and a great inclination to learning, hifc 
superiors took care to improve these excellent faculties, 
by sending him not only to our English, but also to foreign 
universities ; where closely applying himself to his studies, 
and being a constant disputanjt, he acquired such fame, 
that at Paris he became a doctor of the Sorbonne. Not 
long after he returned to England, where he was much 
followed, and extremely admired for his eloquent way of 
preaching. This qualification, joined to his remarkable 
integrity, uprightness, and dexterity in the management 
of affairs, so recommended him to the esteem of the world, 
that he was chosen provincial of his order throughout Eng- 
land, in which station he behaved in a very commendable 
manner. He wrote several things, as: 1. " Lectures 
upon the master of the sentences, i. e. Petet Lombard, in 
four books." 2. " Theological Questions," in one book. 
3. " Sermons upon the blessed Virgin." 4. " A course of 
sermons for the whole year. Besides several other things 
of which no account is given. He flourished about the 
year 1380, in the reign of Richard II. * 

BEDFORD (Arthur), a pious and learned clergyman 
of the church of England, and many years chaplain to the 
Haberdashers' hospital at Hoxton, was the son of Richard 
Bedford, and was born at Tiddenham, in Gloucestershire, 
Sept. 1668. Having received the rudiments of learning 
from his father, he was in 1684, at the age of sixteen, 
admitted commoner of Brasen-nose college, Oxford, where 
he acquired some reputation as an Orientalist. He be- 
came B.A. in Feb. 1687, and M.A. July, 1691. In 168S 
he received holy orders from Dr. Frampton, bishop of 
Gloucester, and about this time removed to Bristol, and 
became curate to Dr. Read, rector of St. Nicholas church* 
with whom he continued till 1692, when, having tak^r* 
priest's orders from Dr. Hall, bishop of Bristol, the mayor 
and corporation of the city presented him to the vicarage 

i Life by Burnet, 1685, 8vo, bishop Rennet's and Dr. Farmer's copies p. nv 
with MS notes.-r-Birch'* Prince Henry. - 

« Bale.— Pitts.— Biog. Brit 

3 E D F O R P. M$ 

of -Temple, church. From this be wa? removed to Newton 
St, Loe, a private living in Somersetshire, soon after 
which, as he himself informs us, he was prompted to un- 
dertake a work on " Scripture Chronology," by reading 
over the preface to Abp. Usher's Annals, in which the primate 
gave his opinion concerning a more exact method of " A, 
chronological system of the sacred Scriptures, by the help 
of astronomy and a competent skill in the Jewish learning/ 9 
After many difficulties, Mr. Bedford flattered himself that 
he had succeeded, and then digested his thoughts into 
some method. Soon after this, coming to London, to as- 
sist in the correction of the Arabic Psalter and New Tes- 
tament, for the benefit of the poor Christians in Asia, he 
shewed his thoughts to some friends, who advised him to 
publish them ; with which he complied, with a design not 
to have exceeded fourscore or an hundred pages in the 
whole. A few sheets were printed off, but the author having 
received information that a work of a similar nature warn 
intended to be published from the papers of sir Isaac 
Newton, and being advised by some friends, contrary to 
his first intention, to publish the work on a more extensive 
plan, he suppressed his papers. In the mean time, in 
1724, he was chosen chaplain to Haberdashers hospital, 
(founded in 1690, by alderman Aske), and continued to 
reside there for the remainder of his life. In 1728 he 
published " Animadversions upon sir Isaac Newton's book 
entitled The chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended/' 
8vo, in which he attempts to prove that sir Isaac's system 
entirely contradicts the scripture history, and he appeals, 
as his supporters in this opinion, to Bochart, Dr. Prideaux, 
archbishop Usher, and the bishops Lloyd, Cumberland, 
Beveridge, &c. 

Two years afterwards, he published a sermon (from 
2 Tim. ii. 16.) at St. Botqlph's, Aldgate, where he was 
afternoon lecturer* against the then newly-erected play- 
house in Goodman's fields. This was a favourite subject 
with Mr. Bedford, who, in other of his publications, proved 
an able assistant to Mr. Collier, in his attempt to reform 
the stage. He began, indeed, in this necessary labour, 
many years before coming to London, as will appear by 
our list of bis works. He continued in his office of chap- 
lain to the hospital, until 17^5, when he died, Sept. 15, 
and was buried in the ground behind the hospital, pro- 
bably at his owp desire. Tradition informs us his death 



was occasioned by a fall whilst making observations on the 
comet of that year, an accident which was very likely to 
prove fatal to a man in his seventy -seventh year. He fur- 
nished the hall of the hospital, where the pensioners as- 
semble, with some pious works, chained, in the old library 
manner, to the windows, and, as appears by his writings, 
was a man of unfeigned piety and zeal. These writings 
are : 1. " Serious reflections, on the scandalous abuse and 
effects of the Stage, a sermtfh," Bristol, 1705, with a long 
preface. 2. " A second advertisement concerning the 
Play-house, 1 ' ibid. 8vo. 3. " The evil and danger of Stage 
Plays," ibid. 1706, 8vo, a most curious work, but much 
enlarged in the subsequent edition. 3. " The temple of 
Music," Lond. 1706, 8vo. 4. " The great abuse of 
Music," ibid. 1711, 8vo, in which he examines all the 
series of English songs, pointing out their impious or im- 
moral passages, concluding with a Gloria Patri set to mu- 
sic, apparently by himself, in four parts. 5. " Essay on 
singing David's psalms," 1708. 6, His "JEvil of Stage- 
plays" republished under the title of " A serious remon- 
strance in behalf of the Christian Religion, against the 
horrid blasphemies and impieties which are still used in 
the English Playhouses, &c." In this he has so completely 
perused the whole range of the English drama, as to pro- 
duce " seven thousand instances, taken out of plays of the 
present century, and especially of the last five years, in 
defiance of all methods hitherto used for their reformation ;" 
and he has also giverTa catalogue of " above fourteen 
hundred texts of scripture, which are mentioned, either 
as ridiculed and exposed by the stage, or as opposite to 
their present practices." 7. " Animadversions on sir 
Isaac Newton," mentioned above. 8. " Scripture Chro- 
nology, demonstrated by astronomical calculations, in 
eight books," ibid. 1741, fol. which 'Dr. Waterland justly 
characterises as a very learned and elaborate work. 
9. " Eight sermons on the doctrine of the Trinity, at lady 
Moyer's lecture," ibid. 1741, 8vo. 10. " The dpctrine of 
Justification by Faith stated according to the articles of the 
church of England. Contained in nine questions and 
answers," ibid. 1741, 8vo. 11. " Horse Mathematics* 
Vacua?,- or a treatise of the Golden and Ecliptick Num- 
bers," ib. 1743, 8vo. The original MS. of this work, which 
was written during an illness which deprived him of the 
use of bis limbs, is now preserved in Sion college library. 


He published also several single sermons, preached on 
public occasions. 1 

BEDFORD (Hilkiah), of Sibsey, in Lincolnshire, a 
quaker, came to London, and settled there as a stationer 
between the years 160Q and 1625. He married a daughter 
of Mr. William Plat, of Highgate, by whom he had a son, 
Hilkiah, a mathematical instrument maker in Hosier-lane, 
near West- Smithfield. In this house (which was after- 
wards burnt in the great fire of London, 1666), was bom 
the famous Hilkiah, July 23, 1663 ; who was educated at 
Bradley, in Suffolk, and in 1679 was admitted of St. John's 
college, Cambridge, the first scholar on the foundation of 
his maternal grandfather, William Plat. Hilkiah was af- 
terwards elected fellow of his college, and patronized by 
Heneage Finch earl of Winchelsea, but deprived of his 
preferment (which was in Lincolnshire), for refusing t6 
take the oaths at the revolution, and afterwards kept a 
boarding-house for the Westminster scholars. In 1714, 
being tried in the court of king's-bencb, he was fined 
1000 marks, and imprisoned three years, for writing, 
printing, and publishing "The hereditary Right of the 
Crown of England asserted," 1713, folio; the real author 
of which was George Harbin, a nonjuring clergyman, whom 
his friendship thus screened ; and on account of his suf- 
ferings he received 100/. from the late lord Weymouth, 
who knew not the real author. His other publications 
were, a translation of " An answer to Fontenelle's History 
of Oracles," and the translation of the life of Dr. Barwick, 
as noticed in the life of that gentleman. He died Nov. 26, 
1724, and was buried in the church-yard of St. Margaret's 
Westminster, with an epitaph. * 

BEDFORD (Thomas), second son of Hilkiah, was edu- 
cated at Westminster- school ; and was afterwards admitted 
of St. John's college, Cambridge ; became master's sizar 
to Dr. Robert Jeukin, the master; and was matriculated 
Dec. 9, 1730. Being a nonjuror, he never took a degree; 
but going into orders in that party, officiated amongst the 
people of that mode of thinking in Derbyshire, fixing his 
residence at Compton, near Ashbourne, where he became 
much acquainted with Ellis Farneworth ; and was reputed 
a good scholar. Having some original fortune, and withal 

» Ellis's Hist, of Shoreditch.— Republic of Letters, rols. II. HI. VI. 
» Nichols's Life of Bowyer.— Cole's MS Athens in Brit. Mui. 


being * very frugal man, aud making also tfce vctojst of his 
money for a length of years, Mr. Bedford died rich at 
Comjrton, in Feb. 1773, where he was well respected. 
Haying a sister married to George Smith, esq. near Dur- 
ham (who published his father Dr. John Smith's fine edition 
of Bede), Mr. Bedford went into the north, and there 

{prepared his edition of " Symeonis jponacbi Dunhelmensis 
ibelUis de exordio atque pjrocursu Duahelmensis eccle- 
si«;" with a continuation to 1154, and an account of the 
hard usage bishop William received from Rufus j which 
Was printed by subscription in 1732, 8vo, from a very va- 
luable and beautiful MS. in the cathedral library, which 
he supposes to he either the original, or copied in the au- 
thor's life-time. He wa$ residing at Ashbourne in 1742, 
when be published an Historical Catechism, the second 
edition, corrected and enlarged. The first edition was 
taken from abbe* Fleury ; but as this second varied so much 
from that author, Bedford left out his name. l 

BEDLOE (Capt. William), better known on account 
of his actions than his writings, haying been a principal. and 
useful evidence in the discovery in the popish plot, in the 
reign of Charles II. See the Eng. Hist, for that period ; 
and the " Life of capt Bedloe," which contains nothing 
extraordinary but the aforesaid discovery, written by an 
. unknown hand, and published 1681, 8vo. He was an in- 
famous adventurer of low birth, who had travelled over a 
Sreat part of Europe, under different names, as well a* 
isguise*. Encouraged by the success of Oates, he turned 
evidence, and gave an account of Godfrey's murdq^, to 
which he added many circumstances of villainy. A reward 
of 500/. was voted to him by the commons. He is said to 
have asserted the reality of the plot on his de^ath-bed ; but 
it abounds with absurdity, contradiction, and perjury; 
and still remains one of the greatest problems in the British 
annals. He died Aug. 20, 1680, Jacob informs us, he 
wrote a play called the " Excommunicated Prince," 
printed 1679, but Wood says it was written by one Thonup 
Walter, M. A. of Jesus college, Oxford. * 

BEDRASCHI, the rabbi Jedaia, son of Ahrahan% 
called also Happen ini Aubonet-Abram, but better known 
by the name of Bedraschi, is supposed to have been a na- 

1 Nichols's life of Bowyer.~«Cole's MS Athene in Brit Mas. 
• Biog. Dram.— Jacob's Lives, ' . 

B £ I) ft A S C H I. $4# 

five 6f Languedoc, and flourished in Spairi towards the 
close of the thirteenth centufy. He left several Hebrew 
works, the principal of which, written at Barcelona iii 
1298, is entitled " Bechinat-Olem," or an examination 
Or appreciation of the world, and was printed at Mantua, 
hi 1476, at Soncino in 1484, at Cracow in 1591, at 
Prague in 1598, and at Furth in 1807, with a German 
translation. Uchtmann also published a Latin translation 
at Leyden in 1630, and a French translation was published 
at Paris in 1629, by Philip d' Aquino. M. Michel Berr, a. 
Jew of Nanci, published at Metz in 1708 another transla- 
tion, on which M. Sylvestre de Sacy wrote many valuable 
remarks in the " Magazin Encyclopedique." Bedraschi'si 
work is a mixture of poetry, theology, philosophy, and 
morals. His style is somewhat obscure, but the numerous 
editions and translations of his work form no inconsiderable 
evidence of its merit. * 


BEGA (CouNELitrs), an artist, the son of Peter IJegyn, 
a sculptor, was born at Haerlem, in 1620, and was the 
disciple of Adrian Ostade. If he did not equal his master, 
he was at least the best of his disciples. He set out in his 
profession with credit, and proceeded in it for some years 
With sufficient success ; but he grew too fond of a dissi- 
pated life, and at last his morals were so depraved, that his 
father, after many ineffectual remonstrances, disowned 
him. For this reason he cast off his father's name, and as- 
sumed that of Bega ; his early pictures being marked with 
the former, and his latter works with the other. He had 
a fine pencil, and a transparent colour ; and his perform- 
ances are placed among the works of the best artists. He 
took the plague from a woman with whom he was deeply 
enamoured ; and he shewed so much sincerity of affection, 
that, notwithstanding the expostulations of all his friends 
and physicians, he would attend her to the last moments 
of her life, and imbibed from her the same fatal distemper, 
of which he died in a few days after her, Aug. 27, 1664. 
He is also classed among engravers, having etched several 
drolleries, and a set of thirty-four prints, representing ale- 
house scenes, &c. * 

BEGER or BOEGER (Lawrence), the son of a tanner, 
was born at Heidelberg, April 19, 1653, and received an 

» Diet. Hilt. ? Pilkington.— Strutt.— Descamps, vol II. 

950 BEG E R. 

education suitable to his promising talents. In compliance 
with his father's request, he studied divinity, but after his 
death indulged his own inclination, by studying law. In 
1677, when he was twenty- four years of age, Charles 
Louis, elector palatine, appointed him his librarian, and 
keeper of his museum. Beger retained those stations 
until 1685, when Charles, the son and successor of Charles 
Louis, being dead, the library passed into the hands of the 
landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and the museum went to the 
elector of Brandenburgh. The latter, Frederick William, 
engaged Beger in his service, gave him the rank of coun- 
sellor, and appointed him to the care of his library and 
medals, a post which he likewise filled under his successor, 
until his death, April 21, 1705. Hfe had been a member 
of the society of Berlin from its foundation. He left a 
great many works, the principal of which are : 1. "The- 
saurus ex Thesauro Palatino selectus* seu Gemmae," Hei- 
delberg, 1685, fol. 2. " Spicilegium antiquitatis," 1692, 
folio. 3. " Thesaurus, sive Gemmae, Numismata," &c. 
1696, and 1791, 3 vols. fol. 4. " Regum et Imperatorum 
Romanorum Numismata, a Rubenio edita," 1700, fol. 

5. " De nummis Cretensium serpen tiferis," 1702, fol. 

6. " Lucernae sepulchrales J. P. Bellorii," 1702, fol. 

7. lc Numismata Pontificum Romanorum," 1703, fol. 

8. " Excidium Trojanum," Berlin, 1699, 4to, &c. Beger 
composed a work to authorise polygamy, at the request of 
Charles 'Louis, elector palatine, who was desirous of mar- 
rying his mistress in the life-time of his first wife ; but he 
refuted it after the death of that prince; The refutation, 
however, never appeared. The book that gave occasion 
to it was entitled " Considerations on Marriage, by Daph- 
naeus Arcuarius," in German, 4to. * 

BEGON (Michael), born at Blois in 1638, of a family" 
of distinction, in the former part of his life filled some of 
the first offices of the law, and soon distinguished himself 
by the acuteness of his penetration, and his attention to 
method. The marquis de Seignelei, his kinsman, having 
induced him to enter the marine, he successively filled 
the place of intendant of the French West India islands, 
of the gallies of Havre, and Canada, and of those of Roche- 
fort and la Rcchelle, till 1710, when he died, the 14th of 
March, much regretted. The people loved hjoi as a dis- 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist.— Saxii Onomast 

B.EGON, 351 

interested officer, and the citizens as their friend and be-* 
nef actor. The learned were not less warm in their praises 
of one who protected and encouraged them, took a lively 
interest in their prosperity, and kept his library open lor 
their use. He had an excellent taste in the choice of his 
books. He possessed a rich cabinet of medals, antiques, 
prints, shells, and other curiosities, collected from tne lour 
quarters of the world. His books were generally marked 
in front with the words " Michaelis Begon et amicorutn." 
His librarian having once represented to trim, that by let- 
ting every body have access to them, he would lose several 
of them : he very liberally replied, " I had much rather 
lose my books, than seem to distrust an honest man." He 
caused to ba engraved the portraits of several celebrated 
persons of the seventeenth century, and collected memoirs 
of their lives ; from which materials Perrault composed his 
history of the illustrious men of France. ' 

BEGUILLET or BEGUILLER (Edmund), an advo- 
cate of the parliament of Dijon, and afterwards a notary, 
and a corresponding member of, the French academy of 
belles-lettres, derived considerable reputation from some 
Works which he published on domestic oeconomics and 
Agriculture. He is also the author of some historical 
pieces, but they have been thought inferior to the others. 
We have no other memoranda of his life, than that he died 
in May 1786. He published: I. " Des principes de la 
vegetation et de P agriculture," 1769, 8vo. 2. " Memoire 
sur les avantages de la mouture economique, et du com- 
merce des farines en detail," 8vo. 3. " CEnologie, ou 
Traite* de la vigne et des vins," 1770, 12mo. 4. "Dis- 
sertation sur Tergot, ou ble* cornu," 1771, 4to. 5. " Traite* 
de la connoissance generale des grains," 1775, 3 vols. 8vo, 
and 4to. Among other curious things in this work, which 
is accompanied with cuts well coloured, there is a memoir, 
transmitted from Pekin, relative to the Chinese method of 
' preserving corn, and the laws of their police with respect 
to that article. It contains also many useful remarkson the 
subject, although not always happily or concisely ex- 
pressed. 6. " Manuel du meunier et du charpentier des 
Moulins," 1785, 8vo, taken in a great measure from the 
memoirs of Cesar Bucquet. 7. " Traite* general des sub- 
sistaaces et des grains/* 1782, 6 vols. 8vo. Beguillet 

l Moreri^—Dict Hist, - 

it* B £ G tS t L L E T. 

wrote also is Histoire des guerresdes deux Bourgogne*/* 
under the reign of Lewis XIII. and XI V, 1772, 2 vols, 
12 mo. " Precis de P Histoire de Bourgogne," 8vo. " De- 
scription generale du duche de Bourgogne," 6 vols. 8vo, 
written in part by the abbe* Courte'pee; and several articles 
ih the Encyclopedia. In conjunction with Poncelin, he 
also published " Histoire de Paris, avec la description de* 
ses plus beaux moriumens," Paris, J780, 3 vols. 8VO., 1 

BEHAM (Hans or John Sebald), an engraver of Nu- 
remberg, who flourished about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, was either instructed, or became an imitator of 
Henry Aldegrever, and Albert Durer, and like them, en- 
graved on wood as well as copper, and also etched some 
few plates ; but these last, by far the most indifferent, are 
also the smallest part of his works. If his style of engraving 
be not original, it is at least an excellent and spirited imi- 
tation of that which was adopted by the preceding masters 
of the country in which he resided. His pictures, for he 
was a painter, as well as his engravings, were held in such 
fiigh estimation, that the poets of that age celebrated him 
in their poems, calling him in Latin, Bohemus. He was 
certainly a man of much genius, and possessed great fer- 
tility of invention. But the Gothic taste which so ge- 
nerally prevailed in Germany at this time, is much too 
prevalent in his works. His draperies are stiff, and loaded 
with a multiplicity of short, inelegant folds. His drawing 
of the naked figure, which he is fond of introducing, 
though mannered, is often very correct, and sometimes 
masterly. His heads, and the other extremities of his 
figures, are carefully determined, and often possess much 
merit. Of his numerous works, the following may be 
mentioned as specimens; on wood, a set of prints for a 
book entitled " Biblicae Historian artificiossissimae depictae," 
Francfort, 1537; and on copper, " History of the creation 
and fall of man : ,f " The labours of Hercules :" " The 
virtues and vices," &c. He had a brother, Bartholomew 
Beham, who resided principally at Rome. He was also . 
an engraver, and from such of his prints as have been as- 
certained, which is somewhat difficult, he appears to have 
been a very excellent artist, and one of the superior 
scholars of Marc Antonio, whose style of engraving he 
imitated with great success. His drawing is correct and 

* Diet Hist— Moath. Rev. LIV. p. 395. 

B E H A M. 355 

masterly ; his beads are characteristic! and the other ex- 
tremities of his figures well marked. 1 

BEHEM (Martin), otherwise Behaim, Boshm, or Be* 
HENIRA, an eminent geographer and mathematician of the 
fifteenth century, was born at Nuremberg, an imperial 
city in the circle of Franconia, of a .noble family, not yet 
extinct. He had the best education which the darkness of 
that age permitted, and his early studies were principally 
directed to geography, astronomy, and navigation. As 
he advanced in life, he often thought of the existence of 
the antipodes, and of a western continent, of which he was 
ambitious to make the discovery. 

Filled with this great idea, in 1459 he paid a visit to 
Isabella, daughter of John I. king of Portugal, at that time 
regent of the duchy of Burgundy and Flanders; and having 
informed her of his designs, he procured a vessel, in 
which, sailing westward, he was the first European who is 
known to have landed on the island of Fayal. He there 
established in 1460 a colony of Flemings, whose descen- 
dants yet exist in the Azores, which were for some time 
called the Flemish islands. This circumstance is proved, 
not only by the writings of contemporary authors, but also 
by the ' manuscripts preserved in the records of Nurem- 
berg ; and although this record is contrary to the generally 
received opinion, that the Azores were discovered by Gon- 
salva Velho, a Portuguese, yet its authenticity seems 
unquestionable. It is confirmed not only by several con- 
temporary writers, and by Wagenseil, one of the most 
learned men of the last century, but likewise by a note 
written on parchment in the German language, and sent 
from Nuremberg, a few years ago, to M. Otto, who was 
then investigating the discovery of America. The note 
contained, with other things, the following facts : " Mar* 
tin Beham, esq. son of Mr. Martin Beham, of Scoperin, 
lived in the reigu of John II. king of Portugal, in an island 
which he discovered, and called the island of Fayal, one 
of the Azores, lying in the western ocean." 

After having obtained from the regent a grant of Fayal, 
and resided there about twenty years, Behem applied in 
1484 (eight years before Columbus's expedition), to 
John II. king of Portugal, to procure the means of under- 
taking a great expedition towards the south* west. Thi? 

, 1 Struts Diet. 

Vol. IV, A a 

S54 B E H E M. 

prince gave him some ships, with which he discovered thai 
part of America which is now called Brazil ; and he even 
sailed to the straits of Magellan, or to the country of some 
savage tribes whom he called Patagonians, from the ex- 
tremities of their bodies being covered with a skin more 
like bear's paws than human hands and feet. A fact so 
little known, and apparently so derogatory to the fame of 
Columbus, ought not to be admitted without sufficient 
proof; but the proofs which have been urged in support 
of its authenticity are such as cannot be controverted. 
They are not only the letters of Behem himself, written 
in 1486, and preserved in the archives of Nuremberg, but 
likewise the public records of that city ; in which we read 
that H Martin Behem, traversing the Atlantic ocean for 
several years, examined the American islands, and dis- 
covered the strait which bears the name of Magellan be- 
fore either Christopher Columbus or Magellan sailed those 
seas ; whence he mathematically delineated, on a geo- 
graphical chart, for the king of Lusitania, the situation of 
the coast around every part of that famous and renowned 
strait, long before Magellan thought of his expedition." 

This wonderful discovery has not escaped the notice erf 
contemporary writers. A confirmation of it occurs in the 
Latin chronicle of Hartman Schedl, and in the remarks 
made by Petrus Mateus on the canon law, two years be- 
fore the expedition of Columbus. These passages demon- 
strate that the first discovery of America is due to the 
Portuguese, and not to the Spaniards; and that the chief 
merit belongs • to a German astronomer. The expedition 
of Frederick Magellan, which did not take place before 
the year 1519, arose from the following fortunate circum- 
stance : — This person being in the apartment of the king 
of Portugal, saw there a chart of the coast of America, 
drawn by Behem, and at once conceived the bold project 
of following the steps of our great navigator. Jerome 
Benzon, who published a description of America in 1550, 
speaks of this chart; a copy of which, sent by Behem him- 
self, is preserved in the archives of Nuremberg. The ce- 
lebrated astronomer Riccioli, though an Italian, yet does not 
seem willing to give his countryman the honour of this im- 
. portant discovery. In his " Geographia Reformata," book III. 
p. 90, be says, " Christopher Columbus never thought of 
an expedition to the West Indies until his arrival in the 
island of Madeira, where, amusing himself in forming and 

B E H E M. 355 

delineating geographical charts, he obtained information 
from Martin Boehm, or, as the Spaniards say, from Al-» 
pboasus Sanchez de Huelva, a pilot, who had chanced to 
fall in with the islands afterwards called Dominica. 19 And 
in another place, " Boehm and Columbus have each 
their praise ; they were both excellent navigators ; but 
Columbus would never have thought of his expedition to ' 
America, had not Boehm gone there before him. His 
name i% not so much celebrated as that of Columbus, Ame* 
ricus, or Magellan, although he is superior to them all." 

That Behem rendered some very important services to 
the crown of Portugal, is put beyond all controversy by 
the recompense bestowed on him by king John, who in 
1485 made him a knight, and governor of Fayal ; he is 
said also to have espoused the daughter of a great lord, 
" in consideration of the important services he had per* 
formed." These marks of distinction conferred on a 
stranger, could not be meant as a recompense for the dis* 
loyery of the Azores, which was made twenty years be- 
fore, but <as a reward for the discovery of Congo,* from 
whence the chevalier Behem had brought gold and dif- 
ferent kinds of precious wares. In 1492, crowned with 
honours and riches, he undertook a journey to Nuremberg, 
to visit his native country and family. He* there made' a 
terrestrial globe, which is looked on as a masterpiece for 
that time, and which is still preserved in the library of 
that city. The outline of his discoveries may there be 
seen, under the name of western lands ; and from their 
situation it cannot be doubted that they are the present 
coasts of Brazil, and the environs of the straits of Magel- 
lan. This globe was made in the same year that Columbus 
.set out on his expedition ; therefore it is impossible that 
Behem could have profited by the works of that navigator, 
who, besides, went a much more northerly course. 

After having performed several other interesting voy- 
ages, the chevalier Behem died at Lisbon, in July 1 506, 
regretted by every one, but leaving behind him no other 
.work than the globe and chart, which we have mentioned. 
The globe is made from the writings of Ptolomy, Pliny, 
Strabo, and especially from the account of Mark Paul* 
the Venetian, a celebrated traveller of the thirteenth cen- 
tury ; and of John Mandeville, an Englishman, who, about 
the middle of the fourteenth century published an account 
of a journey of thirty- three years in Africa and Asia. He 


356 B E H E M. 

has also added the important discoveries made by himself 
en the coasts of Africa and America. 

From these circumstantial accounts, which have been 
but very lately brought to light, there can be little doubt, 
we think, that America was discovered by Martin Behem. 
Dr. Robertson, indeed, is of a different opinion; but 
great as we willingly acknowledge his authority to be, we 
may differ from him without presumption in this case, 
since he had it not in his power to consult the German 
documents to which we have appealed, and has himself 
advanced facts not easily to be reconciled to his own opi- 
nion. He allows that Behem was very intimate with 
Christopher Columbus ; that he was the greatest geogra- 
pher of his time, and scholar of the celebrated John Mttller 
or Regiomontanus ; that he discovered, in 1483, the king- 
dom of Congo, upon the coast of Africa ; that he made a 
globe which Magellan made use of; that he drew a map 
at Nuremberg, containing the particulars of his discoveries ; 
and that he placed in this chart land which is found to be 
in the latitude of Guiana. He adds, indeed, without proof, 
that this land was a fabulous island ; but if authentic re- 
cords are to give pUce to bare assertion, there is an end 
of all historical evidence; If Behem took for an island the 
first land which he discovered, it was a mistake surely not 
so gross as to furnish grounds for questioning his veracity, 
or for withholding from him for ever that justice which has 
been so long delayed. But this very delay will by some be 
thought a powerful objection to the truth of Behem's claim 
to the discovery of America ; for if it was really discovered 
by. him, why did he not leave behind him some writing to 
confirm the discovery to himself? and why did not the 
court of Portugal, so jealous of the discovery of the new 
world, protest against the exclusive claim of the Spa- 
niards ? 

To these objections we may reply, that, however plau- 
sible they may at first appear, they do not in the smallest 
degree invalidate the positive evidence which we have 
urged for the Chevalier Behem's being the real discoverer 
of the new world : for it would surely be very absurd to 
oppose the difficulty of assigning motives for certain actions 
performed at a remote period, to the reality of other 
actions for which we have the testimony of a cloud of con- 
temporary witnesses. Supposing it wer$ true, therefore, 
that Sehem had left behind him no writing claiming te 

B E H E M. S5f 

himself the discovery of any part of the continent of Ame- 
rica, the only inference which could be drawn from his 
silence would be, either that hfe was a man of great modesty, 
or that his mind was intent only on the acquisition of know- 
ledge to himself, without feeling the usual impulse to com- 
municate that knowledge to others. But it is not true that 
he has left behind him no claim of this discovery to him- 
self. The letters to which we have appealed, and which 
are preserved in the archives of Nuremberg, together with 
the globe and map, which he certainly made, furnish as 
complete a confirmation of his claim as could have been 
furnished by the most elegant account of his voyages. 

For the silence of the Portuguese, many reasons might 
be assigned. The discoveries of Columbus were made so 
much farther north than those of Behem, that, in an age 
when geographical knowledge was so very limited, both 
Spaniards and Portuguese might very naturally believe that 
the country discovered by the former of these navigators 
had no connexion with that discovered by the latter. At 
any rate, the Portuguese, whose discoveries proceeded 
from avarice, were satisfied with scraping together gold 
wherever they could find it : and finding it in Africa, they 
thought not of searching for it in a more distant region, till 
the success of the Spaniards shewed them their mistake* 
One thing more is worthy of attention. The long stay of 
Columbus at Madeira makes his interview with Behem more 
than probable. It is impossible that he should have neg- 
lected seeing a man so interesting, and who could give him 
every kind of information for the execution of the plan 
which he had forpied. The mariners who accompanied 
the Chevalier Behem might also have spread reports at 
Madeira and the Azores concerning the discovery of which 

. they had been witnesses. What ought to confirm us in 
this is, that Mariana himself says (book xxvi. chap. 3.) that 
a certain vessel going to Africa, was thrown by a gate of 
wind upon certain unknown lands ; and that the sailors at 
their return to Madeira had communicated to Christopher 

. Columbus the circumstances of their voyage. All authors 
agree that this learned man bad some information respect- 
ing the western shores ; but they speak in a very vague 
manner. The expedition of the Chevalier Behem explains 
the mystery, l 

1 American Philosophical Transactions, vol. II. paper by M. Otto. — NichoU 
ton's Journal, Not, II.' and III.— Gieig'i Suppl. to the Encyciop. Brit. 

S5S B E H N. 


BEHN (Afhara), a celebrated English poetess, de- 
scended from a good family in the city of Canterbury, was 
born in the reign of Charles I. but in what yea* is not cer- 
tain : her father's name was Johnson ; who being related 
to the lord Willoughby, and by his interest having been 
appointed lieutenant general of Surinam, and six-and- 
thirty islands, embarked with his family for the West In- 
dies ; at which time Aphara was very young. Mr. Johnson 
died in his passage, but his family arrived at Surinam, 
where our poetess became acquainted with the American 
prince Oroouoko, whose story she has given us in her 
celebrated novel of that name. She tells us, " she had 
often seen and conversed with that great man, and had been 
a witness to many of his mighty actions ; and that at one 
time, he and Climene (or Imoinda his wife) were scarce an 
hour in a day from her lodgings. 9 ' The intimacy betwixt 
Oroonoko and our poetess occasioned some reflections on 
her conduct, from which the authoress of her life justifies 
her in the following manner : " Here,'* says she, " I can 
add nothing to what she has given the world already, but 
a vindication of her from some unjust aspersions I find are 
insinuated about this town, in relation to that prince. I 
knew her intimately well, and I believe she would not have 
concealed any love affairs from me, being one of her own 
sex, whose friendship and secrecy she had experienced, 
which makes me assure the world, there was no affair be- 
twixt that prince and Astraea, but what the whole planta- 
tion were witnesses of ; a generous value for his uncommon 
virtues, which every one that but hears them, finds in him- 
self, and his presence gave her no more. Besides, bis 
heart was too violently set on the everlasting charms of his 
Imoinda, to be shook with those more faint (in his eye) of 
a white beauty; and Astraa's relations, there present, bad 
tooNvatchful an eye over her, to permit the frailty of her 
youth, if that had been powerful enough." 

The disappointments she met with at Surinam, by losing 
her parents and relations, obliged her to return to Eng- 
land ; where, soon after her arrival, she was married to 
Mr. Behn, an eminent merchant of London, of Dutch ex- 
traction, King Charles II. whom she highly pleased by 
the entertaining and accurate account she gave him of the 
colony of Surinam, thought her a proper person to be in- 
trusted with the management of gome affairs during tt»* 

B E H N. 3591 

Dutch war, in other words to act as a spy ; which was the 
occasion of her going over to Antwerp. Here she dis- 
covered the design formed by the Dutch, of sailing up the 
river Thames, in order to burn the English ships ; which 
she learnt from one Vander Albeit, a Dutchman. Thia 
man, who, before the war, had been in love with her in 
England, no sooner heard of her arrival at Antwerp, than 
he paid her a visit ; and, after a repetition of all his for- 
mer professions of love, pressed her extremely to allow 
him by some signal means to give undeniable proofs of his 
passion. This proposal was so suitable to her present aim 
in the service of her country, that she accepted of it, and 
employed her lover in such a manner as made her very ser-* 
viceable to the king. The latter end of 1666, Albert sent 
her word by a special messenger, that he would be with 
her at a day appointed, at which time he revealed to her, 
that Cornelius de Witt and De Ruyter had proposed th$ 
above-mentioned expedition to the States. Albert having 
mentioned this affair with all the marks of sincerity, Mrs. 
Behn could not doubt the credibility thereof; and when 
the interview was ended, she sent express to the court of 
England ; but her intelligence (though well grounded, a# 
appeared by the event) being disregarded and ridiculed, 
she renounced all state affairs, and amused herself during 
her stay at Antwerp with what was more suited to her ta- 
lents, the gallantries of the city. After some time she 
embarked at Dunkirk for England, and in her passage the 
ship was driven on the coast four days within sight of land ; 
but, by the assistance of boats from that shore, the crew- 
were all saved ; and Mrs. Behn arrived safely in London, 
where she dedicated the rest of her life to pleasure and 
poetry, neither of the most pure kind. She published 
three volumes of miscellany poems; the first in 1684, the 
second in 1685, and the third in 1688, consisting of songs 
and miscellanies, by the earl of Rochester, sir George 
Etherege, Mr. Henry Crisp, and others, with some pieces 
of her own. To the second collection is annexed a trans* 
Jafcion of the duke de Rochefoucault's moral reflections, 
under the title of " Seneca, unmasked." She wrote also 
/seventeen plays, some histories and novels, which are ex- 
tant in two volumes, 12mo, 1735, 8th edition, published 
t>y Mr. Charles Gildpn, and dedicated to Simon Scroop, 
esq. to which is prefixed the history of the life, and me- 
moirs of Mrs. Behn, written by one of the fair sex. She 

$60 BEHN. 

translated Fontenelle's History of oracles, and Plurality of 
worlds, to which last she annexed an essay on translation and 
translated prose, not very remarkable for critical acumen. 
The paraphrase of OEnone's epistle to Paris, in the Eng- 
lish translation of Ovid's Epistles, is Mrs. Behn's ; and Mr. 
Dryden, in the preface to that work, compliments her with 
fnore gallantry than justice, when he adds, " I was desired 
to say, that the author, who is of the fair sex, understood 
Dot Latin ; but if she does not, I am afraid she has given 
us occasion to be ashamed who do." She was also the 
authoress of the celebrated Letters between a nobleman 
and his sister, printed in 1684 ; and we have extant of hers, 
eight love-letters, to a gentleman whom she passionately 
loved, and with whom she corresponded under the name of 
Lycidas. They are printed in the Life and Memoirs of 
Mrs. Behn, prefixed to her histories and novels. She died 
between forty and fifty years of age, after a long indispo- 
sition, April 1 6, 1689, and was buried in the cloisters of 
Westminster-abbey. Mrs. Behn, upon the whqle, cannot 
be considered as an ornament either to her sex, or her na- 
tion. Her plays abound with obscenity ; and her novels 
are little better. Mr. Pope speaks thus of her : 

" The stage how loosely does Astaea tread, 
s Who fairly puts all characters to bed J" 

The poet means behind the scenes, but Mr. Granger is of 
opinion she would have literally put them to bed before the 
spectators ; but here she was restrained by the laws of the 
drama, not by her own delicacy, or the manners of the 
age. Her works, however, are now deservedly forgotten. 1 
BEHRENS (Conrad Bertold), a German physician of 
note, was born at Hildesheim in Lower Saxony, Aug. 26, 
1660. After studying medicine he was admitted to the 
degree of doctor at Helmstadt in 1684. In 1712, he was 
appointed court-physician to the duke of Brunswick Lu- 
nenburghi, He published many essays and dissertations in 
the Memoirs of the German Imperial academy, of which 
lie was a member, and other works separately, both in 
German and Latin. The principal of these, are, I. " De 
constitutiohe artis medicee," Helmstadt, 1696, 8vo. 2. 
11 The Legal Physician,** in German, ibid. 8vo, containing 
several medico-legal questions, and the history of sudden 
deaths, with the appearances on dissection. 3. " Selecta 

I Jfof . Brit.— €e». Diet— Cibbcr's LWet , vok UL^Biog. Dramatics, 

B E H R E N S. ftet 

medica de medicine* natura et certitudine," Francfort and 
Leipsic, 1708, an inquiry into the history of medicine, its 
sects, &c. 4. u Selecta Disetetica, sell de recta ac £on» 
veniente ad sanitatem vivendi ratione tractatus," Franc* 
fort, 1710, 4to, in which he treats of air, food, exercise, 
sleep, and whatever may conduce to health ; of the causes 
of diseases ; the use of mineral waters, &c. Behrens diedV 
Oct. 4, 1736. His life was published by J. M. Gl<esener, 
at Hildesheim in the same year. His son and grandson 
were both physicians and medical writers. The former 
published, 1 . " Trias casuum memdrabilium medicorum," 
Guelpherbiti (Wolfenbuttel), 1727, 4to. 2. " De imagi~ 
nario quodam miraculo in gravi oculorum morbo, &c.** 
Brunopolis (Brunswick), 1734, 4to. 3. " De felicitate 
medicorum aucta in terris Brunsvicensis," ibid. 1747, 4to. 1 

BEIDHAVI, born in the village of Beidhab, was cadi 
or judge of the city of Schiraz in Persia, from whence he 
went to that of Zauns, where he died in the year of the 
hegira 685 or 692, of the Christian sera 1289, or 1291. He 
has written a literal commentary in 2 vols, on the Alcoran, 
Which has been explained and commented on by several 
other authors. * 

BEIER (Adrian), a native of Jena, where he was born 
in 1634. In 1658, he was made law professor in that uni- 
versity. He was the first who wrote systematically, on the 
laws, usages, and duties of cdrporations and wardens of arts 
and manufactures, collecting such scattered notices as he 
could find on these subjects, and throwing considerable 
light on a part of jurisprudence not then well understood. 
He died in 1712. His works are, 1. "Tyro prudentiae 
juris optficialii pracursorum emissarius," Jena, 1685, 4to, 
and again in 1688, but the best edition is that edited with 
great improvements by Struvius, 1717, 4to. 2. "Trac- 
tatus de jure prohibendi, quod competit opificibus in opi- 
fices," Jena, 1721, 4to, likewise improved by Struvius, 
1721. 3. " Boethus, peregre redux conspectibus et ju* 
dice conspieuus," Jena, 1685 and 1717, 4to. 9 


BEISCH, or BEICH (Joachim Francis), an artist, was 
born at Ravensburgh in Suabia, in 1665, and was taught 
the first rudiments of his art by bis father, who was a ma« 

1 Diet. Htst—Haller.—Mangct. 

» D'Herbefct Bibl, Orient. * Diet Hist. 

363 B £ I $ C H. 

thematician* and practised painting only for his amusement, 
and explained the principles of it to his son. By an assi- 
duous practice for some years, Beisch proved a good ar- 
tist, and was employed at the court of Munich, to paint 
the battles which the elector Maximilian Emanuel had 
fought in Hungary. While the elector was absent on some 
of his expeditions, Beisch embraced that opportunity to 
visit Italy, and took ifte most effectual methods for his im- 
provement, by studying and copying those celebrated spots 
which have always claimed general admiration. He bad 
three different manners : his first, before his journey to 
Italy, was true, but too dark ; bis second had more clear- 
ness and more truth ; and his l^st, still more clear, was 
likewise weaker than all. The scenes of his landscapes, 
however, are agreeably chosen, and very picturesque : his 
touch is light, tender, and full of spirit ; and his style of 
composition frequently resembled that of Gaspar Poussin, 
or Salvator Rcjsa. Solimene, a superior artist, did not dis- 
dain to copy some of Beisch' s landscapes. This artist died 
in 1748, aged eighty-three. 1 

BEITHAR, better known under the name of Ebn Bei- 
thar, was likewise called Aschab, which signifies, botanist 
or herbalist. He was an African by birth, and died in the 
646th year of the hegira. We have of him the " Giam£ al 
adviat al mofredat," in 4 vols, which is a general history of 
simples or of plants ranged in alphabetical order. He has 
likewise written " Mogni si adviat al Mofredat," in which 
he treats of the use of simples in the cure of every parti- 
cular part of the body. Ebn Beithar alsp answered in a 
book which he called Taalik, to a work of Ebn Giazlab, 
who accused his works of many imperfections. * 

BEK, or EEC, or BEAK (Anthony), bishop of Dur- 
ham in the reigns of Edward I. and II. was advanced, with 
the king's consent, frpm the archdeaconry of Durham and 
other preferments to the bishopric. Of his extraction and 
education we have no account. He was elected by the 
monks on the 9th of July 1283, and consecrated, in the 
presence of the king and several of the nobles, by William 
Wicwane, archbishop of York, on the 9tb of January fol- 
lowing. At the time of his consecration, the archbishop, 
having bad a dispute, during the vacancy of the see,* with 

1 Pilkiagton.— Descamps, vol. IV. 

9 D'Herbelot— Saxii Ooemasticoa. — Fabr. Bibl, Gr*c. 

B £ K* 363 

the chapter of Durham, obliged the prior to go out of the 
church ; and the next day enjoined the new bishop, upon 
his canonical obedience, to excommunicate the superior 
and several of the monks : but Bek refused to obey the 
archbishop, saying, " I was yesterday consecrated their 
bishop, and shall I excommunicate them to-day ? no obe- 
dience shall force me to this." He was enthroned on 
Christinas eve, 1285 ; on which occasion a dispute arising 
between the prior and the official of York about the right 
of performing that ceremony, Bek was installed by his 
brother Thomas Bek bishop of St. David's. This prelate 
bad a long dispute with the monks of Durham ; which 
proved very detrimental to the revenues and privileges of 
the see. He is said to have been the richest bishop (if we 
except Wolsey) that had ever held the see of Durham : for, 
besides the revenues of his bishopric, he had a temporal 
estate of five thousand marks per annum ; part of which, 
we are told, he gained by unjustly converting to his own 
Use an estate, which he held in trust for the natural son of 
the baron of Vescey. He procured the translation of the 
body of St. William, formerly archbishop of York, and 
bore the whole expence of the ceremony, which was per* 
formed in the church of York. He assisted king Edward L 
in his war against John Baliol, king of Scotland, and 
brought into the field a large body of forces. In 1294, he 
was sent ambassador from king Edward to the emperor of 
Germany, to conclude a treaty with that prince, against 
the increasing power of France. In 1295, the pope hav- 
ing sent two cardinals on an embassy to the English court, 
this prelate was appointed to answer them in the king's 
name. He had the title of patriarch of Jerusalem con- 
ferred on him by the pope in 1 305 ; and about the same 
time received from the king a grant of the principality of the 
island of Man. An act passed in his time, in the parliament 
of Carlisle, 1307, to prevent the bishop of Durham or his 
officers, from cutting down the woods belonging to the 
bishopric. This prelate expended large sums in building. 
He fortified the bishop's seat at Aukland, and turned it 
into a castle ; and he built, or enlarged, the castles of Ber- 
nard ii\ the bishopric of Durham ; of Alnwick in Northum- 
berland; of Gainford in the bishopric of Durham; of So** 
merton in Lincolnshire, which he gave to king Edward I. $ 
and of Eltham in Kent, which he gave to queen Eleanor. 
He founded the priory of Alvingham in Lincolnshire, the 

964 B £ K. 

revenue of which, at the dissolution) was valued at 
14l/. 1 $$. per annum. He founded, likewise, a collegiate 
church, with a dean and seven prebendaries, at Chester- 
upon-tbe-street, and at Lancbester, in the bishopric of 
Durham. He also gave tjp the church of Durham two pic- 
tures, containing the history of our Saviour's nativity, to 
be hung as an ornament over the great altar on the festival 
of Christmas. He died at Eltham, March S, 1310, having 
sat twenty-eight years, Mid Was buried in the church of 
Durham near the east front, contrary to the custom of his 
predecessors, who, out of respect to the body of St. Cuth~ 
bert, were never laid within the church. Bek was a man 
of uncommon pride, which more or less entered into the 
whole of bis conduct. He was fond of military parade, and 
the attendance of a retinue of soldiers, although he took 
little pains to attach 'them to him. His magnificent taste 
appeared not only in the lasting monuments already nd~ 
ticed, but in bis more domestic expences. He is said on 
one occasion to have paid forty shillings (a sum now equi- 
valent to 80/.) for forty fresh herrings in London, when 
they had been refused by the most opulent persons of the 
realm, then assembled in parliament He was so impatient 
of rest, that he never took more than one sleep, saying it 
was unbecoming a man to turn from one side to the other 
in bed. He was perpetually either riding from one manor 
to another, or bunting or hawking. Though his expence? 
were great, he was provident enough never to want money* 
He always rose from his meals with an appetite : and his 
continence was so singular that he never looked a woman 
full in the face. We are even gravely told, that in the 
translation of the body of St. William of York, when the 
other bishops declined touching that saint's remains, con- 
scious of their failings in point of chastity, he alone boldly 
handled them, and assisted the ceremony. His taste in 
architecture, however, and his munificence in contributing 
to so many once noble edifices, are the only favourable cir- 
cumstances in his character, nor should we have thought 
him worthy of much notice, had he not been admitted by 
the original editors of our national biography. l 

BEK, or BECK, or BEEK (David), a famous painter, 
born at Delft in the Netherlands, May 25, 1621, was trained 
under Van Dyke, and other celebrated masters. Skill in 

1 Bios* Brit.— Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, vol, U p. 92*. 

B E K. 163 

profession, joined to politeness of manners, acquired 
lum esteem in almost all the courts of Europe. He was 
in high favour with Charles I. king of England, and taught 
the principles of drawing to his sons, Charles and Jamesw 
fie wak afterwards in the service of the kings of France and 
Denmark : he went next into the service of Christina queen 
of Sweden, who esteemed him very highly, gave him many 
rich presents, and made him first gentleman of her bed- 
chamber. She sent him also to Italy, Spain, France, Eng- 
land, Denmark, and to all the courts of Germany, to take 
the portraits of the different kings and princes ; and then 
presented each of them with their pictures. His manner 
of painting was extremely free and quick, so that king 
Charles I. told hhn one day, " he believed he could paint; 
while he was riding post." A very singular adventure hap- 
pened to this painter, as he travelled through Germany, 
which seems not unworthy of being recited. He was sud- 
denly and violently taken ill at the inn where he lodged, 
and was laid out as a corpse, seeming to all appearance quite 
dead. His valets expressed the strongest marks of grief 
for the loss of their master ; and while they sat beside his 
bed, they drank very freely, by way of consolation. At 
last one of them, who grew much intoxicated, said to his 
companions, " Our master was fond of his glass while he 
was alive ; and out of gratitude, let us give him a glass now 
he is dead." As the rest of the servants assented to the 
proposal, he raised up the head of his master, and endea- 
voured to pour -some of the liquor into his mouth. By the 
fragrance of the wine, or probably by a small quantity that 
imperceptibly grot down his throat, Bek opened his eyes ; 
and the servant being excessively drunk, and forgetting 
that his master was considered as dead, compelled him to 
swallow what wine remained in the glass. The painter 
gradually revived, and by proper management and care 
recovered perfectly, and escaped an interment. How, 
highly the works of this master were esteemed, may ap- 
pear from the many marks of distinction and honour which 
'were shewn him ; for he received from different princes, as 
an acknowledgment of his singular merit, nine gold chains, 
and several medals of gold of a large size. The manner of 
his death is represented by the Dutch writers, as implying 
-a reflection of his royal patroness the queen of Sweden. 
He was very desirous of returning to his native country; 
permission for which that princess refused, until having 

3£6 B E K. 

occasion herself to go to France, Bek had the courage to 
ask leaye to go to Holland. She granted this on condition 
he should punctually return within a Certain number of 
weeks; but he went away with a determination never to 
return. She wrote to him to come to Paris, but he gave 
her no answer, and remained at the Hague, where he died 
suddenly, Dec. 20, 1656, not without suspicion of poison, 
as the Dutch writers insinuate. ' 

BEKA, or BEC (John de), in Latin, Becanus, a 
canon o^he church of Utrecht, who lived about the mid- 
dle of tne fourteenth century, wrote a chronicle of h» 
church, embracing its history from St. Willibrod, first 
bishop of Utrecht, to 1346. There are various editions of 
this chronicle, continued down by another hand to 1393, 
the worst of which, according to Vossius, is that of Furme- 
rius, and the best that of Bu cheilitis, Utrecht, 1643, fol. 
entitled "De Episcopis Ultrajectihis." • 

BEKINSAU (John), author of a book entitled " De 
Supremo et Absoluto Regis Imperio," was born at Broad- 
chalke in Wiltshire, and educated at Wykeham's school 
Bear Winchester : from whence he was sent very early to 
New-tcollege in Oxford; where, having served two years 
of probation, he was admitted perpetual fellow in 1520* 
Iii 1526 he took the degree of master of arts, being thai 
year (as one of the university registers informs us) u about 
to take a journey beyond the «eas for the sake of study. 9 * 
In his college he distinguished rflmself by his -extraordinary 
skill in the Greek language. In 1538 he resigned his fel- 
lowship, and married. What preferment or employment 
he had afterwards is uncertain. He was familiarly ac- 
quainted with, and highly esteemed by, the most learned 
men of the nation, particularly Leland, who has bestowed 
an encomium on him. He was also in good esteem with 
king Henry VIII. and king Edward VI. When queen 
Mary came to the crown, and endeavoured to destroy all 
that her father and brother had done 'towards the reforma- 
tion of the church, Bekinsau became a zealous Roman ca- 
tholic. After Queen Elizabeth's accession, he -retired to 
an obscure village in Hampshire, called Sherhoume ; where 
lie spent the remainder of his life in great discontent, and 

Was buried in the church of that place, the 20th of Dec. 

. - «. 

l Descampi.— Pilkinfton. — Moreri. 

* Moreri.— Vossius d« Script, Lat.-*Caye, y*1, II.— Saxii Onwnasticon. 


1559, aged sixty-three years; leaving behind him this 
character among the Roman catholics, that, " as he was 
a learned man, so might he have been promoted according 
to his deserts, if he had been constant to his principles.** 
The work abovemefntioned is a defence of the king's su- 
premacy against the claims of the church of Rome, and is 
dedicated by the author to king Henry VIII. He did not 
venture to publish it, till he saw that the pope's power was 
wholly exterminated in England. It was printed at Lon- 
don in 1 546, in 8vo, and afterwards in the first qplume of 
" Monarchia Romani Imperii/' &c. by Melchior Goldast 
Hamensfeldius, at Francfort, 1621, fol. * 

BEKKER (Balthasah), a once celebrated Dutch di- 
vine, was born in 1634, at Warthaisen, a village in the 
province ofGroningen. He learned the Latin tongue at 
home under his father, and at sixteen years of age was en- 
tered at the university of Groningen, where he applied 
himself to the study of the Greek and Hebrew languages, 
and made also a considerable proficiency in history and 
philosophy. He went afterwards to Franeker, where he 
studied divinity for four years and a half, when he was cho- 
sen minister at Oosterlitigen, a village about six miles from 
Franeker, He discharged his duty with great diligence, 
and found time to read and examine the writings of the 
most eminent philosophers and divines/* He kept a con- 
stant correspondence with James Alting, tinder whom hfe 
had studied the Hebrew tongue, and with the famous Coc- 
ceius. In 1665 he took his degree of doctor of divinity, 
at Franeker, and the next year was chosen one of the mi- 
nisters of that city. When he was minister at Oosterlingen, 
he composed a short catechism for children, and in 1670 
he published another for persons of a more advanced age. 
This last being strongly objected to by several divines, the 
author was prosecuted before the ecclesiastical assemblies ; 
and notwithstanding many learned divines gave their testi- 
monies in favour of this catechism, yet in the synod held 
in 1671, at Bolswart in Friezland, it was voted there, to 
contain several strange expressions, unscriptural positions, 
and dangerous opinions, which ought not to be printed, 
.or, being printed, not to be published, but that if revised 
and corrected, it might be printed. Bekker appealed to, 
the next synod, which met at Franeker, in July 1672, who 

1 Bicg. Brit.— Wood's Atb. ?oU L— Dodd's Church Hist,— Inland's Encomia, 

368 BEKKEH . 

chose a committee of twelve deputies, to inquire into this 
affair, and to finish it in six weeks. They examined Bek- 
ker's catechism very carefully, and at last subscribed an 
act in which were the following words : " That they had 
altered all such expressions as seemed to be offensive, 
strange, or uncommon : that they had examined, secundum 
fidti analogiam, what had been observed by the several 
classes as unscriptural ; and that they judged Dr. Bekker's 
book, with their corrections, might, for the edification of 
God's church, be printed and published, as it contained 
several wbolsome and useful instructions." This judge- 
ment was approved of by the synod held at Harlingen next 
year; but such is the constitution of synods in the seven 
provinces, that one can annul what another has established, 
and Bekker suffered for two years longer mueh trouble and 

In 1674 he was chosen minister at Loeuen, a village near 
Utrecht ; but he did not continue here long, being about 
two years after called to Wesop, and in 1679 chosen mi- 
nister at Amsterdam. The comet which appeared in 1680 
and 1681, gave him an opportunity of publishing a small 
book in Low Dutch, entitled " Ondersock over de Ko- 
metei," that is, " An inquiry concerning Comets," where- 
in he endeavoured to shew, that comets are not the pre- 
sages or forerunners of any evil. This piece gained him 
great reputation, as did likewise his Exposition on the pro- 
phet Daniel, wherein he gave many proofs of his learning and 
sound judgment; but the work which rendered him most 
famous, is his " t)e betover Wereld," or the " World be- 
witched," published in 1691, 4to and 8vo. In this work 
he took occasion, from the Cartesian definition of spirit, to 
deny boldly, all the accounts we have in scripture of the 
seduction, influence, and operations of the devil and his 
infernal emissaries, and combines with this, the denial of 
all that has been said in favour of the existence of ghosts, 
spectres, and magicians. He modifies and perverts, with 
the greatest ingenuity, but also with equal temerity and 
presumption, the accounts given by the sacred writers of 
the power of Satan, and wicked angels, and of persons 
possessed by evil spirits : he affirms, likewise, that the un- 
happy and malignant being, who is called in scripture, 
Satan, or the devil, is chained down with his infernal mi- 
nisters in hell : so that he can never come forth from this 
eternal prison to terrify mortals, or to seduce the righteous 

BEKKER. $69 

from the paths of virtue. The substance of bis argument, 
as far as it is founded on the Cartesian definition of mind 
or spirit, is this : " The essence of mind is thought, and 
the essence of matter extension. Now, since there is no 
sort of conformity or connection between thought and ex- 
tension, mind cannot act upon matter, unless these two 
substances be united, as soul and body are in man ; there- 
fore no separate spirits, either good or evil, can act upon 
mankind. Such acting is miraculous, and miracles can be 
performed by God alone. It follows, of consequence, that 
the scriptural accounts of the actions and operations of 
good and evil spirits must be understood in an allegorical, 
sense." — Such' an argument does little honour to Bekker's 
acuteness and sagacity. By proving too much, it proves 
nothing at all : for if the want of a connection or confor- 
mity between thought and extension renders the mind in- 
capable of acting upon matter, it is difficult to see how 
their union should remove this incapacity, since the want 
of conformity and of connection remains, notwithstanding 
this union. Besides, according to this reasoning, the su- 
preme being cannot act upon material beings. In vain 
does Bekker maintain the affirmative, by having recourse 
to a miracle : for this would imply, that the whole course 
of nature is a series of miracles, that is to say, that there 
are no miracles at all. 

This work excited great tumults and divisions, not only 
in the United Provinces, but also in some parts of Ger- 
many, where several divines of the Lutheran church were 
alarmed at its progress, and arose to oppose it. Bekker, how- 
ever, although successfully refuted, and publicly deposed 
from his pastoral charge, obstinately adhered to his opinions 
until his death, which happened June 11, 1698. Accord- 
ing to his biographer in the Gen. Diet. u he was a laborious, 
learned, and ingenious man, always desiring to improve in 
knowledge. As he was inclined to think freely, he would 
never admit any one's opinion implicitly, but used to ex- 
amine every thing according to the strictest rules of reason, 
or what appeared reason to him. He was of a very obliging 
temper, and knew how to make himself acceptable to those 
who conversed with him. He had a quick genius, and 
when he had once imbibed any opinion, it was very difficult 
to make him change it, and sometimes he trusted too much 
to his own judgment. He was, like men who use to medi- 
tate deeply, more able to raise doubts and difficulties, than 
Vol. IV. B b 

373 B E K K E R. 

to solve them. He was not endowed with the external gift? 
of preaching, and though he was skilled in mathematics, 
the best logic in the world, yet his sermons w$re not very 
methodical ; hut then they were suited to the capacity of the 
vulgar, and he was always ready to preach extempore, with- 
out preparation. He was of a very facetious temper, and 
sometimes could not forbear to jest even in the pulpit. It 
seems he had the vanity of becoming the head of a sect * r 
and has had the pleasure to see that his followers were 
called from his name Bekkerians. Mr. Bayle calls him a 
rank rationalist, who, preferring philosophical arguments 
before the authority of the scripture, put such a sense upon 
the words and expressions of the holy writers, as favoured 
his hypothesis." The reader will readily perceive much in 
this character that applies to free-thinkers of all nations 
and ages. 1 

BEL (John James), counsellor of the parliament Of 
Bourdeaux, was born there March 21, 1693, and at the 
age of nine was sent for education to the college of the 
Oratory at Juilly, in the diocese of Meaux. Although of 
a weakly habit, he made great progress in his early studies, 
and was liberally encouraged by one of the regent masters, 
father de Viz6. In 1711 he returned to his family, where 
he continued his studies, deriving some assistance from his 
father, a man of talents, but austere and somewhat unso- 
cial. Here, likewise, he found many young men of his 
own age who like himself were intended for the bar or for 
offices of the magistracy. After five or six years applica- 
tion, M. Bel employed his pen on various subjects of me- 
taphysics and morals, and amused himself occasionally with 
perusing the best poets. In 1720, he was received as a 
counsellor of parliament, and conducted himself in the 
causes entrusted to him, with strict probity and impar- 
tiality. In 1731, on the death of his father, he succeeded 
him in the office of treasurer of France. During his resi- 
dence at Paris, he formed an intimacy with the literati of 
the metropolis, and projected two considerable works, for 
which he had collected materials : the one on taste, its 
history, progress and decline % y the other on French poetry. 
On his return to Bourdeaux in 1736, he was elected a 
member of the Bourdeaux academy, and the following year 
chosen director, on which occasion be made a speech 

* Gen. Diet.— MosheinVs EccL History.— Moreri in Bekker, — Saxii OnoraasticwB. 

BEL. 371. 

which included some part of the work on talte above-men- 
tioned. Some time afterwards he resigned his office of 
counsellor, and obtained letters of superannuation (lettres 
de veterUn). In 1737, the academy having proposed " mus- 
cular motion 1 * as the subject of the prize of that year, which 
was won by Mr. Alexander Stuart) a Scotchman, and phy- 
sician to the queen o'fvEngland, M. Bel, after examining 
the various dissertations sent in on this occasion, read one 
of his own on the same subject before the academy ; and 
in order to study this and similar subjects more fully, with 
a view to his situation in the academy, he determined to 
make another visit to Paris. But from the moment of his 
arrival there, he gave himself up so unremittingly to study, 
as to bring on a dangerous illness, of which he died August 
15, 1738. He left to the academy of Bourdeaux, his 
house and a fine and well-chosen library, with a fund for 
the maintenance of two librarians. His principal publica- 
tions were, 1. " Apologie de M. Houdart de la Motte, de 
1'academie Frangoise, Paris, 1724," 8vo, a satirical attack on 
M. de la Motte's works, especially his dramas. 2. " Dic- 
tionnaire Neologique," since considerably augmented by 
the abb£ Fontaines, a work intended to ridicule the use of 
new and affected words. He wrote also a criticism on the 
Mariamne of Voltaire, and some similar criticisms inserted 
in the Literary Memoirs published by father Moletz of the 
oratory. * 

BEL, or BELIUS (Matthias), born at Otsova in Hun- 
gary, in 1684, studied with great diligence at Halle, where 
he made uncommon proficiency in the learned languages., 
Being returned to his native country, he excited a love for 
the belles-lettres among the students of several protestant 
colleges, and applied himself with success to the history of 
Hungary. Nicholas Pajfi, viceroy of that country, was of 
great assistance to him in his inquiries, by granting him ac- 
cess to a variety of archives. He spent the major part of 
his life in this study, and died in the year 1749. His prin- 
cipal works are, 1. " De vetere Literatura Hunno-scythica 
exercitatio," Leipsic, 1718, 4to, a learned work. 2. '< Hun- 
garian antiquae et novae prodromus," Nuremberg, 1723, 
folio. In this he gives the plan of a great work he was me- 
ditating, but which he had not leisure to publish. 3. " De 
peregrinatiQne linguae Hungaricse in Europam." 4. " Adpa- 

1 Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 


372 BEL. 

ratus ad bistoriam Hungarian ; sive, OolleCtio miscdlaiieat 
monumentarura ineditorum partim, partial editorum, sed 
fugientium," Presburg, several volumes in folio, 1735— 
1746. This collection of historians of Hungary is adorned 
with learned and well- written prefaces. 5. " Amplissimae 
historico-criticse Prsefationes in scriptores rerum Hungari- 
carum veteres ac genuinos," 3 vols, in folio. 6. " Notitia 
Hungarian novae historico- geographical ' Vienna, 1735 et 
ami. seq. 4 vols, folio, with maps. A work of much learn- 
ing, and executed with accuracy. 

His son Charles Andkew, who died by his own band, 
in 1782, was in 1741 appointed professor extraordinary of 
philosophy at JLeipsic, and in 1756 professor of poetry, and 
librarian to the university, with the title of counsellor of 
state. He wrote " De vera origine et epocha Hunno- 
rum," 1757, 4to, and was editor of the " Acta erudito- 
rum" from 1754 to 1781. * # 


BELCHIER (John), was born in the year 1706, at 
Kingston in Surrey. He received his education at Eton ; 
and discovering an inclination for surgery, was bound ap- 
prentice to Mr. Cheselden, by far the most eminent man 
of his profession. Under this great master, who used to 
say, that of all the apprentices he ever had Mr. Belchier 
was the most industrious and assiduous, he soon became an 
accurate anatomist. His preparations were esteemed next 
to Dr. Nicholls's, and allowed to exceed all others of that 
time. Thus qualified, his practice soon became extensive ; 
and in 1736 he succeeded his fellow-apprentice Mr. Crad- 
dock, as surgeon to Guy's hospital. In this situation, which 
afforded such ample opportunity of displaying his abilities, 
he, by his remarkably tender and kind attention to his 
pauper patients, became as eminent for his humanity as 
bis superior skill in his profession. Like his master Che- 
selden, he was very reluctant before an operation, yet quite 
as successful as that great operator. He was particularly ex- 
pert in the reduction of the humerus* which, though a very 
simply operation, is frequently productive of great trouble 
to the surgeon, as well as excruciating pain to the patient. 
Being elected fellow of the royal society, he commu- 
nicated to that learned body several curious cases that 
fell within his cognizance ; particularly a remarkable cas$ 

* Diet.. Hist. — Sftxii Onomatticon. 

B E L C H I E R. 873 

of an hydrops ovarii, published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, No. 423 ; an account of the miller whose arm was 
torn off by a mill, August 15,1737, No. 449 ; and a remark- 
able instance of thebones of animals being turned red by ali- 
ment only, No. 442. The greatest discoveries frequently 
are owing to trifling and accidental causes. Such was the 
case in the last-mentioned circumstance, Mr. Belchier 
being led to make his inquiries on that subject, by the bone 
of a boiled leg of pork being discovered to be perfectly red, 
though the meat was well-flavoured, and of the usual colour. 
On his resignation as surgeon of Guy's, he was made go- 
vernor both of that and St. Thomas's hospital, to which he 
was particularly serviceable, having recommended not less 
than 140' governors. Mr. Belchier in private life was a 
riian of strict integrity, warm and zealous in his attach- 
ments, sparing neither labour nor time to serve those for 
wfiom he professed a friendship. Of this he gave a strong 
proof, in becoming himself a governor of the London hos- 
pital, purposely to serve a gentleman who had been his 
pupil. Indeed, he on every occasion was particularly de- 
sirous of serving those who had been under his care. A 
man of such : a disposition could not fail of being caressed 
and beloved by all that really knew him. In convervation 
he was entertaining, and remarkable for bons mots, which 
he uttered with a dry laconic bluntness peculiar to himself; 
yet under this rough exterior he was possessed of a feeling 
and compassionate heart. Of the latter, his constantly 
sending a plate of victuals every day, during his confine- 
ment, to a man, who, having gained admittance to him, pre- 
sented a pistol with an intent to rob him, and whom he 
seized and secured, is an unquestionable proof, as well as 
of his personal courage. Such were his gratitude and 
friendship too for those of his acquaintance, that on se- 
veral sheets he has mentioned their names with some le- 
gacy as a token of remembrance, as medals, pictures, 
bqoks, &c. trinkets and preparations, and on another paper 
says he could not do more, having a family of children. 
Whenever he spoke of Mr. Guy, the founder of the hospi- 
tal, it was in a strain of enthusiasm, which he even carried 
so far as to saint him. A gentleman having on one of those 
occasions begged leave to remark, that he had nevea before 
heard of St. Guy, Mr. Belfchier, in his sentimental way, re- 
piiedj " No, sir: — p^rhaps-^yoii may not find his name iu 
the calendar, but give me leave to tell you, that he has a 


better title to canonization than nine-tenths of those whose 
names are there ; some of them may, perhaps, have given 
sight to the blind, or enabled the lame to walk ; but can you 
quote me an instance of one of them bestowing one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand pounds sterling for the purpose of 
relieving his fellow-creatures ?" Mr. Belchier was a great 
admirer of the fine arts, and lived in habits of intimacy 
with the principal artists of his time. He enjoyed a great 
share of health, though far advanced in years. A friend 
of his being some time since attacked with epileptic fits, he 
exclaimed, " I am extremely sorry for him, but when I 
fall I hope it will be to rise no more ;" and he succeeded 
in a great measure in his wish, for being taken with a shi- 
vering fit at Batson's coffee-house, he returned home and 
went to bed. The next day he thought himself better, 
got up, and attempted to come down stairs, but complained 
to those who were assisting him, th&t they hurried him, and 
immediately after exclaiming, '< It is all over!" — fell back 
and expired. His body was interred in the chapel at Guy's 
hospital. He died in 1785. ! 

BELGRADO (James), an eminent Italian mathemati- 
cian, was born at Udina, Nov* 16, 1704, and from bis in- 
fancy afforded the promise of being an ornament to his 
family and country. At Padua, where he was first edu- 
cated, his proficiency was extraordinary, and at the age of 
nineteen be excited considerable attention by an elegant 
Latin oration be delivered in honour of cardinal Barbadici. 
He afterwards entered the society of the Jesuits at Udina, 
and having completed his noviciate, went to Bologna, and 
studied mathematics and theology at Parma, where he was 
appointed professor of mathematics and had the direction of 
the observatory, and became eminent as an observer of 
the phenomena of nature, and a profound antiquary. When 
the society of tlfe- Jesuits was suppressed, Belgrado went 
tp Bologna, and was appointed rector of the college of St, 
Lucia, where, and in other parts of Italy, he occasionally 
resided until his death in 1789. The extent and variety 
of his knowledge will be best understood by a list of his 
works* 1. " Gratulatio Cardinali J. F. Barbadico, &c." 
already noticed, Padua, 1723. 2, "Ad disciplinam Me- 
chaqicaqa, Nauticam, et Geographicam Acroasis critica et 
historica," Parma, 1741. 3. " Ad disciplinam Hydrosta-r 
ticam Acroasis historica et critica," ibid, 1742. 4. "P§ 

I Preceding edition Qf this Dictionary, 

BEL G'R A D O. 375 

mltitudine Atmosphere sestimanda critica disquisitio," ib. 
1 743. 5. " De Phialis vitreis ex minimi silicis casa dissilien- 
tibus Acroasis," Padua, 1743. 6. " De Gravitatis legibus 
Acroasis Physico-mathematica," Parma, 1744. 7. " De vita 
B. Torelli Puppiensiscommentarius," Padua, 1745. 8. " De 
corporis elasticis disquisit. physico-mathem." Parma, 1747. 
9. " Observatio Solis defectus et Lun«," Parma, 1 748. 10. 
" I fenomeni Elettrici con i corollari da lor dedotti," Par- 
ma, 1749. ll. " Ad Marchionem Scipionem Maphejum 
epistolsB quatuor," Venice, 1749. 12., " Delia Reflessione 
de Gorpi dall' Acqua," &c. Parma, 1753. 13. " Observa- 
tio defectus Lunae habita die 30 Julii in novo observatorio, 
1757." 14. " Dell' azione del caso nelle invenzioni, e 
dell' influsso degli Astri ne* corpi terrestri, dissertationi 
due," Padua, 1757. 15. " Observatio defectus Luna,' 1 
Parma, 1761. 16. " De utriusque Analyseos usu in re 
physjca," voL II. ibid. 1761. 17. " Delle senzazioni del 
calore, e del freddo, disserta2tone," ibid. 1764. 18. "II 
Trono di Nettuno illustrate," Cesene, 1766. 19. " Theo- 
ria Cochleae Arcbimedis," Parma, 1767. 20. " Disserta- 
zione sopra i Torrenti," ibid. 1768. 21. " Delia Rapidita 
delle idee dissertazione," Modena, 1770. 22. " Delia 
proporzione tra i talenti dell 9 Uomo, e i loro usi, disserta- 
zione," Padua, 1773. 23. " De Telluris viriditate, dis- 
sertatio," Udina, 1777. 24. " Delia Esistenza di Dioda' 
Teoremi Geometrici dimostrata, dissert." Udina, 1777. 
125. " Dall' Esistenza d'una sola specie d'e»seri ragione- 
voli e liberi si arguisce 1' Esistenza di Dio, dissertazione," 
ibid. 1782. 26. " Del Sole bisoguevole d'alimento, e deli* 
Oceano abile a procacciarglielo, dissert. Fisico-matema- 
tica," Ferrara, 1783. 27. " Dell* Architettura Egiziana, 
dissert." Parma, 1786. He left also several manuscript 
works, and published some pieces in the literary journals, 
being a correspondent of the academy of sciences at Paris, 
and a member of the institute of Bologna. 1 

BELGRAVE (Richard), a writer of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, of the ancient family of the Belgraves in Leicester- 
shire, was born at the town of Belgrave, about a mile from 
Leicester, and educated in